Isaac pounding Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:01 PM GMT on August 29, 2012

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Hurricane Isaac continues to lumber slowly northwestwards at 6 mph, as it pounds Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida's Panhandle with torrential rains, high winds, and a damaging storm surge. The eye was partially over water for most of the 15 hours after Isaac's official landfall at 7:45 pm EDT Tuesday night, but New Orleans radar shows the eye of the storm is now fully ashore near Houma. The radar echoes show some weakening on the west side of the eyewall, where dry air has infiltrated the storm. Wind shear remains light, and upper level outflow over Isaac is as impressive as we've seen so far, with a strong outflow channel to the north, and a respectable one to the south, as well. Infrared and visible satellite loops show a very large, symmetric, and well organized storm, and Isaac is going to be able to stay near Category 1 hurricane strength all day today. This will allow Isaac to drop rainfall amounts of 15 - 20" in some areas of Louisiana before the storm is over. A few rainfall totals from Isaac through 11 am EDT:

9.26" New Orleans Lakefront Airport
5.59" Belle Chasse, LA
5.21" Mobile, AL
3.65" Hattiesburg, MS
3.42" Gulfport, MS
2.81" Biloxi, MS


Figure 1. Morning radar reflectivity image from New Orleans.

A dangerous storm surge event underway
Isaac is bringing a large and dangerous storm surge to the coast from Central Louisiana to the Panhandle of Florida. Late this morning was high tide along much of the coast, and the highest water levels of Isaac are likely being experienced at many locations. At 11:30 am EDT, here were some of the storm surge values being recorded at NOAA tide gauges:

8.0' Waveland, MS
8.2' Shell Beach, LA
2.0' Pensacola, FL
4.6' Pascagoula, MS
3.4' Mobile, AL

The peak 11.06' storm surge at 1:30 am EDT this morning at Shell Beach, which is in Lake Borgne, 20 miles southeast of New Orleans, exceeded the 9.5' surge recorded there during Category 2 Hurricane Gustav of 2008. In general, the storm surge heights from Isaac have been more characteristic of a strong Category 2 hurricane, rather than the weak Category 1 hurricane one might suppose Isaac is, based on its top sustained winds of 75 - 80 mph. The Saffir-Simpson Scale for ranking hurricanes is only a crude measure of their potential impacts.

A storm surge estimated at 12' moved up the Mississippi in Plaquemines Parish near Port Sulphur, LA, near 8:30 pm EDT Tuesday, causing overtopping of the levees and flooding of homes in the mandatory evacuation areas behind the levees. These levees were not part of the $14.5 billion levee upgrade New Orleans got after Hurricane Katrina, and were not rated to Category 3 hurricane strength, like the levees protecting New Orleans are. The surge continued upriver, elevating the water levels 10' in New Orleans (103 miles upstream from the mouth of the Mississippi), 8' in Baton Rouge (228 miles upstream), and 1.4' at Knox Landing, an amazing 314 miles upstream. The river was 7' low due to the great 2012 U.S. drought, and I suspect the near-record low flow rate of the river allowed the storm surge to propagate so far upstream. The salt water from the storm surge will be slow to leave the river, due to the continued winds of Isaac keeping the surge going, plus the very low flow rates of the river. One benefit of the heavy rains of 10 - 20 inches expected to fall over Louisiana over the next two days will be to increase the flow rate of the Mississippi River, helping flush the salt water out of the river. The low flow rates of the Mississippi had allowed salt water to move upriver to just south of New Orleans over the past few weeks, threatening the drinking water supply of Plaquemines Parish.


Figure 2. Tide gauge data from Waveland, Mississippi. The green line shows the storm surge. The red line is the storm tide, the height of the water above Mean Sea Level (MSL.) The storm tide at Waveland currently (9') is 2' higher than that of Category 2 Hurricane Gustav of 2008. Image credit: NOAA Tides and Currents.

Tropical Storm Kirk in the Central Atlantic
Tropical Storm Kirk formed Tuesday night in the Central Atlantic. Kirk's formation at 03 UTC on August 29 puts 2012 in 4th place for earliest formation date of the season's 11th storm. Only 2005, 1995, and 1933 had an earlier formation date of the season's 11th storm. Kirk should stay well out to sea and not trouble any land areas.


