July Atlantic hurricane outlook

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 12:55 PM GMT on July 13, 2012

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It's mid-July, and we have yet to see a named storm form in the Atlantic this month. The computer models are not predicting any development through at least July 20, and if we make it all the way to the end of the month without a named storm forming, it will be the first July since 2009 without a named storm. Since the current active hurricane period began in 1995, 13 of 17 years (76%) have had a named storm form during July. The busiest July occurred in 2005, when five named storms and two major hurricanes formed. These included Hurricane Dennis and Hurricane Emily--the strongest hurricanes ever observed so early in the season. Only eight major hurricanes have formed in July since record keeping began in 1851. As seen in Figure 1, most of the last half of July activity occurs in the Gulf of Mexico and waters off the Southeast U.S. coast. These type of storms form when a cold front moves off the U.S. coast and stalls out, with the old frontal boundary serving as a focal point for development of a tropical disturbance (as happened for Alberto, Beryl, Chris, and Debby in 2012.) There will be at least two cold fronts moving off the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast over the next two weeks. The first of these fronts will push offshore around July 20, and we will need to watch the waters offshore of North Carolina for development then. Formation potential will be aided by ocean temperatures that are about 0.7°C (1°F) above average along the U.S. East Coast.


Figure 1. Tracks of all tropical storms and hurricanes 1851 - 2006 that formed July 16-31. The U.S. coast from North to Texas are the preferred strike locations. Only a few storms have formed in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean in July. Wind shear is typically too high and SSTs too cool in July to allow African waves in the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic to develop into tropical storms. However, a few long-track "Cape Verdes" hurricanes have occurred in July, spawned by tropical waves that came off the coast of Africa. African tropical waves serve as the instigators of about 85% of all major hurricanes.


Figure 2. The seasonal distribution of Atlantic hurricane activity shows that July typically has low activity. Image credit: NHC.

Sea Surface Temperatures: slightly above average
The departure of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) from average over the tropical Atlantic between Africa and Central America was about 0.3°C above average during June (Figure 3.) This figure has not changed much over the first two weeks of July. These temperatures are not warm enough to appreciably affect the odds of a July named storm or hurricane. The strength of the Azores-Bermuda high has been near average over the past two weeks, driving near-average trade winds. The latest 2-week run of the GFS model predicts continued average-strength trade winds through late-July, so SSTs should remain about 0.3°C above average during this period, due to average amounts of cold water mixing up from below due to the wind action on the water.


Figure 3. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) departure from average for July 12, 2012. SSTs were 0.3°C above average over the tropical Atlantic's Main Development region for hurricanes, from Africa to Central America between 10° and 20° North Latitude. Note the large region of above average SSTs along the Equatorial Pacific off the coast of South America, the hallmark of a developing El Niño episode. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS

El Niño on the way?
For two consecutive weeks, ocean temperatures 0.5 - 0.6°C above average have been present in the tropical Eastern Pacific, which is right at the threshold for a weak El Niño episode. NOAA's Climate Prediction Center has issued an El Niño Watch, and gives a 61% chance that El Niño conditions will be present during the August - September - October peak of the Atlantic hurricane season. The likely development of a full-fledged El Niño episode means that Atlantic hurricane activity will probably be suppressed in 2012, due to the strong upper-level winds and high wind shear these events typically bring to the tropical Atlantic.


Figure 4. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) departure from average for the the equatorial Eastern Pacific (the area 5°N - 5°S, 120°W - 170°W, also called the "Niña 3.4 region"). El Niño conditions exist when the SST in this region rises 0.5°C above average. As of July 9, 2012, SSTs in the Niño 3.4 region had risen to 0.5°C above average. To be considered an "El Niño episode", El Niño conditions must occur for five consecutive months, using 3-month averages. Image credit: NOAA Climate Prediction Center.

