July Atlantic hurricane outlook

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 12:55 PM GMT on July 13, 2012

Share this Blog
60
+

It's mid-July, and we have yet to see a named storm form in the Atlantic this month. The computer models are not predicting any development through at least July 20, and if we make it all the way to the end of the month without a named storm forming, it will be the first July since 2009 without a named storm. Since the current active hurricane period began in 1995, 13 of 17 years (76%) have had a named storm form during July. The busiest July occurred in 2005, when five named storms and two major hurricanes formed. These included Hurricane Dennis and Hurricane Emily--the strongest hurricanes ever observed so early in the season. Only eight major hurricanes have formed in July since record keeping began in 1851. As seen in Figure 1, most of the last half of July activity occurs in the Gulf of Mexico and waters off the Southeast U.S. coast. These type of storms form when a cold front moves off the U.S. coast and stalls out, with the old frontal boundary serving as a focal point for development of a tropical disturbance (as happened for Alberto, Beryl, Chris, and Debby in 2012.) There will be at least two cold fronts moving off the U.S. Mid-Atlantic coast over the next two weeks. The first of these fronts will push offshore around July 20, and we will need to watch the waters offshore of North Carolina for development then. Formation potential will be aided by ocean temperatures that are about 0.7°C (1°F) above average along the U.S. East Coast.


Figure 1. Tracks of all tropical storms and hurricanes 1851 - 2006 that formed July 16-31. The U.S. coast from North to Texas are the preferred strike locations. Only a few storms have formed in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean in July. Wind shear is typically too high and SSTs too cool in July to allow African waves in the Caribbean and tropical Atlantic to develop into tropical storms. However, a few long-track "Cape Verdes" hurricanes have occurred in July, spawned by tropical waves that came off the coast of Africa. African tropical waves serve as the instigators of about 85% of all major hurricanes.


Figure 2. The seasonal distribution of Atlantic hurricane activity shows that July typically has low activity. Image credit: NHC.

Sea Surface Temperatures: slightly above average
The departure of Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) from average over the tropical Atlantic between Africa and Central America was about 0.3°C above average during June (Figure 3.) This figure has not changed much over the first two weeks of July. These temperatures are not warm enough to appreciably affect the odds of a July named storm or hurricane. The strength of the Azores-Bermuda high has been near average over the past two weeks, driving near-average trade winds. The latest 2-week run of the GFS model predicts continued average-strength trade winds through late-July, so SSTs should remain about 0.3°C above average during this period, due to average amounts of cold water mixing up from below due to the wind action on the water.


Figure 3. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) departure from average for July 12, 2012. SSTs were 0.3°C above average over the tropical Atlantic's Main Development region for hurricanes, from Africa to Central America between 10° and 20° North Latitude. Note the large region of above average SSTs along the Equatorial Pacific off the coast of South America, the hallmark of a developing El Niño episode. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS

El Niño on the way?
For two consecutive weeks, ocean temperatures 0.5 - 0.6°C above average have been present in the tropical Eastern Pacific, which is right at the threshold for a weak El Niño episode. NOAA's Climate Prediction Center has issued an El Niño Watch, and gives a 61% chance that El Niño conditions will be present during the August - September - October peak of the Atlantic hurricane season. The likely development of a full-fledged El Niño episode means that Atlantic hurricane activity will probably be suppressed in 2012, due to the strong upper-level winds and high wind shear these events typically bring to the tropical Atlantic.


Figure 4. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) departure from average for the the equatorial Eastern Pacific (the area 5°N - 5°S, 120°W - 170°W, also called the "Niña 3.4 region"). El Niño conditions exist when the SST in this region rises 0.5°C above average. As of July 9, 2012, SSTs in the Niño 3.4 region had risen to 0.5°C above average. To be considered an "El Niño episode", El Niño conditions must occur for five consecutive months, using 3-month averages. Image credit: NOAA Climate Prediction Center.

