Three Atlantic threat areas may develop; a record fire season for the U.S.

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:43 PM GMT on August 20, 2012

Share this Blog
59
+

A large tropical wave (Invest 94L) located about 1100 miles east of the Lesser Antilles Islands is headed west at 20 - 25 mph, and is showing increasing organization today. The storm is under light wind shear of 5 - 10 knots, and is over waters of 27°C. A large area of dry air lies just to the north of 94L, as seen on the latest Saharan Air Layer (SAL) analysis and water vapor satellite loops. This dry air is interfering with development, and this morning's visible satellite loop shows that 94L's heavy thunderstorm activity is sparse. However, the satellite loops do show that 94L has now separated from the clumps of heavy thunderstorms to its south, and a pretty well-defined surface circulation has developed. Heavy thunderstorms are now attempting to fire up around this circulation center, but are being hampered by dry air. The center of 94L was about 80 miles to the north of buoy 41041 at 10 am Monday morning, and the buoy recorded SW winds of 10 mph, confirming that 94L probably does have a closed surface circulation. The disturbance will have to build and maintain more heavy thunderstorms than it has now to be considered a tropical depression, though. The first hurricane hunter mission into 94L is scheduled for Tuesday afternoon.


Figure 1. Morning satellite image of Invest 94L.

Forecast for 94L
The latest 8 am EDT run of the SHIPS model predicts that wind shear will be low, 5 - 10 knots, for the next five days. Ocean temperatures will warm from 27°C this morning to 28.5°C by Wednesday morning, and the total heat content of the ocean will increase sharply during that period, as well. The main impediment to development will be dry air to the north, and the SHIPS model predicts the amount of dry air will change little over the next five days. I expect that 94L will continue to struggle with dry air through Wednesday, when it will probably have had enough time to moisten the surrounding atmosphere and protect itself against the dry air. The models have shown increasing unity in taking 94L through the Lesser Antilles on Wednesday, and I expect the storm will be a tropical depression or weak tropical storm with 40 - 50 mph winds at that time. In their 8 am EDT Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave 94L a 80% chance of developing into a tropical depression by Wednesday morning. None of the reliable models predict that 94L will reach hurricane strength over the next five days, and it is unlikely that 94L will be able to organize quickly enough to become anything stronger than a 60 mph tropical storm before reaching the Lesser Antilles, given the storm's current struggles with dry air, and the lack of model support for intensification. However, once 94L enters the Eastern Caribbean, wind shear will be low, oceanic heat content high, and the storm should have had enough time to moisten the atmosphere to allow steady strengthening to occur. The main factor that might prevent intensification into a hurricane late this week would be a close pass by the island of Hispaniola. Our top models for long-range 4 - 5 days forecasts all show a path for 94L very close to the island.

Will 94L hit the U.S. mainland?
This storm is a long-range threat to the U.S., as historically, 16% of storms in 94L's location have gone on to hit the U.S., with North Carolina the preferred target (10% chance.) A trough of low pressure capable of pulling 94L to the north enters Western Canada Thursday night, and the exact timing and amplitude of this trough will determine the ultimate landfall location of 94L. The long range 7 - 14 day runs of the GFS model over the past three day have all predicted an eventual landfall for 94L in the U.S., though these long-range runs are notoriously unreliable. The predicted landfall locations have ranged from New England to Texas--which isn't much help. The past three runs beginning on Sunday afternoon have all taken 94L over Florida during the August 27 - 29 time frame, which I'm sure is making organizers of the Republican National Convention uncomfortable, since the convention is in Tampa August 27 - 30. However, 94L could miss Florida completely, as the average error in model forecasts going out 7 days is in excess of 500 miles. We can't rule out a North Carolina landfall, but the pattern we've seen so far this year is for landfalls in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, so a more southwards path for 94L into the Yucatan is definitely a possibility. Also, we have that huge drought region in the Midwest, which tends to create its own high pressure bubble, which reduces the odds of storms making the turn and hitting the Central or Western Gulf Coast. If 94L makes it to the Western Caribbean, I see the two most likely options as a landfall in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula (and then westwards into Mexico south of the Texas border), or recurvature into the Florida Gulf Coast.


Figure 2. MODIS satellite image of Hurricane Gordon taken on Sunday August 19, 2012, at 11:55 am EDT. At the time, Gordon was a Category 2 hurricane with 100 mph winds. Image credit: NASA.