Wind shear: above average
Wind shear is usually defined as the difference in wind between 200 mb (roughly 40,000 foot altitude) and 850 mb (roughly 5,000 foot altitude). In most circumstances, wind shear above 20 knots will act to inhibit tropical storm formation. Wind shear below 12 knots is very conducive for tropical storm formation. High wind shear acts to tear a storm apart. The jet stream has two bands of strong high-altitude winds that are currently bringing high wind shear to the Atlantic. The southern branch (subtropical jet stream) is bringing high wind shear to the Caribbean, and the northern branch (polar jet stream) is bringing high wind shear to the waters offshore of New England. This configuration often leaves a "hole" of low shear between the two branches, off the Southeast U.S. coast and over the Gulf of Mexico. The jet stream is forecast to maintain this two-branch pattern over the coming two weeks. Wind shear has been about 10 - 20% higher than average over the first two weeks of July, and is predicted to be mostly above average for the coming two weeks. This will cut down on the odds of a July storm.


Figure 5. Vertical instability over the Caribbean Sea in 2012 (blue line) compared to average (black line.) The instability is plotted in °C, as a difference in temperature from near the surface to the upper atmosphere. Thunderstorms grow much more readily when vertical instability is high. Instability has been lower than average, due to an unusual amount of dry air in the atmosphere, reducing the potential for tropical storm formation. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS/CIRA.

Dry air: above average
As seen in Figure 5, there has been an unusual amount of dry, stable air in the Caribbean this year creating low levels of vertical instability. This has occurred due to a combination of dry air from Africa, and upper-atmosphere dynamics creating large areas of sinking air that dry as they warm and approach the surface. The Gulf of Mexico and tropical Atlantic between the coast of Africa and the Lesser Antilles have also seen low vertical instability this summer. June and July are the peak months for dry air and dust coming off the coast of Africa, and the Saharan dust storms have been quite active over the past two weeks. Expect dry air to be a major deterrent to any storms that try to form in the tropical Atlantic during July.

Steering currents: average
The predicted steering current pattern for the next two weeks is a typical one for July. We have an active jet stream bringing many troughs of low pressure off the East Coast of the U.S. These troughs are frequent enough and strong enough to recurve any tropical storms or hurricanes that might penetrate north of the Caribbean Sea. Steering current patterns are predictable only about 3 - 5 days in the future, although we can make very general forecasts about the pattern as much as two weeks in advance. There is no telling what might happen during the peak months of August, September, and October--we might be in for a repeat of the favorable 2010 and 2011 steering current pattern, which recurved most storms out to sea--or the unfavorable 2008 pattern, which steered Ike and Gustav into the Gulf of Mexico.

Summary: a below average chance of a July tropical storm
Given that none of the computer models are forecasting tropical storm formation in the coming seven days, SSTs are only slightly above average, and wind shear and vertical stability are above average, I'll go with a 30% chance of a named storm forming in the Atlantic during the remainder of July.


Figure 6. Hurricane Emilia over the Eastern Pacific at 20:35 UTC July 10, 2012. At the time, Emilia was a Category 3 hurricane with 125 mph winds. Emilia peaked earlier in the day as a Category 4 storm with 140 mph winds--the strongest hurricane in the East Pacific so far in 2012. Image credit: NASA.

An active Eastern Pacific hurricane season
It's been a very active start to the Eastern Pacific hurricane season, where we've already had six named storms, four hurricanes, and three intense hurricanes. A typical season has 4 named storms, 2 hurricanes, and 0 intense hurricanes by July 14. The formation of Tropical Storm Fabio on July 12 marks the 4th earliest formation of the Eastern Pacific's season's sixth storm. The record is held by the year 1985, when the season's sixth storm formed on July 2. Record keeping began in 1949.

Have a great weekend, everyone, and I'll be back Monday with a new post.

Jeff Masters

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2311. Grothar
Quoting washingtonian115:
Holler Gro.Did you see the GFS crazy model run.