Wind shear: above average
Wind shear is usually defined as the difference in wind between 200 mb (roughly 40,000 foot altitude) and 850 mb (roughly 5,000 foot altitude). In most circumstances, wind shear above 20 knots will act to inhibit tropical storm formation. Wind shear below 12 knots is very conducive for tropical storm formation. High wind shear acts to tear a storm apart. The jet stream has two bands of strong high-altitude winds that are currently bringing high wind shear to the Atlantic. The southern branch (subtropical jet stream) is bringing high wind shear to the Caribbean, and the northern branch (polar jet stream) is bringing high wind shear to the waters offshore of New England. This configuration often leaves a "hole" of low shear between the two branches, off the Southeast U.S. coast and over the Gulf of Mexico. The jet stream is forecast to maintain this two-branch pattern over the coming two weeks. Wind shear has been about 10 - 20% higher than average over the first two weeks of July, and is predicted to be mostly above average for the coming two weeks. This will cut down on the odds of a July storm.


Figure 5. Vertical instability over the Caribbean Sea in 2012 (blue line) compared to average (black line.) The instability is plotted in °C, as a difference in temperature from near the surface to the upper atmosphere. Thunderstorms grow much more readily when vertical instability is high. Instability has been lower than average, due to an unusual amount of dry air in the atmosphere, reducing the potential for tropical storm formation. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS/CIRA.

Dry air: above average
As seen in Figure 5, there has been an unusual amount of dry, stable air in the Caribbean this year creating low levels of vertical instability. This has occurred due to a combination of dry air from Africa, and upper-atmosphere dynamics creating large areas of sinking air that dry as they warm and approach the surface. The Gulf of Mexico and tropical Atlantic between the coast of Africa and the Lesser Antilles have also seen low vertical instability this summer. June and July are the peak months for dry air and dust coming off the coast of Africa, and the Saharan dust storms have been quite active over the past two weeks. Expect dry air to be a major deterrent to any storms that try to form in the tropical Atlantic during July.

Steering currents: average
The predicted steering current pattern for the next two weeks is a typical one for July. We have an active jet stream bringing many troughs of low pressure off the East Coast of the U.S. These troughs are frequent enough and strong enough to recurve any tropical storms or hurricanes that might penetrate north of the Caribbean Sea. Steering current patterns are predictable only about 3 - 5 days in the future, although we can make very general forecasts about the pattern as much as two weeks in advance. There is no telling what might happen during the peak months of August, September, and October--we might be in for a repeat of the favorable 2010 and 2011 steering current pattern, which recurved most storms out to sea--or the unfavorable 2008 pattern, which steered Ike and Gustav into the Gulf of Mexico.

Summary: a below average chance of a July tropical storm
Given that none of the computer models are forecasting tropical storm formation in the coming seven days, SSTs are only slightly above average, and wind shear and vertical stability are above average, I'll go with a 30% chance of a named storm forming in the Atlantic during the remainder of July.


Figure 6. Hurricane Emilia over the Eastern Pacific at 20:35 UTC July 10, 2012. At the time, Emilia was a Category 3 hurricane with 125 mph winds. Emilia peaked earlier in the day as a Category 4 storm with 140 mph winds--the strongest hurricane in the East Pacific so far in 2012. Image credit: NASA.

An active Eastern Pacific hurricane season
It's been a very active start to the Eastern Pacific hurricane season, where we've already had six named storms, four hurricanes, and three intense hurricanes. A typical season has 4 named storms, 2 hurricanes, and 0 intense hurricanes by July 14. The formation of Tropical Storm Fabio on July 12 marks the 4th earliest formation of the Eastern Pacific's season's sixth storm. The record is held by the year 1985, when the season's sixth storm formed on July 2. Record keeping began in 1949.

Have a great weekend, everyone, and I'll be back Monday with a new post.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 1461 - 1411

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48Blog Index

Since there is a little interest in doomsday today has anyone done any calculations on what the CME of 150 yrs. ago would do, taking into consideration that he magnetic field is 10 to 15% weaker.That maybe the 2012 shakeup with the most probability. And there was some discussion about the earth/sun alignment thru the center of the universe. That being as the sun travels around the galaxy every 26 thousand yrs. it pass thru the mid point directly opposite the galactic center, like a pony on a merry go round.I don't think it has anything to do with an annual event. I think some people believe we will pass thru more cosmic crap along the accretion disk. Just asking because it maybe the wrong time, but if someone knows the answer it's probably on this blog.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KoritheMan:


At first glance I thought that was Fabio. I was all like "OMG"
Sorry for the confusion... Went ahead and changed my avatar, Alma was getting stale to look at.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1459. Grothar
Quoting Tropicsweatherpr:


As I posted earlier another image,that thing is very large.