Gordon hits the Azores
The eye of Hurricane Gordon passed over Santa Maria Island in the eastern Azores Islands near 1:30 am EDT this morning. Gordon was a Category 1 hurricane with 75 - 80 mph winds at landfall. Winds at the Santa Maria airport reached a sustained 49 mph at 3 am EDT, but the airport did not report winds during passage of the eyewall at 1:30 am. Reuters reported that Gordon caused only minor flooding and power outages. The hurricane is being sheared apart by strong upper-level winds, and the extratropical remnants of Gordon will not bring any strong winds or significant rain to Europe.

Disturbance 95L in the Gulf near the Texas/Mexico border
A region of disturbed weather (Invest 95L) has developed in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast, just northeast of Tampico, Mexico. The disturbance is due to a trough of low pressure and its associated cold front which moved off the coast over the weekend, but has been fortified via moisture from Tropical Storm Helene, which made landfall Saturday near Tampico. If 95L were to develop into a tropical storm, it would receive a new name. In their 8 am EDT Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave 95L a 30% chance of developing into a tropical cyclone by Wednesday morning. An Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft is scheduled to investigate 95L this afternoon. Winds at Tampico this morning were light out of the northeast, which implies that no surface circulation is forming at this time. Radar out of Altamira, Mexico does show some banding to the precipitation echoes, though, which may be indicative of something trying to spin up. The computer models show that 95L should move little over the next few days.


Figure 3. Radar out of Altamira, Mexico at 9:45 am EDT August 20, 2012, shows some banding to the precipitation echoes in association with 95L.

Disturbance 96L off the coast of Africa
The tropical Atlantic is very busy this third week of August, and this is the week of the year that we typically see a major ramp-up of tropical storm activity in the Atlantic. A new tropical wave that emerged from the coast of Africa Sunday (Invest 96L) is headed west at 15 - 20 mph. This disturbance has a modest amount of spin and heavy thunderstorm activity, and is under a moderate 10 - 20 knots of wind shear. In their 8 am EDT Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave 96L a 20% chance of developing into a tropical cyclone by Wednesday morning. This disturbance does not have much model support for development.


Figure 4. The new Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite (S-NPP) carries an instrument so sensitive to low light levels that it can detect wildfires in the middle of the night. On August 17, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi-NPP acquired this image of the wildfires blazing in Idaho. The images were created with data from the instrument’s "day-night band," which sensed the fire in the visible portion of the spectrum. The Halstead Fire, centered about 18 miles northwest of Stanley, was sparked by lightning on July 27, and is burning in an area with large numbers of trees killed by the mountain pine beetle. As of Sunday afternoon, the fire had burned 92,000 acres was only 5% contained, according to InciWeb. The fire prompted the evacuation of the town of Featherville on Saturday night. Red flag warnings for adverse fire weather were posted in the region yesterday, and temperatures reached the low 90s with 16% humidity and winds of 10 mph. Image credit: NASA.

A record fire season in the U.S.
Massive fires continue to burn in Nevada, Idaho and California, and fires that are currently active in the Western U.S. have consumed over 1.3 million acres of land--an area approximately the size of Delaware. Thanks to widespread drought and unusually high temperatures over the past month, 3 million acres have gone up in flames since mid-July, and the fire season of 2012 now ranks in first place for the most acreage burned at this point in the year. According to the Interagency Fire Center, 6.8 million acres have burned as of August 19 this year, beating the previous record set just last year (6.5 million acres for the year-to-date period.) The Interagency Fire Center shows year-to-date records just for the past ten years. The 2012 fire season is well ahead of the pace of 2006, which was the worst fire year in the U.S. for total acreage burned in a year (records began in 1960). In 2006, 9.9 million acres burned, and 6.4 million acres had burned by August 19. With drought conditions far more widespread this year compared to 2006, and the latest forecasts calling for little drought relief over the coming two months, 2012 is likely to surpass 2006 as the worst fire year in U.S. history before the end of the year.


Figure 5. Comparison of drought conditions between the previous record fire year in the contiguous U.S. (2006) with 2012. Drought is much more widespread in 2012 compared to 2006, and 2012 will likely finish ahead of 2006 for the most acreage burned since record keeping began in 1960. Image credit: U.S. Drought Monitor.