No,I haven't. Which one?
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Good thing a cv storm shouldn't form in the next week or so:

The high would push it into us.
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WU Woooooo
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Big rain in SE FL now
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Just wanted to get an opinion out of you guys first. Would y'all view my daily Graphical Tropical Weather Outlook if I started making one? It would in no way be affiliated with the National Hurricane Center or any other government organization and would highlight my thoughts on a particular disturbance.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32687
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Quoting PlazaRed:

"One person has been killed and at least 10 others injured during a series of freak tornadoes in northern and western Poland."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18851510

Whatever next?
Tornadoes in Poland,
Floods in Europe,
Fires all over the place,
Ice melting like its in the microwave.
Northern lights in the southern latitudes,
Wait with patience as the Atlantic wont be quiet much longer, then you wont be able to get a word in edge ways on here.
Oh its only about 105/F here today in southern Spain!
Usual warnings posted.
We should do a poll on the Olympic this that's going to clog up everything at the end of the month. It could be the wettest Olympics ever!
Don't forget the hugely abnormal three-day rainfall in Japan (up to 3.5" per hour) that has led to dozens of deaths and the evacuation of hundreds of thousands of residents. And speaking of the ice melting as though it's in a microwave: this past Wednesday, the recorded temperature at the Summit Camp weather station in Greenland reached 36 degrees. That may not sound like much, but that station sits smack in the middle of Greenland's ice cap at an altitude of 10,500 feet.
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http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2012/jul/14/specia l-report-water-supplies-reach-tipping-point/



"It used to be that our agreements were to share the water," Scott said. "Now we are trying to figure out how we are going to share the shortage."

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I posted 2 comments a couple minutes ago and yet nothing.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
RedPlaza I know right.With all these disasters the Atlantic has me worried.Especially the gulf where shear has been low and instability high.

Logic, of which humanity has seemed to have forgotten points to the fact that if you place a planet in a state of metamorphic transience it will go through a certain amount of radical changes, in order to adapt to a semblance of normality.
Being generally insensitive to the goings on of a scattered amount of life forms seething about on its surface it will automatically compensate for any anomalies that should appear.
Having said those seemingly pointless words, what we might have to cope with is "planetary reaction," to human inaction's!
I dont know, I'm only an engineer who is used to watching things going wrong!Usually we can mend them but this time I'm not too sure!
Interesting that we have a mess over the Shael which is massive and its only Mid July.
Love that Avatar.
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Impressive spin on this wave. Dry air and subsidence should keep it from developing.

ECMWF keeps the LL vort around for a few days.

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Can anyone see my comment?.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 17592
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June rainfall in FL was in the tope 5 wettest in areasLink
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2294. Grothar
testing.
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2292. Grothar
Quoting GeoffreyWPB:
ULL to the left of me, ULL to the right of me, here I am stuck in the middle...




Just as long as they haven't volley'd and thunder'd, you should be OK. I wonder what the other 599 people are seeing.
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Quoting Grothar:
Nice spin.


Which nice spin? I see three nice spins in that image.
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Quoting Grothar:
Nice spin.


Hey Gro, I think it is a ULL and there is one ENE of FL as well.
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2287. Grothar
Quoting GeoffreyWPB:
ULL to the left of me, ULL to the right of me, here I am stuck in the middle...



.
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Quoting wxchaser97:
That wave has good vorticity.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 17592
2285. bappit
Quoting Grothar:
Nice spin.


UUUL
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Holler Gro.Did you see the GFS crazy model run.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 17592
Quoting WxGeekVA:
Judging by the shear on this map I made by stitching together the Epac and Wpac CIMSS shear products, the remnants of Daniel don't have a terrible environment in front of them. He's actually in the worst shear he'll be in right now. He may yet have a chance.



Click for full size

That aggressive spin right off GA/SC looks like it wants mischief.
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Water supplies pass tipping point

...
Even though there%u2019s been little talk of drought in San Diego in recent months, runoff into the Colorado%u2019s Lake Powell this year is about 46 percent of average %u2014 the third lowest since 1963. Deliveries to cities and farms aren%u2019t immediately threatened because abundant snow two winters ago provided a respite from dry conditions that have dominated the basin since 1999.