Figure 3. Morning satellite image of Tropical Storm Kirk.

Invest 98L in the Eastern Atlantic
A tropical wave (Invest 98L) is about 750 miles west-southwest of the Cape Verde Islands, and is moving west to west-northwest at about 15 mph. In their 8 am EDT Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave 98L a 50% chance of developing by Friday morning. Several of the models develop 98L into a tropical depression by this weekend, but none of the reliable models foresee that 98L will be a threat to the Lesser Antilles. The storm may be a threat to Bermuda next week, but it is too early to say if it may threaten the U.S.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting reedzone:


Tell that to those affected.. This was most likely a low end Category 2 storm.

the Mayor is actually challenging the NHC to go back and research Isaac more because he thinks it was a Major Hurricane, course it wasn't but a Category 2 is deff in the books.


Yeah, well I'm not trying to be disrespectful, but the Mayor is a Mayor, not a hurricane expert, and just doesn't understand why it was a 1. Isaac may have been in the Mayor's mind a major hurricane because it "felt" like one. But, that's not how things work in science. It's not based on what it "feels" or "seems" like. There must be specifics and classification.

Also, you can't criticize the NHC because they made it clear the potential impacts that came with Isaac and how they would be worse than what some would think you would find in a category 1 hurricane.

The recon did not find surface winds sufficient for a category 2. Just because Isaac has had great impacts due to it's large wind field and such a low pressure for a category 1 does not make it a category 2. The NHC, doesn't base a hurricane on what they "feel like", they have to have a designation.

It makes sense actually, that 100 mph gusts have occurred when you consider such low of air pressure, in areas of deeper convection near the center, stronger winds aloft can be brought down. However, just because strong wind gusts aloft can be brought down in deep convection does not make Isaac a category 2 either.


The fact is, I thank God the NHC is one part of the government that doesn't just do whatever public opinion demands. They are more concerned about saving lives and protecting people even if those people they are trying to save and inform go against them. That is actually what the government is designed to do. They aren't concerned with what bloggers think the hurricane should be.



Member Since: August 21, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 7833
I cant remember which one but the APAC or WPAC categorized their storms such as Severe Storm or something like that? Can you imagine how that will go over here in the US?
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Quoting CosmicEvents:
I understand you by nature question the NHC, but don't include me in that "all of us". The NHC had thousands of reports at their disposal, at all levels of the atmosphere. This wasn't a storm 1000 miles out to sea here. It's a Cat1, and it's not gonna' change in the off-season.


Remember, he also said it wouldn't cross 85W, so consider the source.
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Quoting oceanspringsMS:


Being open liked that the wind up lift on the rest of the house would be very strong. Wouldn't be suprsied if a lot of the frame had rotten boards and/or termites
I would imagine they paid very little for that house...land value only most likely
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Quoting jeffs713:

I've yet to see any reports of Cat 2 winds. None. Zip. Zilch. Nada. Gusts can be accelerated quite a bit, for a wide variety of reasons. All it takes is one well-placed cloudburst, and an ideal line-up of topography/buildings, and voila! crazy-high wind gusts! Using isolated wind gusts (wind gusts that I've yet to see proof for, by the way) as "evidence" that a storm should be reclassified is foolish at best, and stupid in most other times.

Additionally, what is to gain with a reclassification? What difference will it make to the people in Plaquemines Parish, that have lost their homes? What difference will it make to the people watching the news, hoping their loved ones are OK? The answer is... none. My wife has family in St. Bernard Parish. (they are sheltering with her uncle, in Mississippi) They are very likely to lose their homes, and quite a few valuable belongings that they couldn't save. Belongings that somehow survived Katrina. They don't care whether Isaac was a strong tropical storm, or a Category 5 monster. Their lives are turned inside out either way.