Global warming expected to increase fire activity in the Western U.S.
As I blogged about in June, the severe fire seasons of 2012 and 2011 fit the pattern of what we expect to see more of with global warming. Hotter heat waves dry out vegetation more readily, resulting in increased probability of more acreage burned. A study published in the Journal Ecosphere in June 2012 used fire models driven by the output from sixteen climate models used in the 2007 IPCC report and found that while 8% of the planet should see decreases in fire activity over the next 30 years, 38% should see increases. By the end of the century, 20% of the globe should see decreased fire activity, and 62% increased fire activity. In the U.S., the regions most at risk of increased fires are the tundra regions of northern Alaska, and the West, with Arizona and Colorado at particularly high risk.

Jeff Masters

hugh blanket of smoke (got2dogs)
blew in about an hr after my last upload here - I thought I was done for the nite, but this smoke was incredible! made for some awesome light - sooooo eerie!
hugh blanket of smoke
Smoke! What smoke ?? (saltydawgg)
12th Ave road South looking north. Nampa Idaho full of smoke from 7 fires at last count with more dry lightning on the way.
Smoke! What smoke ??
Temecula Fire (photoandy)
This is just two hours after ignition! It quickly became a PYROCUMULUS...
Temecula Fire

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 831 - 781

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83Blog Index

Quoting HurricaneDean07:
Recon not updating... UGH.

It's been slow for this mission...not seeing the E winds yet
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33355
Quoting FLASPOTTER:
any body want to take a guess when 94L will be a depression or skip depression status and named storm.
A 5:00 PM
B 11:00 PM
C 5:00 am tomorrow
D NEVER
None of the above. They will probably make the determination after the HH investigate, right??
Member Since: May 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1418
Greetings everyone from sunny south Florida. Whats up? I havent blogged any in the last few days.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting aussiecold:
753. Chiggy 7:11 PM GMT on August 20, 2012 0
Quoting StormTracker2K:
Tampa say hi to Issac.


Well, if it is showing hitting close to Tampa this far out then we ALL know that's not going to happen - when was the last time Tampa had a direct hit...?
Action: Quote | Ignore User



1946!
actually the 1924 storm came closest, and that went in at tarpon springs to our north
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33355
Quoting WxGeekVA:


It's a lot like my last track, (which I am revising now) just slightly stronger. I don't think it'll ever make Cat 3, too much land interaction IMO.

If it stays north of the islands:
Major Hurricane.

If it collides with the islands, over and over:
Tropical Storm-Minimal Hurricane.

If it stays south of the islands:
Tropical storm-Category 1 until the Western caribbean, Then possibly a Major Hurricane.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
It's going to come down to the wire honestly. The catalyst for how intense 94L will be when it gets to points west of 75W will be dependent on how much...or how little...interaction it has with the Greater Antilles. That could be the difference between a repeat of Fay, or a repeat of Charley.

Obviously, take everything I say with skepticism, I'm just a WU blogger forecasting events a week in advance. ;)


48 hours still way too early. You will know better in 96 - 120 hours.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
HPC latest discussion

FINAL...

ADDED A TROPICAL LOW NEAR SOUTHERN FLORIDA DAY 7 AS PER
COORDINATION WITH THE NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER...THOUGH AT THIS
POINT...THE SYMBOL MOSTLY REPRESENTS A POSSIBLE TRACK OF AL94
AMIDST A SEA OF MODEL SPREAD. OTHERWISE...NOTHING IN THE 12Z/20
CYCLE WAS NOTED THAT COMPELLED A SIGNIFICANT CHANGE IN THE MASS
FIELD PREFERENCES EXPRESSED IN THE UPDATE PACKAGE.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wxchaser97:

My track is very similar with strength close to that. I have a cat 3 making landfall in that area of NC.



Let me guess, you live in NC
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:
I don't like how I'm becoming the catalyst for unrest on this blog. Please don't make it a big deal. I made a forecast, and so did many others who posted comments this morning. This forum is exactly for discussion and debate on forecasting events like this.


