Hottest rain on record? Rain falls at 109°F in Saudi Arabia

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 11:24 AM GMT on June 07, 2012

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Pilgrims to the holy city of Mekkah (Mecca), Saudi Arabia must have been astonished on Tuesday afternoon, June 5, when the weather transformed from widespread dust with a temperature of 113°F (45°C) to a thunderstorm with rain. Remarkably, the air temperature during the thunderstorm was a sizzling 109°F (43°C), and the relative humidity a scant 18%. It is exceedingly rare to get rain when the temperature rises above 100°F, since those kind of temperatures usually require a high pressure system with sinking air that discourages rainfall. However, on June 4, a sea breeze formed along the shores of the Red Sea, and pushed inland 45 miles (71 km) to Mekkah by mid-afternoon. Moist air flowing eastwards from the Red Sea hit the boundary of the sea breeze and was forced upwards, creating rain-bearing thunderstorms. According to weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera, this is the highest known temperature that rain has fallen at, anywhere in the world. He knows of one other case where rain occurred at 109°F (43°C): in Marrakech, Morocco on July 10, 2010. A thunderstorm that began at 5 pm local time brought rain at a remarkably low humidity of 14%, cooling the temperature down to 91°F within an hour.



Figure 1. Thunderstorms at 109°F? This true-color satellite image of Saudi Arabia taken at 2:10 pm local time (11:10 UTC) on June 5, 2012, shows a line of thunderstorms that developed along the edge of the sea breeze from the Red Sea. Three hours after this image was taken, Mekkah (Mecca) recorded a thunderstorm with rain and a temperature of 109°F (43°C.) Image credit: NASA.

More like a hot shower than a cooling rain?
Thunderstorms often produce big drops of cold rain, since these raindrops form several thousand meters high in the atmosphere, where temperatures are much cooler than near the surface. Some drops even get their start as snow or ice particles, which melt on the way to the surface. Additional cooling of the drops occurs due to evaporation on the way down. However, in the case of the June 4, 2012 Mekkah storm, I think the rain was probably more like a hot shower. Large raindrops, like the kind thunderstorms produce, fall at a speed of about 10 meters per second. A balloon sounding of the upper atmosphere taken at 3 pm local time at a nearby station (Al-Midinah) found that the bottom 1000 meters of the atmosphere was 97°F (36°C) or warmer. Thus, the thunderstorms' raindrops would have been subjected to 100 seconds of some very hot air on the way to the surface, likely warming them above 100°F by the time they hit the ground. A classic 1948 study of raindrops found that, in many cases, raindrop temperatures start off cold in the first few minutes of a rain shower, then warm up to within 1°C (1.8°F) of the air temperature within a few minutes. With the air temperature a sizzling 109°F (43°C) at the time of the June 4 thunderstorm in Mekkah, the raindrops could easily have been heated to a temperature of over 105°F (41°C) by the time they reached the surface!

How hot can it be and still rain?
If substantial amounts of liquid water are present on the Earth, the planet will experience rain, as long as some mechanism to lift the warm, moist air and cause condensation can be found. If the climate continues to warm as expected, we should see an increasing number of cases where it rains at temperatures well above 100°F. On Saturday, June 2, the temperature in Mekkah hit 51.4°C (124.5°F), a new record for the city, and just 1.1°F (0.6°C) below the all-time hottest temperature record for Saudi Arabia (125.6°F, or 52°C, recorded at Jeddah on June 22, 2010.) I expect that 20 - 40 years from now, we'll begin seeing occasional cases where rain falls at a temperature above 117°F (47°C) in the desert regions of North Africa and the Middle East.

I'll have a new post by Friday afternoon.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting KoritheMan:

Agreed.
Hey K-man.I looking forward to a interesting hurricane season.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 16437

Quoting wxmod:

Well, OK, 99 percent then. I'm choosing the closest answer to the one that was offered.
99% based on a two week prediction?
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Quoting wxmod:

Well, OK, 99 percent then. I'm choosing the closest answer to the one that was offered.

thats better
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Quoting windshear1993:
those elnino wasnt together it started in 1991 and went neutral in '92 then came back that year and same thing for 1993 and '94 ..like the oposite lanina which came in 2010 and faded in 2011 but then came back in 2011 lol i hope that helped


gotchya
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Statement as of 6:56 PM CDT on June 07, 2012

... Significant weather advisory for Newton and Orange counties...
significant weather advisory for Calcasieu and Cameron parishes until
800 PM CDT...

At 649 PM CDT... National Weather Service meteorologists detected a
strong thunderstorm 8 miles southeast of Edgerly... moving southwest
at 5 mph.

* The strong thunderstorm will be near...
Vinton by 725 PM...

The primary threats from this storm are frequent lightning... pea to
nickel size hail... and wind gusts to near 50 mph... which could down
tree limbs and blow around unsecured small objects. Seek shelter in a
safe home or building until this storm has passed.