Your constant railing against the NHC is tiresome, childish, and disrespectful. The NHC does a very fine job, and saves many lives with their expert analysis. People like what you portray here on WU make me fear for the future of our society - where baseless accusations and the "look at me now" mentality is king... and caring about our fellow humans takes a deep second place. Before you post more of this self-promoting and unverified drivel on here, please look in the mirror. Think about what you are going to say, and ask if it will actually help anyone.


Again, I wasn't bashing the NHC on the classification.. I'm deeply sorry you feel that way about me and hope in time you'll learn to forgive me if I have offended you and others.
God Bless.
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Quoting RitaEvac:


is the eye-looking feature really an eye or dry air ..like always has been the case with this storm
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Reed I think your heart is in the right place, but the SS scale is measurement based. Either you have cat 2 wind or you don't. There are no feelings or hunches involved.

Do some research on Gustav to see if it was a cat2 at landfall.

Quoting reedzone:


I'm a High School graduate of 2006
A successful songwriter and music composer
A very intelligent person


I'm not delusional, I've had many success in my life. Starred in a music video as an extra in 2009, lead worship at my church.. Now if I was insane, I wouldn't be able to write some of the most deepest songs, lead a worship team, and perform at bars, coffee shops, and banquets would I?

I'm not mentally ill, I'm a very intelligent person in real life, outside of the blog.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

SHOWER AND THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY CONTINUES IN ASSOCIATION WITH A
BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE ALONG A TROPICAL WAVE LOCATED ABOUT 900
MILES WEST OF THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS. WHILE DEVELOPMENT IS NOT
IMMINENT...ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS APPEAR CONDUCIVE FOR A TROPICAL
DEPRESSION TO FORM IN THE NEXT DAY OR TWO. THIS SYSTEM HAS A HIGH
CHANCE...60 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL CYCLONE DURING THE
NEXT 48 HOURS AS IT MOVES WESTWARD TO WEST-NORTHWESTWARD AT 15 TO
20 MPH.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CybrTeddy:
Really, it's storms like Isaac that happen with increasing frequency that they should really consider replacing the SSHS (cat1 - 5) with something like the IKE scale. The SSHS scale puts too much emphasis on the winds and not so much on the real issue, the surge. A combination of the rain, surge, winds and pressure shold all be Put into account into a 10 point scale to rate the destructive potential. Like say if Isaac rated a 5 on that scale instead of a 1 on the SSHS scale people might have been more aware of the dangers as more focus is put onto the other categories.


Perfect. Water typically kills more than wind. great post.
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ILEANA IS LOOKING VERY WELL
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Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9648
Quoting alaina1085:
Currently in the Northeast eyewal of Isaac here in Ascension Parish! The winds are scary crazy!!!!! Def worse then Gustav!


Be careful and stay safe...
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Quoting UpperLevelLOL:


lolllllllllll

Where did you go to college?


Great....now we are going to get into the "My Johnson is bigger than your Johnson"....nothing like tag..
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Quoting reedzone:


In the end, and we all know, this wasn't a Category 1 storm. Local station reported many gusts over 100 mph, some 120 mph. I believe this made landfall as a Category 2 Hurricane with 100 mph. winds. Pressure of 968 mlb. (equals to an upper end 2/low end 3 storm). Isaac will most likely be retired.
Quoting reedzone:


Tell that to those affected.. This was most likely a low end Category 2 storm.

the Mayor is actually challenging the NHC to go back and research Isaac more because he thinks it was a Major Hurricane, course it wasn't but a Category 2 is deff in the books.

I've yet to see any reports of Cat 2 winds. None. Zip. Zilch. Nada. Gusts can be accelerated quite a bit, for a wide variety of reasons. All it takes is one well-placed cloudburst, and an ideal line-up of topography/buildings, and voila! crazy-high wind gusts! Using isolated wind gusts (wind gusts that I've yet to see proof for, by the way) as "evidence" that a storm should be reclassified is foolish at best, and stupid in most other times.

Additionally, what is to gain with a reclassification? What difference will it make to the people in Plaquemines Parish, that have lost their homes? What difference will it make to the people watching the news, hoping their loved ones are OK? The answer is... none. My wife has family in St. Bernard Parish. (they are sheltering with her uncle, in Mississippi) They are very likely to lose their homes, and quite a few valuable belongings that they couldn't save. Belongings that somehow survived Katrina. They don't care whether Isaac was a strong tropical storm, or a Category 5 monster. Their lives are turned inside out either way.

