Three Atlantic threat areas may develop; a record fire season for the U.S.

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:43 PM GMT on August 20, 2012

Share this Blog
59
+

A large tropical wave (Invest 94L) located about 1100 miles east of the Lesser Antilles Islands is headed west at 20 - 25 mph, and is showing increasing organization today. The storm is under light wind shear of 5 - 10 knots, and is over waters of 27°C. A large area of dry air lies just to the north of 94L, as seen on the latest Saharan Air Layer (SAL) analysis and water vapor satellite loops. This dry air is interfering with development, and this morning's visible satellite loop shows that 94L's heavy thunderstorm activity is sparse. However, the satellite loops do show that 94L has now separated from the clumps of heavy thunderstorms to its south, and a pretty well-defined surface circulation has developed. Heavy thunderstorms are now attempting to fire up around this circulation center, but are being hampered by dry air. The center of 94L was about 80 miles to the north of buoy 41041 at 10 am Monday morning, and the buoy recorded SW winds of 10 mph, confirming that 94L probably does have a closed surface circulation. The disturbance will have to build and maintain more heavy thunderstorms than it has now to be considered a tropical depression, though. The first hurricane hunter mission into 94L is scheduled for Tuesday afternoon.


Figure 1. Morning satellite image of Invest 94L.

Forecast for 94L
The latest 8 am EDT run of the SHIPS model predicts that wind shear will be low, 5 - 10 knots, for the next five days. Ocean temperatures will warm from 27°C this morning to 28.5°C by Wednesday morning, and the total heat content of the ocean will increase sharply during that period, as well. The main impediment to development will be dry air to the north, and the SHIPS model predicts the amount of dry air will change little over the next five days. I expect that 94L will continue to struggle with dry air through Wednesday, when it will probably have had enough time to moisten the surrounding atmosphere and protect itself against the dry air. The models have shown increasing unity in taking 94L through the Lesser Antilles on Wednesday, and I expect the storm will be a tropical depression or weak tropical storm with 40 - 50 mph winds at that time. In their 8 am EDT Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave 94L a 80% chance of developing into a tropical depression by Wednesday morning. None of the reliable models predict that 94L will reach hurricane strength over the next five days, and it is unlikely that 94L will be able to organize quickly enough to become anything stronger than a 60 mph tropical storm before reaching the Lesser Antilles, given the storm's current struggles with dry air, and the lack of model support for intensification. However, once 94L enters the Eastern Caribbean, wind shear will be low, oceanic heat content high, and the storm should have had enough time to moisten the atmosphere to allow steady strengthening to occur. The main factor that might prevent intensification into a hurricane late this week would be a close pass by the island of Hispaniola. Our top models for long-range 4 - 5 days forecasts all show a path for 94L very close to the island.

Will 94L hit the U.S. mainland?
This storm is a long-range threat to the U.S., as historically, 16% of storms in 94L's location have gone on to hit the U.S., with North Carolina the preferred target (10% chance.) A trough of low pressure capable of pulling 94L to the north enters Western Canada Thursday night, and the exact timing and amplitude of this trough will determine the ultimate landfall location of 94L. The long range 7 - 14 day runs of the GFS model over the past three day have all predicted an eventual landfall for 94L in the U.S., though these long-range runs are notoriously unreliable. The predicted landfall locations have ranged from New England to Texas--which isn't much help. The past three runs beginning on Sunday afternoon have all taken 94L over Florida during the August 27 - 29 time frame, which I'm sure is making organizers of the Republican National Convention uncomfortable, since the convention is in Tampa August 27 - 30. However, 94L could miss Florida completely, as the average error in model forecasts going out 7 days is in excess of 500 miles. We can't rule out a North Carolina landfall, but the pattern we've seen so far this year is for landfalls in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, so a more southwards path for 94L into the Yucatan is definitely a possibility. Also, we have that huge drought region in the Midwest, which tends to create its own high pressure bubble, which reduces the odds of storms making the turn and hitting the Central or Western Gulf Coast. If 94L makes it to the Western Caribbean, I see the two most likely options as a landfall in Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula (and then westwards into Mexico south of the Texas border), or recurvature into the Florida Gulf Coast.


Figure 2. MODIS satellite image of Hurricane Gordon taken on Sunday August 19, 2012, at 11:55 am EDT. At the time, Gordon was a Category 2 hurricane with 100 mph winds. Image credit: NASA.