Very big

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Chris is the only one that interested me. And that's only because it became a hurricane.

I actually thought Beryl was really exciting, pre-season storm plus a near hurricane strength landfall, She is easily my 2nd favorite tropical storm
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting GTcooliebai:
I wonder if they knew that Hurricane Mitch would have its name retired in the first season of existence, one of the most devastating and deadliest hurricane ever. RIP to all who were lost.





At first glance I thought that was Fabio. I was all like "OMG"
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Oh god! Please don't bring up that nightmare, Debby. >_<

She still makes my head hurt.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
Quoting Levi32:


Debby was the toughest track forecast we have seen in decades.

Debby just annoyed me. I guess it could be considered interesting.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32275
1454. Levi32
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Chris is the only one that interested me. And that's only because it became a hurricane.


Debby was the toughest track forecast we have seen in decades.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
90kt. That's more like it!

Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
I wonder if they knew that Hurricane Mitch would have its name retired in the first season of existence, one of the most devastating and deadliest hurricane ever. RIP to all who were lost.



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Once again I'm out for awhile, atleast Fabio made it to 105.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948
Quoting Grothar:
Good evening boys and girls.


Good evening bro
Member Since: June 20, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 2159
Quoting MAweatherboy1:

How old are we?

However old you want me to be.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32275
1448. ncstorm
Im also watching that ULL..yeah I know its one but still interesting and you never know with the tropics

from our NWS, Wilmington, NC
HIGH PRESSURE ALOFT WILL PERSIST INTO SUN...AND THEN BREAK DOWN AS
WE GO INTO MON. LOW PRESSURE ALOFT...CURRENTLY SEEN ON WATER VAPOR
IMAGERY NEAR 29.4 N AND 72.3 W...WILL CONTINUE TO MOVE W TOWARD THE
LOWER SOUTHEAST COAST AND SOME OF THE MODELS HAVE THIS FEATURE
REACHING THE COAST ON MON.



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:
Good evening boys and girls.



Good evening, Gro.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:
Good evening boys and girls.



Evening Gro. As I posted earlier another image,that thing is very large.
Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 14327
Quoting KoritheMan:


Take that back! Debby was at one point forecast to be in my backyard.
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

No. You can't make me!

How old are we?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1444. Grothar
Good evening boys and girls.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KoritheMan:


Take that back! Debby was at one point forecast to be in my backyard.

No. You can't make me!
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32275
Quoting ncstorm:


I am only discussing it as well..when you put the cynical tone behind your comment, I have to come back at you and state the opposite right? Im all good over here..


Haha, perhaps. ;)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1441. ncstorm
Quoting KoritheMan:


You're taking what I said way too seriously. I am a cynical, difficult to please kind of guy. That, and I just like to make light of things. It's just who I am.


I am only discussing it as well..when you put the cynical tone behind your comment, I have to come back at you and state the opposite right? Im all good over here..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ncstorm:


there is no "almost" when it comes to Tropical Cyclones..not every storm has to be a major or even a cat 1 to get a cigar..and Debby? I mean the flooding it created was nothing to sneeze at..this season hasnt been boring at all for some folks..


Once again, you're being too serious. No one is downplaying the effects of a tropical cyclone. Debby even surprised me. You know, it's okay to not be all doom and gloom when it comes to hurricane forecasting.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
HURRICANE FABIO SPECIAL DISCUSSION NUMBER 12
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL EP062012
500 PM PDT SAT JUL 14 2012

SATELLITE IMAGES INDICATE THAT FABIO HAS STRENGTHENED CONSIDERABLY
DURING THE PAST FEW HOURS. THE EYE OF THE HURRICANE HAS BECOME MORE
CIRCULAR AND DISTINCT...AND CLOUD TOPS SURROUNDING THE EYE HAVE
COOLED AND BECOME INCREASINGLY SYMMETRIC. A SPECIAL DVORAK
CLASSIFICATION FROM TAFB SUPPORTS AN INITIAL INTENSITY OF 90 KT FOR
THIS ADVISORY. BECAUSE OF THE RECENT STRENGTHENING...THE NHC
INTENSITY FORECAST FOR THE FIRST 36 HOURS HAS BEEN ADJUSTED UPWARD.