This storm could produce rainfall amounts of one to two inches in a
short period of time... resulting in ponding of water around low lying
roadways. Remember... do not drive your vehicle into water covered
roadways. The depth may be too great to allow a safe crossing.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
427. wxmod
Quoting weatherh98:


thats not a good smart choice. nothing is 100%

quantum physics

Well, OK, 99 percent then. I'm choosing the closest answer to the one that was offered.
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Quoting weatherh98:


actually they usually last for around 8 months... dont know why they had three in a row, i guess the pacific high never built in
those elnino wasnt together it started in 1991 and went neutral in '92 then came back that year and same thing for 1993 and '94 ..like the oposite lanina which came in 2010 and faded in 2011 but then came back in 2011 lol i hope that helped
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Quoting wxmod:


100 percent, but what made you choose the 21st?


A little bir

Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893

Quoting windshear1993:
why is the pacific so easy when it comes to tropical activity look at 2011 for example even though it wasnt hyperactive but if those values was in the atlantic side then that would probally be hyperactive you think? lol
Considering hyperactivity is determined by ACE, yes.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
I think the season will shut down in October.not in September.Especially if the El nino forms in August.
Agreed.
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Quoting weatherh98:


it always does, epacis usually good for like 18 and the wpac is goold for 28 or so,cpac may give us onealso thts normal
why is the pacific so easy when it comes to tropical activity look at 2011 for example even though it wasnt hyperactive but if those values was in the atlantic side then that would probally be hyperactive you think? lol
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Quoting wxmod:


100 percent, but what made you choose the 21st?


thats not a good smart choice. nothing is 100%

quantum physics
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Quoting wxhatt:
Poll:

The chance we will have Chris prior to the 21st (3 wks).

A) 0 percent

B) 50 percent

C) 75 percent

D) 100 percent

Between B and C.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 31537
Quoting weatherh98:


c

and thats 2 weeks



That's my take also...
Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
Quoting weatherh98:


marsh in texas? is that near the texla border


Yep. Orange County borders Louisiana.
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417. wxmod
Quoting wxhatt:
Poll:

The chance we will have Chris prior to the 21st (3 wks).

A) 0 percent

B) 50 percent

C) 75 percent

D) 100 percent


100 percent, but what made you choose the 21st?
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Quoting windshear1993:
Link and look at DJF-FMA shouldnt it be highlighted in blue


look at the rest, half or so that should be highlighted are not
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Quoting ProgressivePulse:
2008 Produced 16 named storms. Below is the SST anomalies compared to this year at the same time.

2008


2012


nice comparison. Heat content wise we have it beat, but will we have upper air dynamics in favor?
Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
414. wxmod
Quoting PlazaRed:

Its a good job somebody knows where it is from the lines on the ground and the interesting shades of grey?
I'd have guessed it was the underside of a boring cloud!


The satellite data viewer is here Link.
It automatically puts country and state boundaries on the photos. But I think looking up in Bejing would be about the same as looking down on it.
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Quoting wxhatt:
Poll:

The chance we will have Chris prior to the 21st (3 wks).

A) 0 percent

B) 50 percent

C) 75 percent

D) 100 percent


c

and thats 2 weeks
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Eric Treece has a killer shot of TOR warned storm in CO. You man need to wait 60 seconds for the buffering but the shot is killer cool:

Live Storm Video
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Quoting weatherh98:


why what?
Link and look at DJF-FMA shouldnt it be highlighted in blue
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Quoting AtHomeInTX:
Not exactly "hot rain" but it brought fire. It's not always easy living in Texas but somehow I think we'll make it. :)





Lightning sparks marsh fire


The Bridge City Volunteer Fire Department says a single lightning strike is to blame for a marsh fire near 1442 and Bessie Heights road in Orange county.

But the fire department was unable to get to the fire to put it out.

With every minute that passed the fire grew bigger and bigger. The fire department says a single lightning strike sparked a small fire in the marshlands behind Michael Ashworth's home. But this isn't his first fire.

"This is the second one," Ashworth said.

Ashworth has owned property by the marshlands off 1442 and Bessie Heights road for almost five years now. He says the first one happened months after Hurricane Ike hit and it was too close for comfort.

"It just came up. There used to be a tree line across the back of my property, and it burned down," he said.

Heavy rains accompanied lighting strikes across Southeast Texas Wednesday but as the fire grew the rain was letting up. Firefighters were only on the scene for so long before deciding there was nothing they could do to stop the fire.

An overgrowth of weeds and the marsh kept firefighters at bay. Ashworth is trying to look on the bright side.

"Best case will be it cleans up all the debris that was left behind by Ike," Ashworth said



marsh in texas? is that near the texla border
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Poll:

The chance we will have Chris prior to the 21st (3 wks).

A) 0 percent

B) 50 percent

C) 75 percent

D) 100 percent
Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
Not exactly "hot rain" but it brought fire. It's not always easy living in Texas but somehow I think we'll make it. :)





Lightning sparks marsh fire


The Bridge City Volunteer Fire Department says a single lightning strike is to blame for a marsh fire near 1442 and Bessie Heights road in Orange county.

But the fire department was unable to get to the fire to put it out.