Gordon hits the Azores
The eye of Hurricane Gordon passed over Santa Maria Island in the eastern Azores Islands near 1:30 am EDT this morning. Gordon was a Category 1 hurricane with 75 - 80 mph winds at landfall. Winds at the Santa Maria airport reached a sustained 49 mph at 3 am EDT, but the airport did not report winds during passage of the eyewall at 1:30 am. Reuters reported that Gordon caused only minor flooding and power outages. The hurricane is being sheared apart by strong upper-level winds, and the extratropical remnants of Gordon will not bring any strong winds or significant rain to Europe.

Disturbance 95L in the Gulf near the Texas/Mexico border
A region of disturbed weather (Invest 95L) has developed in the Gulf of Mexico off the coast, just northeast of Tampico, Mexico. The disturbance is due to a trough of low pressure and its associated cold front which moved off the coast over the weekend, but has been fortified via moisture from Tropical Storm Helene, which made landfall Saturday near Tampico. If 95L were to develop into a tropical storm, it would receive a new name. In their 8 am EDT Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave 95L a 30% chance of developing into a tropical cyclone by Wednesday morning. An Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft is scheduled to investigate 95L this afternoon. Winds at Tampico this morning were light out of the northeast, which implies that no surface circulation is forming at this time. Radar out of Altamira, Mexico does show some banding to the precipitation echoes, though, which may be indicative of something trying to spin up. The computer models show that 95L should move little over the next few days.


Figure 3. Radar out of Altamira, Mexico at 9:45 am EDT August 20, 2012, shows some banding to the precipitation echoes in association with 95L.

Disturbance 96L off the coast of Africa
The tropical Atlantic is very busy this third week of August, and this is the week of the year that we typically see a major ramp-up of tropical storm activity in the Atlantic. A new tropical wave that emerged from the coast of Africa Sunday (Invest 96L) is headed west at 15 - 20 mph. This disturbance has a modest amount of spin and heavy thunderstorm activity, and is under a moderate 10 - 20 knots of wind shear. In their 8 am EDT Tropical Weather Outlook, NHC gave 96L a 20% chance of developing into a tropical cyclone by Wednesday morning. This disturbance does not have much model support for development.


Figure 4. The new Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite (S-NPP) carries an instrument so sensitive to low light levels that it can detect wildfires in the middle of the night. On August 17, 2012, the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on Suomi-NPP acquired this image of the wildfires blazing in Idaho. The images were created with data from the instrument’s "day-night band," which sensed the fire in the visible portion of the spectrum. The Halstead Fire, centered about 18 miles northwest of Stanley, was sparked by lightning on July 27, and is burning in an area with large numbers of trees killed by the mountain pine beetle. As of Sunday afternoon, the fire had burned 92,000 acres was only 5% contained, according to InciWeb. The fire prompted the evacuation of the town of Featherville on Saturday night. Red flag warnings for adverse fire weather were posted in the region yesterday, and temperatures reached the low 90s with 16% humidity and winds of 10 mph. Image credit: NASA.

A record fire season in the U.S.
Massive fires continue to burn in Nevada, Idaho and California, and fires that are currently active in the Western U.S. have consumed over 1.3 million acres of land--an area approximately the size of Delaware. Thanks to widespread drought and unusually high temperatures over the past month, 3 million acres have gone up in flames since mid-July, and the fire season of 2012 now ranks in first place for the most acreage burned at this point in the year. According to the Interagency Fire Center, 6.8 million acres have burned as of August 19 this year, beating the previous record set just last year (6.5 million acres for the year-to-date period.) The Interagency Fire Center shows year-to-date records just for the past ten years. The 2012 fire season is well ahead of the pace of 2006, which was the worst fire year in the U.S. for total acreage burned in a year (records began in 1960). In 2006, 9.9 million acres burned, and 6.4 million acres had burned by August 19. With drought conditions far more widespread this year compared to 2006, and the latest forecasts calling for little drought relief over the coming two months, 2012 is likely to surpass 2006 as the worst fire year in U.S. history before the end of the year.


Figure 5. Comparison of drought conditions between the previous record fire year in the contiguous U.S. (2006) with 2012. Drought is much more widespread in 2012 compared to 2006, and 2012 will likely finish ahead of 2006 for the most acreage burned since record keeping began in 1960. Image credit: U.S. Drought Monitor.