NO CHANGES WERE MADE TO THE PREVIOUS TRACK AND WIND RADII
FORECASTS...OTHER THE ADDITION OF 64-KT RADII AT 36 HOURS.

FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 15/0000Z 16.4N 115.4W 90 KT 105 MPH
12H 15/0600Z 16.6N 116.5W 85 KT 100 MPH
24H 15/1800Z 17.0N 118.1W 75 KT 85 MPH
36H 16/0600Z 17.7N 119.5W 65 KT 75 MPH
48H 16/1800Z 18.6N 120.5W 55 KT 65 MPH
72H 17/1800Z 21.0N 121.5W 35 KT 40 MPH
96H 18/1800Z 23.5N 121.5W 25 KT 30 MPH...POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
120H 19/1800Z 25.0N 121.0W 20 KT 25 MPH...POST-TROP/REMNT LOW

$$
FORECASTER CANGIALOSI/BRENNAN
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
FORECAST POSITIONS AND MAX WINDS

INIT 15/0000Z 16.4N 115.4W 90 KT 105 MPH
12H 15/0600Z 16.6N 116.5W 85 KT 100 MPH
24H 15/1800Z 17.0N 118.1W 75 KT 85 MPH
36H 16/0600Z 17.7N 119.5W 65 KT 75 MPH
48H 16/1800Z 18.6N 120.5W 55 KT 65 MPH
72H 17/1800Z 21.0N 121.5W 35 KT 40 MPH
96H 18/1800Z 23.5N 121.5W 25 KT 30 MPH...POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
120H 19/1800Z 25.0N 121.0W 20 KT 25 MPH...POST-TROP/REMNT LOW
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948
Quoting hydrus:
I have seen worse lookin 3,s on sat pics..:)


Agreed.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Chris is the only one that interested me. And that's only because it became a hurricane.


Take that back! Debby was at one point forecast to be in my backyard.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1435. ncstorm
Quoting GTcooliebai:
keyword is "almost" but no cigar, maybe there is a chance the NHC upgrades it in their postseason analysis. By the way Chris had to be an anomaly for being a hurricane so far north this early in the season.


there is no "almost" when it comes to Tropical Cyclones..not every storm has to be a major or even a cat 1 to get a cigar..and Debby? I mean the flooding it created was nothing to sneeze at..this season hasnt been boring at all for some folks..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hurricane FABIO NESDIS Satellite | NDBC Obs | Storm Archive

Special Advisory products have been issued. Use links below for details.
...FABIO STRENGTHENS TO A CATEGORY TWO HURRICANE...
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------

5:00 PM PDT Sat Jul 14
Location: 16.4N 115.4W
Moving: WNW at 9 mph
Min pressure: 972 mb
Max sustained: 105 mph

Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Must-find-avatar-that-I-like.



At least you have an avatar. I would but I am lazy, maybe I'll get one tonight. You could change it each year for the past season's memorable storm...so this year have something from '11...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1432. hydrus
Quoting KoritheMan:


By "should" I didn't mean "the NHC is going to upgrade it" should. But to my eyes, it looks like a Category 3. Or at least it's getting there.
I have seen worse lookin 3,s on sat pics..:)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ncstorm:


Kori, we only had 4 storms this season all of them being Tropical storms..in fact Chris was pretty incredible to watch..I dont think none of them were boring at all..

Chris is the only one that interested me. And that's only because it became a hurricane.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32275
Quoting ncstorm:


Kori, we only had 4 storms this season all of them being Tropical storms..in fact Chris was pretty incredible to watch..I dont think none of them were boring at all..


You're taking what I said way too seriously. I am a cynical, difficult to please kind of guy. That, and I just like to make light of things. It's just who I am.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ncstorm:


Alberto and Beryl were sheared systems??..well done gone it, I could have sworn Beryl almost made hurricane status...
keyword is "almost" but no cigar, maybe there is a chance the NHC upgrades it in their postseason analysis. By the way Chris had to be an anomaly for being a hurricane so far north this early in the season.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Must-find-avatar-that-I-like.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32275
1427. ncstorm
Quoting KoritheMan:


I didn't mean literally every storm. And yes, Alberto was sheared. Beryl was just a historical marvel.