I've not been posting on here long and haven't talked to you at all I don't think. But, have so far not found you seeming egotistical. There are few I kind of think are, but funnily enough you're not one of them. Guess people take some people one way and some another.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting 7544:



agree but maybe stronger than fay was

two major king models agree so my bet is landfall in south fl well we should know better in 48 hours but look like it going to head that way the ? is how strong stay tuned
It's going to come down to the wire honestly. The catalyst for how intense 94L will be when it gets to points west of 75W will be dependent on how much...or how little...interaction it has with the Greater Antilles. That could be the difference between a repeat of Fay, or a repeat of Charley.

Obviously, take everything I say with skepticism, I'm just a WU blogger forecasting events a week in advance. ;)
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21032
Recon not updating... UGH.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
819. yoboi
Quoting Houstonweathergrl:


++100000000000000000000000000



how is the weather in texas today?????
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting barbamz:
I didn't know of such sort of halo! Beautiful!


That's not a halo. It's an iridescent pileus cloud. Very common.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bluestorm5:


I'm not sure... this seems to be a good explanation...


It's a lot like my last track, (which I am revising now) just slightly stronger. I don't think it'll ever make Cat 3, too much land interaction IMO.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


... SFL be aware...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
753. Chiggy 7:11 PM GMT on August 20, 2012 +0
Quoting StormTracker2K:
Tampa say hi to Issac.


Well, if it is showing hitting close to Tampa this far out then we ALL know that's not going to happen - when was the last time Tampa had a direct hit...?
Action: Quote | Ignore User



1946!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33355
Quoting floridaT:
if 2 different systems become ts on the same update. How do they decide which one gets which name?

They File it...
94L would become AL09. 95L would become AL10.
If 95L were to get renumbered first. It would be vise-versa.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting floridaT:
if 2 different systems become ts on the same update. How do they decide which one gets which name?


Coin flip.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
714. jascott1967 7:00 PM GMT on August 20, 2012
Quoting Abacosurf:
Hey Levi....You said in your tidbit that this pattern is more west than Irene. Well if Irene passed directly over Abaco then isn't Florida (only 150 miles west) in play.
Keep in mind bashers that Levi's track is only 300 miles apart from the GFS at 6-7 days. That is rather miniscule IMO.

I just went about 4 pages back and only found one person that "bashed" Levi and some slight but courteous disgreements with his analysis. Am I missing some or were they removed?

I know I disagreed with him once this year and was attacked by about 7 bloggers, even though I started my post with a "I respect Levi, he's usually always right".

It's like a witch hunt anytime someone doesn't agree 100% with Levi. Normally I wouldn't care but someone said the "Gulf people" are bashing him. I guess I'm not fond of the generalization especially when I can't find the evidence "Gulf people" are "bashing" him.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 437

Something very close hapened with Storm two years ago
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting weathermanwannabe:
Levi "forecasts" based upon scientific observation and many on here forecast based on gut feeling with not too much science behind a blind prediction. But Mother Nature holds the upper hand in the end as we have seen many times this year.........That is just the nature of tropical forecasting. No need to attack one another (just respectfully disagree and discuss intelligently) and I have never seen Levi come back and say "I told you so" if his forecast turns out to be right (as opposed to folks coming back after a blind guess) and have seen him concede an error if that has been the case down the road.


++100000000000000000000000000
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wxchaser97:

My track is very similar with strength close to that. I have a cat 3 making landfall in that area of NC.

Don't tell cody that.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting floridaT:
and do you remember late may there were some winter type fronts in the gulf?

I'm talking about during tropical hurricane season; besides, I don't think I ever saw anything quite that strong over that much area in the Gulf before, so no.
Member Since: July 11, 2006 Posts: 14 Comments: 11047
Quoting HurricaneDean07:
Well Recon found That the Southern half of 95L's "circualtion" is closed... Lets see about the north half.

I wonder what the NHC will do if this thing threatens to become Isaac before 94L can... Will the Upgrade both at the same time, so that 94L will remain AL09?
Doubt it. xD
if 2 different systems become ts on the same update. How do they decide which one gets which name?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
ONE YEAR AGO TODAY:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting HurricaneDean07:
Well Recon found That the Southern half of 95L's "circualtion" is closed... Lets see about the north half.