Global warming expected to increase fire activity in the Western U.S.
As I blogged about in June, the severe fire seasons of 2012 and 2011 fit the pattern of what we expect to see more of with global warming. Hotter heat waves dry out vegetation more readily, resulting in increased probability of more acreage burned. A study published in the Journal Ecosphere in June 2012 used fire models driven by the output from sixteen climate models used in the 2007 IPCC report and found that while 8% of the planet should see decreases in fire activity over the next 30 years, 38% should see increases. By the end of the century, 20% of the globe should see decreased fire activity, and 62% increased fire activity. In the U.S., the regions most at risk of increased fires are the tundra regions of northern Alaska, and the West, with Arizona and Colorado at particularly high risk.

Jeff Masters

hugh blanket of smoke (got2dogs)
blew in about an hr after my last upload here - I thought I was done for the nite, but this smoke was incredible! made for some awesome light - sooooo eerie!
hugh blanket of smoke
Smoke! What smoke ?? (saltydawgg)
12th Ave road South looking north. Nampa Idaho full of smoke from 7 fires at last count with more dry lightning on the way.
Smoke! What smoke ??
Temecula Fire (photoandy)
This is just two hours after ignition! It quickly became a PYROCUMULUS...
Temecula Fire

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 1131 - 1081

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83Blog Index

Quoting Grothar:


There are times that dry air to the North of a system call actually assist in the westward movement of a storm, depending on its outflow. Dry air is not always an impediment. A lot of people do not know that.


Thanks for the info, I did not know that.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1130. Patrap
Quoting Grothar:


What are they saying?


They got the wu memo?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormHype:


Someone's about to say it's a big chem-trail.
listening to late night talk shows on am radio are we?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1127. Patrap
I miss Neutercane's.


Sigh...........


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MississippiWx:


Thanks for bringing that up. On a typical day in the tropics, which one do you think would be in the Atlantic and which one do you think would be in the Pacific (obviously without looking at land masses and lines of lat./lon.)?




Both I'd say... But probably more 94L than the typhoon, lol.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1125. Grothar
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
I've been watching TWC for the past 20 minutes and am impressed. They're using NOAA's floater imagery, and have changed the graphics from "low pressure" to their invest designations.


What are they saying?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good afternoon all. Is there the possibility of decrease in forward speed before 94L reaches the islands?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting txwcc:
Trending north, Guys.



12Z models


I think we will get models shift Southwards and it is not because I want it to and this are reasons behind what I'm saying
Member Since: June 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 11136
no.el.nino.jive?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1120. Grothar
Quoting ProgressivePulse:



Definitely getting that "look" this afternoon. Convection appearing over the center. Smart system. Dry north so lets get much bigger and pull in moisture from the south.


There are times that dry air to the North of a system call actually assist in the westward movement of a storm, depending on its outflow. Dry air is not always an impediment. A lot of people do not know that.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MAweatherboy1:

This is though. And by the looks of it Taiwan is under fire from an epic pinhole:



Thanks for bringing that up. On a typical day in the tropics, which one do you think would be in the Atlantic and which one do you think would be in the Pacific (obviously without looking at land masses and lines of lat./lon.)?



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1118. VR46L
Wonder what the story will be in a hours time from the GFS will you be a DOOMcane a fish or nothing?

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
The Latest
(click to enlarge)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1115. Patrap
Nothing concerns me more than a Low Lat,Big CV Cranker slowly organizing.

Its like watching a Bad Horror flick in slow Motion in Bad seats.


Looking forward to the G-4 Sniffs and some consensus downstream.


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:
12z ECMWF ensembles are anywhere from Bermuda to the central Gulf of Mexico with 94L.

not surprised lol. your track is in the middle of that. do you think by tomorrow 94L will begin to finally consolidate?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1066 presslord: I'm really disappointed the "Grand Master Jeff" thing hasn't caught on

Frankly sounds like your trying to insult the dude
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1112. pottery
Quoting ProgressivePulse:



Definitely getting that "look" this afternoon. Convection appearing over the center. Smart system. Dry north so lets get much bigger and pull in moisture from the south.

And it's just about DMIN out there.....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1111. Grothar
Quoting yonzabam:


Why will it pull together? Dry air, forward speed and lack of vertical instability are all inhibiting factors. For the present, 94L's a dud. Could ramp up some days down the line, but don't hold your breath.


After a close analysis of the vertical instability, the upper level divergence and the lower level convergence and the estimation of the baroclinic pressure, I have decided to go with my gut feeling and say in will soon be a depression.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting PalmBeachWeatherBoy:
I've been out the whole day preparing for my first day of classes tomorrow. Can someone please explain what in the world is that line of convection extending from Mexico to the panhandle of Florida. I would guess it's a stalled front, but I'm 90% sure im wrong.