But on every inhabited continent, clean water is getting harder to find and threats to civilization grow more stark as the global population zooms past 7 billion. The combination is having physical repercussions, such as shrinking seas, dying rivers and sinking land. They are reminders that money and ingenuity can%u2019t defy the laws of nature forever.

http://www.utsandiego.com/news/2012/jul/14/specia l-report-water-supplies-reach-tipping-point/
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2279. Grothar
Nice spin.

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Quoting PlazaRed:

"One person has been killed and at least 10 others injured during a series of freak tornadoes in northern and western Poland."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18851510

Whatever next?
Tornadoes in Poland,
Floods in Europe,
Fires all over the place,
Ice melting like its in the microwave.
Northern lights in the southern latitudes,
Wait with patience as the Atlantic wont be quiet much longer, then you wont be able to get a word in edge ways on here.
Oh its only about 105/F here today in southern Spain!
Usual warnings posted.
We should do a poll on the Olympic this that's going to clog up everything at the end of the month. It could be the wettest Olympics ever!
RedPlaza I know right.With all these disasters the Atlantic has me worried.Especially the gulf where shear has been low and instability high.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 17592
Quoting wxchaser97:

A cat5 headed for the US is what is next and my TV is now getting messed up by something.

You might just be right on that one but I'll leave it to the experts on your side of the Atlantic and in Alaska to decide where and when but I would nor rule it out!
Take a long look at that high over the mid Atlantic and you cant help noticing that the firing line is the mid Caribbean and into the GOM.
Just guessing of course but! Stanger things have happened at sea?
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Another one bites the dust
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I see the wave off of Africa has some chance on the TCFP.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 17592
Quoting PlazaRed:

"One person has been killed and at least 10 others injured during a series of freak tornadoes in northern and western Poland."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18851510

Whatever next?
Tornadoes in Poland,
Floods in Europe,
Fires all over the place,
Ice melting like its in the microwave.
Northern lights in the southern latitudes,
Wait with patience as the Atlantic wont be quiet much longer, then you wont be able to get a word in edge ways on here.
Oh its only about 105/F here today in southern Spain!
Usual warnings posted.
We should do a poll on the Olympic this that's going to clog up everything at the end of the month. It could be the wettest Olympics ever!

A cat5 headed for the US is what is next and my TV is now getting messed up by something, stupid solar storm.
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"One person has been killed and at least 10 others injured during a series of freak tornadoes in northern and western Poland."

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-18851510

Whatever next?
Tornadoes in Poland,
Floods in Europe,
Fires all over the place,
Ice melting like its in the microwave.
Northern lights in the southern latitudes,
Wait with patience as the Atlantic wont be quiet much longer, then you wont be able to get a word in edge ways on here.
Oh its only about 105/F here today in southern Spain!
Usual warnings posted.
We should do a poll on the Olympic this that's going to clog up everything at the end of the month. It could be the wettest Olympics ever!
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Yes the remnants of Karin just wouldn't dissipate.Just like Daniel.
you mean karen right???
Member Since: October 15, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 4467
Quoting JLPR2:
Ex-Daniel is looking somewhat alive.

He's a zombie?
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Judging by the shear on this map I made by stitching together the Epac and Wpac CIMSS shear products, the remnants of Daniel don't have a terrible environment in front of them. He's actually in the worst shear he'll be in right now. He may yet have a chance.



Click for full size
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Has anything like the GFS solution happened before?
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Quoting wxchaser97:
Both positive factors for T.C formation.Thank goodness we don't have a disturbance in there.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 17592
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ULL to the left of me, ULL to the right of me, here I am stuck in the middle...

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15/2101 UTC 23.2N 137.8E T1.5/1.5 08W -- West Pacific
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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