I wonder what the NHC will do if this thing threatens to become Isaac before 94L can... Will the Upgrade both at the same time, so that 94L will remain AL09?
Doubt it. xD

If Recon finds a closed circulation with 95L. A special TWO will be issued, and The red crayon will come out, Probably at 80%.
At the 8Pm TWO. If 94L can hold what little blow ups of convection it can keep near the center, 90% shall be put onto it...
The race goes on.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:


These westward-moving storms usually slow down as they are about to start turning northward in response to weakness in the ridge to their north. The reason for this is that the steering currents associated with the weak part of the ridge or ahead of a trough are themselves weaker than they are when the ridge is powerful. My forecast track takes this into account and shows a slowing of 94L's forward motion as it makes its turn over Hispaniola.


Do you see a way weak system survives the mountain ranges of Hispaniola? My guess is it would be torn apart.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormJunkie:

I was just wondering where you'd been.  Good to see ya!


Howdy SJ!
Still kicking, in the background lurking along... while on my own late lunch... and trying to dry out!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WxGeekVA:
Haha!!! So now Joe Bastardi's son Garrett is predicting 94L to head to North Carolina as a Cat 3...

Like father, like son...


My track is very similar with strength close to that. I have a cat 3 making landfall in that area of NC.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
STK..I hope you dont unfriend people on facebook if they dont like your statuses..LOL...l e t i t g o..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
folks.I have a question for you guys much better at this that I am...there is no way this turns into a storm like Andrew or Katrina right
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33355
you can see some spin at 95 west 26 north..I think they going to south
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
798. 7544
Quoting rmbjoe1954:
Until there is a named system I would not place too much confidence in the models.


and the name just be joyce instead of issac as 95l may steal it first lol
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WxGeekVA:
Haha!!! So now Joe Bastardi's son Garrett is predicting 94L to head to North Carolina as a Cat 3...

Like father, like son...



I'm not sure... this seems to be a good explanation...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting STXHurricanes2012:
Can't believe no one is really watching recon!! They are indeeding finding something down there.
..ty..let us know ok
Member Since: August 6, 2011 Posts: 4 Comments: 33355
794. 7544
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
We have a defined surface circulation for models to capitalize off of. The current Fay-like forecast being portrayed by both the GFS and Euro seems like a solid one to me.



agree but maybe stronger than fay was

two major king models agree so my bet is landfall in south fl well we should know better in 48 hours but look like it going to head that way the ? is how strong stay tuned
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Levi "forecasts" based upon scientific observation and many on here forecast based on gut feeling with not too much science behind a blind prediction. But Mother Nature holds the upper hand in the end as we have seen many times this year.........That is just the nature of tropical forecasting. No need to attack one another (just respectfully disagree and discuss intelligently) and I have never seen Levi come back and say "I told you so" if his forecast turns out to be right (as opposed to folks coming back after a blind guess) and have seen him concede an error if that has been the case down the road.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Well Recon found That the Southern half of 95L's "circualtion" is closed... Lets see about the north half.

I wonder what the NHC will do if this thing threatens to become Isaac before 94L can... Will the Upgrade both at the same time, so that 94L will remain AL09?
Doubt it. xD
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
NOGAPS and CMC currently performing so badly with 94L - extreme outlier. \
UKMET is close with GFS and EURO but doesnt go out father than 144 hrs
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Can't believe no one is really watching recon!! They are indeeding finding something down there.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


Gee whiz, everything's coming up reddish!
Member Since: July 11, 2006 Posts: 14 Comments: 11047
94L firing up convection again... we'll see if it holds.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormTracker2K:



How's it going Doc? Lot of rain by you lately?


Hi ST2K,
Fortunately, the bulk has shifted SE of me today... enjoying the reprieve - after the Sat deluge only added another 1.26" yesterday to my growing yearly totals, now up to 65.03"...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
any body want to take a guess when 94L will be a depression or skip depression status and named storm.
A 5:00 PM
B 11:00 PM
C 5:00 am tomorrow
D NEVER
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Haha!!! So now Joe Bastardi's son Garrett is predicting 94L to head to North Carolina as a Cat 3...

Like father, like son...

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Chicklit:


Blobageddon


LOL! I have to add that to my blob classification.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting rmbjoe1954:
Until there is a named system I would not place too much confidence in the models.
We have a defined surface circulation for models to capitalize off of. The current Fay-like forecast being portrayed by both the GFS and Euro seems like a solid one to me.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21032

Viewing: 831 - 781

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83Blog Index

Top of Page

About JeffMasters

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.