Someone's about to say it's a big chem-trail.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1109. etxwx
Meanwhile in the Pacific, Typhoon Kai-Tak just keeps on bringing hardship.

Two trucks wade through flooded croplands in Shibu village, Nanning in Southwest China’s Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region, Aug 20, 2012. [Photo/Xinhua]
NANNING - Typhoon Kai-Tak has left three people dead, one person missing and forced over 111,500 people to evacuate their homes in southwest China's Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region as of Monday afternoon, local civil affairs authorities said.

As of 4 pm Monday, Kai-Tak, the 13th tropical storm of the year, had ravaged 36 counties in Guangxi, destroying 1,457 homes. Over 212,150 hectares of crops were affected and 2,810 hectares of them were completely destroyed, said a statement from the region's civil affairs department. Direct economic losses are estimated to be 1.65 billion yuan ($262 million), according to the statement.

Kai-Tak, which hit south China on Friday with heavy rains and strong winds, has also forced the evacuation of 342,000 people in neighboring Guangdong province and 82,000 people in the southernmost island province of Hainan, the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the National Commission for Disaster Reduction said on Sunday.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good afternoon.Yawn is their anything new yet?.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Maybe we would have Isaac,Joyce and Kirk before the month is done.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JeffMasters:
94L is attempting to develop a very large circulation. Take a look at a zoomed-out Central Atlantic loop of the circulation, there's a huge area of heavy thunderstorms to the SE that 94L is trying to wrap in. If it succeeds, this storm will bring heavy weather to a wide swath of the islands Wed and Thu. This may also slow down development, since it takes time to spin up a big chunk of the atmosphere.

Recon into 95L hasn't put out a vortex report yet. They're finding a lot of west winds, but no winds anywhere above 25 mph. Not a TD yet.

Jeff Masters


Who will be "I" 94L or 95L? And do you think 94L will go N or S or over Hispaniola?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1104. pottery
Quoting Grothar:


I appreciate that. The older one gets, the less plusses they get.

Pulses, surely ?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MississippiWx:
No, 94L, this is not the Western Pacific.


Why are you posting here and not in chat?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1102. Levi32
12z ECMWF ensembles are anywhere from Bermuda to the central Gulf of Mexico with 94L.

Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26550
Quoting Grothar:
I think this is what the Doc is talking about. Big system. If it pulls together (which is will shortly) it will cover a lot of territory.




Definitely getting that "look" this afternoon. Convection appearing over the center. Smart system. Dry north so lets get much bigger and pull in moisture from the south.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1100. Patrap
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
I've been watching TWC for the past 20 minutes and am impressed. They're using NOAA's floater imagery, and have changed the graphics from "low pressure" to their invest designations.




U betcha,,as we all here have set a format that sells.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MississippiWx:
No, 94L, this is not the Western Pacific.


This is though. And by the looks of it Taiwan is under fire from an epic pinhole:

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Wonder when we will get some watches posted. Pressure will creep up on NHC shortly. Also on Patrap's visible loop I believe you can see the thunderstorms develop along 50w which the doctor was speaking about. Interesting night for sure.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
JLPR2, here is what the San Juan NWS says about the effects. Some squally weather expected.

AREA FORECAST DISCUSSION
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SAN JUAN PR
340 PM AST MON AUG 20 2012

.SYNOPSIS...A BROAD HIGH PRESSURE CENTERED TO THE NORTH-NORTHEAST
OF THE LOCAL ISLANDS...WILL CONTINUE TO PRODUCE MODERATE TRADES
ACROSS THE AREA AS WELL AS FAIR WEATHER CONDITIONS THROUGH AT LEAST
TUESDAY MORNING. AN ACTIVE WEATHER PATTERN IS EXPECTED FROM TUESDAY
NIGHT THROUGH AT LEAST FRIDAY AS A SERIES OF TROPICAL DISTURBANCE/WAVES
WILL MOVE ACROSS THE LOCAL REGION.