Kori, we only had 4 storms this season all of them being Tropical storms..in fact Chris was pretty incredible to watch..I dont think none of them were boring at all..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ncstorm:


Alberto and Beryl were sheared systems??..well done gone it, I could have sworn Beryl almost made hurricane status...


I didn't mean literally every storm. And yes, Alberto was sheared. Beryl was just a historical marvel.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Like a Category 5 hurricane that slowly traverses every part of the Caribbean and Gulf before dissipating offshore.


I actually agree, lol. That would make for one HELL of a dissertation.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
400,000 told to evacuate in Japan deluge

TOKYO: About 400,000 people were ordered or advised to leave their homes in southwest Japan Saturday as heavy rain pounded the area for a third day leaving 29 dead or missing, officials and media said.

The Japan Meteorological Agency warned of more landslides and floods on the main southern island of Kyushu as rainfall of up to 11 centimetres (4.3 inches) per hour was recorded on Saturday. Evacuation orders were issued to about 260,000 people in the north of the island where more rivers burst their banks, Kyushu’s local media reported. They were told to go to designated shelters such as schools and other public facilities.

Nearly 140,000 other people were advised to leave their homes to avoid possible disaster, according to officials contacted by AFP in the four affected prefectures in Kyushu. Television footage showed torrents of muddy, debris-strewn water and flooded houses following what officials described as “unprecedented” downpours from a seasonal rain front.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KoritheMan:


Not necessarily.

Either way, the point is, sheared systems are boring. An exposed center can be fun to look at, but we need something new every now and then. A change up!

Like a Category 5 hurricane that slowly traverses every part of the Caribbean and Gulf before dissipating offshore.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32275
1422. ncstorm
Quoting KoritheMan:


Not necessarily.

Either way, the point is, sheared systems are boring. An exposed center can be fun to look at, but we need something new every now and then. A change up!


Alberto and Beryl were sheared systems??..well done gone it, I could have sworn Beryl almost made hurricane status...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
That Central African disturbance is very large.



Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 14327
Quoting ncstorm:


well if this was in the GOM, it would be a cat 4 in those rocket fuel waters right??..cue stage exit--->Debby


Not necessarily.

Either way, the point is, sheared systems are boring. An exposed center can be fun to look at, but we need something new every now and then. A change up!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


i also am not concerned


whatever its to be
we will be it together
the entire world

The general feeling about this Mayan thing is that its a lot of hype, the sort of thing that people used to rave about when we went to Woodstock and The Isle of White about 40 years ago.
Build up is not going to terminate in a big bang mess that cant be recovered from but the date may be synonymous with a point of general background awakening to the fact that things are going wrong in a non recoverable way. This is what I have been saying to the average worrier in the street.
Some people a long time ago predicted things going the way they are and others like Rachel Carson who wrote "Silent Spring," about 40+ years ago pointed out the dangers of chemicals let alone CO2 and Methane.
Those Mayans would for sure not have been idiots and in India, thousands of years ago, books like the Vedas were written with some of there predictions coming about more or less now.
My opinion is that on Dec 21st nothing will happen to distinguish the day from those before and after it but human made and caused events might start to be taken a bit more seriously by a few more people than come on here to shed the odd word!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1418. ncstorm
Quoting KoritheMan:


Oh look. Another subtropical hybrid/sheared tropical storm. Next.


well if this was in the GOM, it would be a cat 4 in those rocket fuel waters right??..cue stage exit--->Debby
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Emilia's satellite presentation has decayed significantly in the past few hours... For most of today it was doing a good job holding its own in the dry air and cool waters, but now that the center is showing it will be dead soon...

Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Intensity was level for awhile and then shot up.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948

Border line cat2-cat3 imo
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948
Quoting GTcooliebai:
It's amazing how far Daniel has traveled from about 105 W to about 165 W in 10 days and has now passed to the Southwest of the Hawaiian Islands heading towards the WPAC. I doubt Emelia will make that long trek since she is already down to a weak Tropical Storm and still has a way to go before reaching the same longitude of Hawaii.
Daniel has been one persistant remnant low and I also don't think Emilia can make it that far but you never know. Fabio could imopact California or Mexico as a remnant low.
Member Since: March 16, 2012 Posts: 127 Comments: 7948
This is not a Cat 1...

Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 1461 - 1411

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Mostly Cloudy
68 °F
Mostly Cloudy