Your constant railing against the NHC is tiresome, childish, and disrespectful. The NHC does a very fine job, and saves many lives with their expert analysis. People like what you portray here on WU make me fear for the future of our society - where baseless accusations and the "look at me now" mentality is king... and caring about our fellow humans takes a deep second place. Before you post more of this self-promoting and unverified drivel on here, please look in the mirror. Think about what you are going to say, and ask if it will actually help anyone.
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Quoting DontNeedNoHandle:




Not picking a handle is picking a handle.....as you do need a handle and have one :)

I must say i did get a chuckle
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9737
Quoting ncstorm:


I wasnt referring to you blaming the NHC..the Parrish President..


Oh, misread the post, I apologize.

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Reason category 1s are getting worse is because of.....global warming......woooomp, woooomp, woooomp
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9648
Really, it's storms like Isaac that happen with increasing frequency that they should really consider replacing the SSHS (cat1 - 5) with something like the IKE scale. The SSHS scale puts too much emphasis on the winds and not so much on the real issue, the surge. A combination of the rain, surge, winds and pressure shold all be Put into account into a 10 point scale to rate the destructive potential. Like say if Isaac rated a 5 on that scale instead of a 1 on the SSHS scale people might have been more aware of the dangers as more focus is put onto the other categories.
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Quoting reedzone:


When in the big blue world did I blame the NHC for keeping it a Category 1? Find that post!


I wasnt referring to you blaming the NHC..the Parrish President..
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Quoting reedzone:


Gustav was a Category 2 ;)

I know, thats why I was saying Isaac's winds are worse for us. Kinda crazy
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 1240
TWC showed a video of a building with 1st floor flooded all all the light on!!! So scary...

Being in floodwater while power lines are live is very dangerous... it's worse in sea water (conducts electricity a lot better than fresh water).

I'm surprised that the locals didn't cut power to the flooded areas. I hope the stranded victims and rescuers get out ok.
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Quoting ncstorm:
In defense of reed, there are LA people saying this wasnt a Cat 1 storm..personally I think he got bigger issues than try to blame the NHC at this point..

The unexpected strength of the storm and the fact that it was stubbornly refusing to move on caused those that stayed behind to rush to their attics and rooftops seeking high ground as they scrambled to get to safety.

Parish President Billy Nungesser said it is unclear if a back levee was overtopped or if it was breached. "This is not a category-1 (storm), I don't care what anybody says," he said. "This rain, this driving wind. I got more damage to my house than I had for Katrina."




When in the big blue world did I blame the NHC for keeping it a Category 1? Find that post!
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Quoting reedzone:


Gustav was a Category 2 ;)
Please keep me posted, hubby has family there.
Member Since: September 7, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 274
Quoting oceanspringsMS:


You are delusional.


On many things Reed may be. However, he may be correct on this. I don't know about the retirement, possible. It wouldn't surprise me in the least that the post analysis on Isaac upgrades him to a Cat 2 on landfall.
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Another west jog underway. Stair stepping.
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Quoting LAlurker:
Yes, those Braithwaite residents should have evacuated. But this shows how each storm is different. Listening to interviews of those rescued and the Parish President, houses that had 3 ft of water from K, 7 years ago today, have water up to their roofs today. Properties that did not flood during K, flooded today. If you had stayed through many storms, (and Plaquemines parish gets hit by most storms that traverse the Gulf of Mexico) didn't get major flooding from that K storm, and this was a TS - predicted to be a Cat1 would you have evacuated? Some of this flooding was probably due to improved levees in other areas, that forced more water there.


Each storm is going to be worse than the previous and we lose barrier islands and marsh that used to buffer and knock down surge. Places that didn't flood with this storm will with the next and so on.
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98L looks to be developing fairly fast... It may be poised to become our first CV major... The fast development increases the odds that this will miss the US, models are currently showing it passing east of Bermuda. It still should be watched though in case the models change their minds.

Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7946
Quoting alaina1085:
Currently in the Northeast eyewal of Isaac here in Ascension Parish! The winds are scary crazy!!!!! Def worse then Gustav!


Gustav was a Category 2 ;)
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Quoting NoloContendere:
Think so. That part of town for sure.



It is actually the Grand just about a mile east of the Beau
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There were some fairly high reports, but the common denominator is they were well above the standard height of 10 meters.

If you get real Cat 1 winds that is a strong storm. I think that should be emphasized.

Quoting CybrTeddy:
I did see some reports with winds sustained at around 75kts over buoys, the 110mph gusts would certainly tend to cause one to believe it was stronger than the recon was showing on the SFMR last night. The flight level winds certainly indicated a stronger system, howver from all indications they weren't mixing down to the surface.
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In defense of reed, there are LA people saying this wasnt a Cat 1 storm..personally I think he got bigger issues than try to blame the NHC at this point..

The unexpected strength of the storm and the fact that it was stubbornly refusing to move on caused those that stayed behind to rush to their attics and rooftops seeking high ground as they scrambled to get to safety.

Parish President Billy Nungesser said it is unclear if a back levee was overtopped or if it was breached. "This is not a category-1 (storm), I don't care what anybody says," he said. "This rain, this driving wind. I got more damage to my house than I had for Katrina."


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Quoting oceanspringsMS:


You are delusional.


I'm a High School graduate of 2006
A successful songwriter and music composer
A very intelligent person


I'm not delusional, I've had many success in my life. Starred in a music video as an extra in 2009, lead worship at my church.. Now if I was insane, I wouldn't be able to write some of the most deepest songs, lead a worship team, and perform at bars, coffee shops, and banquets would I?

I'm not mentally ill, I'm a very intelligent person in real life, outside of the blog.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Currently in the Northeast eyewal of Isaac here in Ascension Parish! The winds are scary crazy!!!!! Def worse then Gustav!
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 1240
Quoting CloudGatherer:
The home that Tulane PoliSci Professor and MSNBC host Melissa Harris-Perry recently purchased:

Before the storm, the house had some real potential...

But also one or two extremely minor structural problems that might have been contributing factors


Being open liked that the wind up lift on the rest of the house would be very strong. Wouldn't be suprsied if a lot of the frame had rotten boards and/or termites
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Western eyewall fighting off the dry air - looks to be at minimum maintaining strength.
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Yes, those Braithwaite residents should have evacuated. But this shows how each storm is different. Listening to interviews of those rescued and the Parish President, houses that had 3 ft of water from K, 7 years ago today, have water up to their roofs today. Properties that did not flood during K, flooded today. If you had stayed through many storms, (and Plaquemines parish gets hit by most storms that traverse the Gulf of Mexico) didn't get major flooding from that K storm, and this was a TS - predicted to be a Cat1 would you have evacuated? Some of this flooding was probably due to improved levees in other areas, that forced more water there.
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Quoting CosmicEvents:
I understand you by nature question the NHC, but don't include me in that "all of us". The NHC had thousands of reports at their disposal, at all levels of the atmosphere. This wasn't a storm 1000 miles out to sea here. It's a Cat1, and it's not gonna' change in the off-season.

I agree, there is no evidence to support this being a Cat 2 storm, recon found no Cat 2 surface winds and no sustained Cat 2 surface winds were reported... Some Cat 2 gusts, yes, but no Cat 2 sustained winds. I think people are just in shock that a storm that's "only a Cat 1" can do so much damage.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 84 Comments: 7946
I was just going to say 98L seems serious.
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Quoting Carnoustie:
Quoting kwgirl:
Ach aye. My wee bairn is Scots by birth. Dunoon, Argyll, Scotland, UK. If you went into a bar and asked about the Scottish people, you would be buying a round, its Scots.