&&

WE ARE MONITORING A VIGOROUS TROPICAL WAVE LOCATED ABOUT 1000
MILES EAST THE LESSER ANTILLES. SATELLITE IMAGERY AND BUOY OBSERVATIONS
INDICATE THAT THE CIRCULATION HAS BECOME BETTER DEFINED OVER THE
PAST FEW HOURS. HOWEVER...SHOWER AND THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY REMAINS
LIMITED. ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS APPEAR CONDUCIVE FOR GRADUAL
DEVELOPMENT BEFORE CROSS THE LESSER ANTILLES. MOST OF THE OPERATIONAL
MODELS AGREE THAT THIS DISTURBANCE WILL APPROACH THE LOCAL REGION
BETWEEN WEDNESDAY AFTERNOON AND EARLY THURSDAY MORNING. REGARDLESS
OF DEVELOPMENT...ALL MODEL GUIDANCE CONTINUE TO SUGGEST DEEP
CONVECTION WITH INCREASING WINDS...SQUALLY CONDITIONS AND HAZARDOUS
SEAS...BEGINNING ON WEDNESDAY AND CONTINUING THROUGH THURSDAY AND
POSSIBLY INTO FRIDAY. THEREFORE THE POTENTIAL FOR SIGNIFICANT
FLASH FLOODING WITH PERIODS OF HEAVY RAINFALL AND GUSTY WINDS WILL
BE VERY HIGH BEGINNING ON WEDNESDAY THROUGH FRIDAY.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1095. pottery
Quoting MississippiWx:
No, 94L, this is not the Western Pacific.


LMAO.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1094. Grothar
Quoting icmoore:


But Gro I only plus you :)


I appreciate that. The older one gets, the less plusses they get.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
We don't see many storms that cover 10 degrees latitude, like 94L.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
If something that size gets into the gulf it would affect a lot of people no matter where it makes landfall.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting floridaboy14:
north of hispanola is my thinking. it was supposed to be heading west to west south west but instead kept gaining latitude. right now it should he just slightly north of due west and after that wnw toward puerto rico.


N of W to N of Hispaniola then Slams into SC as a CAT 2 or 3
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I don't know if this is a technically accurate way to describe it as I'm no met, but it seems that 94L has been sucking up energy from the ITCZ all day. Yeah there's very little convection right near the center but this thing will be a TD or TS by morning, and a huge one.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I've been out the whole day preparing for my first day of classes tomorrow. Can someone please explain what in the world is that line of convection extending from Mexico to the panhandle of Florida. I would guess it's a stalled front, but I'm 90% sure im wrong.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I've been watching TWC for the past 20 minutes and am impressed. They're using NOAA's floater imagery, and have changed the graphics from "low pressure" to their invest designations.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:
I think this is what the Doc is talking about. Big system. If it pulls together (which is will shortly) it will cover a lot of territory.



Why will it pull together? Dry air, forward speed and lack of vertical instability are all inhibiting factors. For the present, 94L's a dud. Could ramp up some days down the line, but don't hold your breath.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
No, 94L, this is not the Western Pacific.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:
94L's circulation is still elongated to the east. The models the last few days have been trying to split the eastern lobe off and develop a separate cyclone from it. Those kinds of solutions seem overdone, but that competition just adds to the struggles 94L has had in the central Atlantic. Conditions are improving for it though as we speak. It will be crossing the magic 50W line into warmer water tonight.





ok but Levi that oscat was at 1450utc right now it about 1950utc/2000utc and looking at sattelite circulation got a whole lot better since then

Quoting ProgressivePulse:
Authoritative Opinions.



hmm looking at the gridded forecast NHC takes it to Jamaica and the Cayman Islands

hmm I'd say 94L becomes TD9 at 11pm tonight

Quoting JeffMasters:
94L is attempting to develop a very large circulation. Take a look at a zoomed-out Central Atlantic loop of the circulation, there's a huge area of heavy thunderstorms to the SW that 94L is trying to wrap in. If it succeeds, this storm will bring heavy weather to a wide swath of the islands Wed and Thu. This may also slow down development, since it takes time to spin up a big chunk of the atmosphere.

Recon into 95L hasn't put out a vortex report yet. They're finding a lot of west winds, but no winds anywhere above 25 mph. Not a TD yet.

Jeff Masters


hey Doc still large system can still spin up quickly it happen just not very often and also if it slow development this may cause 94L to go further W mean more GOM and brings Tx into play

no surprise there with 95L as I said if anything max 95L will be is a TD IMO

94L will take the "I" name IMO
Member Since: June 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 11136
1083. Patrap



Dats a Big CV Invest with travel plans..Gro'

Hopefully a Low Budget affair.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1082. icmoore
Quoting Grothar:


I know Nooothing!!! In a way. I am a little jealous of Levi. He got more attention today than when I died last year.


But Gro I only plus you :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 1131 - 1081

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.