With every minute that passed the fire grew bigger and bigger. The fire department says a single lightning strike sparked a small fire in the marshlands behind Michael Ashworth's home. But this isn't his first fire.

"This is the second one," Ashworth said.

Ashworth has owned property by the marshlands off 1442 and Bessie Heights road for almost five years now. He says the first one happened months after Hurricane Ike hit and it was too close for comfort.

"It just came up. There used to be a tree line across the back of my property, and it burned down," he said.

Heavy rains accompanied lighting strikes across Southeast Texas Wednesday but as the fire grew the rain was letting up. Firefighters were only on the scene for so long before deciding there was nothing they could do to stop the fire.

An overgrowth of weeds and the marsh kept firefighters at bay. Ashworth is trying to look on the bright side.

"Best case will be it cleans up all the debris that was left behind by Ike," Ashworth said

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Quoting ProgressivePulse:
2008 Produced 16 named storms. Below is the SST anomalies compared to this year at the same time.

2008


2012


notice how the mdr has warmed
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Quoting windshear1993:
SO IT looks like the pacific is going to win this year in terms of tropical activity


it always does, epacis usually good for like 18 and the wpac is goold for 28 or so,cpac may give us onealso thts normal
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2008 Produced 16 named storms. Below is the SST anomalies compared to this year at the same time.

2008


2012
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting windshear1993:
the 2009 enso values wasnt highlighted in blue since there was a la nina through DJF-jjA CAN someone explain why


why what?
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SO IT looks like the pacific is going to win this year in terms of tropical activity
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Quoting weatherh98:


SST SAL and TUTT have a major role


agreed, forecasting Tropical Cyclones can be very trying when it comes to all the atmospheric dynamics we have to consider.
Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
the 2009 enso values wasnt highlighted in blue since there was a la nina through DJF-jjA CAN someone explain why
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Quoting windshear1993:
well it seems like the enso pattern does most of the work..and what are those three?


SST SAL and TUTT have a major role
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Quoting allancalderini:
I have a question does anyone know why there was a strong El Niño from 1991 to 1994? I thought El Niño and La Niña only last for a year each one but this one last like three straight years?


actually they usually last for around 8 months... dont know why they had three in a row, i guess the pacific high never built in
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

ENSO is not the only thing that influences a season and it is not the only thing to be used when forecasting. There are major differences between 2012 and 2006.
well it seems like the enso pattern does most of the work..and what are those three?
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Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
I have a question does anyone know why there was a strong El Niño from 1991 to 1994? I thought El Niño and La Niña only last for a year each one but this one last like three straight years?
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Quoting wxhatt:




Mmmmm
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 16437




Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
Eric Treece is streaming live video on a TOR warned storm in CO:
Live News Video Network - Eric Treece
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Quoting wxmod:
Satellite photo of Bejing and the surrounding countryside. MODIS today


Its a good job somebody knows where it is from the lines on the ground and the interesting shades of grey?
I'd have guessed it was the underside of a boring cloud!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting windshear1993:
this year is going to be similar to 2006 watch I can just feel it..look at the enso pattern there values are the same through DJF-AMJ

ENSO is not the only thing that influences a season and it is not the only thing to be used when forecasting. There are major differences between 2012 and 2006.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 31537
Member Since: August 18, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 598
Hurricanes Charley and Donna were whack...and they almost had similar tracks except Donna was further up north.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 10 Comments: 16437
This is the most strongest run yet by GFS (18z) of the long range system.



Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 14061
this year is going to be similar to 2006 watch I can just feel it..look at the enso pattern there values are the same through DJF-AMJ
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
385. wxmod
Satellite photo of Bejing and the surrounding countryside. MODIS today

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Quoting cg2916:


It'll still take a few months for the effects to "roll around".


true dat...
Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
It's typical for the masses to be fixated on a forecast for a below average year (number wise), and then wham, there is that one major hurricane that developes in the gulf of mexico and rides up the east coast...


"Hurricane Donna--Had a very erratic path in the summer of 1960 that started in the Caribbean, then went to the Florida Keys, then into the Gulf of Mexico, where it would make a turn to the north and make a second landfall over Florida at Fort Myers. It continued northeastward across the Florida Peninsula, and moved back out into the Atlantic near Daytona Beach. Not done yet, Donna headed up the East Coast, and made another landfall at Topsail Island, North Carolina. It then finished its trip by heading into New England, and a final landfall across Long Island. At its peak, Donna had wind gusts ranging between 175 and 200 mph, a minimum central pressure of 27.46 inches, and a 13 foot storm surge. Its total damage cost was over one billion 1960 United States dollars while Donna left 50 people dead."



Member Since: October 5, 2005 Posts: 2 Comments: 893
Quoting wxhatt:
True, it's going to be a close call, depending on when it takes hold. It could be a close call to the peak period.

Link

7 June 2012

ENSO Alert System Status: El Nino Watch


Synopsis: There is a 50% chance that El Nino conditions will develop during the second half of 2012.


It'll still take a few months for the effects to "roll around".
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.