I,m just across the river in Gourock,its a small world.
HI, I saw where you posted the other day being in Gourock. My wee bairn is now 35 years old with a wee one of her own. Loved living over there even though I tried to warm the house to 75 degrees LOL. Never made it and froze for most of my time there except the two weeks of summer and when I was extremely pregnant. Going from the tropics all my life to Scotland in January 1975 was rough. Learned to like tea, the proper way. Only thing that can warm you up, except for the excellant local brew. But I never developed a taste for Scotch. God bless you and your family. I know you said you were taking care of your Mum. Stay strong.
Member Since: March 28, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1532
Think so. That part of town for sure.

Quoting USCGLT:

Looks like the Beau Rivage Casino?
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Quoting zschmiez:
by NHC definition, it was a cat-1.

We do know:
-pressure was notably low for a TS/cat-1
-storm motion was slow
-it nearly stalled just off the coast, and has moved little since landfall

You cant just say "this was a Cat-2". The surge was high, but surge is no longer part of the formula. Frankly it took everything they had to make it a cat-1.

There's a NHC definition, as in definite. You are welcome to devise (and please explain) the logic for how you define storms.


Are you kidding? It's Dr Reedzone. He knows more than the NHC and Dr Masters combined. Ask him.
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000
ABNT20 KNHC 291731
TWOAT

TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
200 PM EDT WED AUG 29 2012

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

THE NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER IS ISSUING ADVISORIES ON HURRICANE
ISAAC...LOCATED INLAND OVER SOUTHEASTERN LOUISIANA AND ON TROPICAL
STORM KIRK...LOCATED ABOUT 1485 MILES WEST-SOUTHWEST OF THE AZORES.

SHOWER AND THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY CONTINUES IN ASSOCIATION WITH A
BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE ALONG A TROPICAL WAVE LOCATED ABOUT 900
MILES WEST OF THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS. WHILE DEVELOPMENT IS NOT
IMMINENT...ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS APPEAR CONDUCIVE FOR A TROPICAL
DEPRESSION TO FORM IN THE NEXT DAY OR TWO. THIS SYSTEM HAS A HIGH
CHANCE...60 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL CYCLONE DURING THE
NEXT 48 HOURS AS IT MOVES WESTWARD TO WEST-NORTHWESTWARD AT 15 TO
20 MPH.

ELSEWHERE...TROPICAL CYCLONE FORMATION IS NOT EXPECTED DURING THE
NEXT 48 HOURS.

&&
PUBLIC ADVISORIES ON KIRK ARE ISSUED UNDER WMO HEADER WTNT31 KNHC
AND UNDER AWIPS HEADER MIATCPAT1. FORECAST/ADVISORIES ON KIRK ARE
ISSUED UNDER WMO HEADER WTNT21 KNHC AND UNDER AWIPS HEADER
MIATCMAT1.

$$
FORECASTER BRENNAN

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Quoting AuntyCyclone:
I posted this yesterday, and will post it again from time-to-time as people start the recovery process.




You may be able to answer a question I have. In Florida it is possible to receive discounts on the wind storm insurance premium, which is separate from the hazard premium, for wind mitigation measures --- e.g. hurricane shutters.

If a homeowner submits a claim for damage, but did not put up the shutters even though they were under a hurricane warning, how likely is it that the insurance company would deny the claim ?
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The home that Tulane PoliSci Professor and MSNBC host Melissa Harris-Perry recently purchased:

Before the storm, the house had some real potential...

But also one or two extremely minor structural problems that might have been contributing factors
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It may or may not be retroactively bumped up to Cat 2 depending on data later, but ultimately I think the point is that hurricane force winds of any kind, and tons of rain and surge to go with them, can cause huge damage. Especially if they're sustained over a long period of time.

Structures and trees and powerlines can go down in one huge gust, or they can slowly be eaten by hours and hours of lower (but still nasty) wind until they give. And ultimately, the surge and rainfall is every bit as important as the wind, in figuring out the danger.

I think personally that the NHC should rethink how they communicate about these storms -- I think people rely on the scale, but the scale can only tell you about predicted wind speeds, never about the many other factors that can make even a strong tropical storm into a very dangerous situation. They try to add that info, but all that gets through to a lot of people is the category, the rest only filters to those who are attentive.
Member Since: August 26, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 368

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.