Hottest rain on record? Rain falls at 109°F in Saudi Arabia

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 11:24 AM GMT on June 07, 2012

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Pilgrims to the holy city of Mekkah (Mecca), Saudi Arabia must have been astonished on Tuesday afternoon, June 5, when the weather transformed from widespread dust with a temperature of 113°F (45°C) to a thunderstorm with rain. Remarkably, the air temperature during the thunderstorm was a sizzling 109°F (43°C), and the relative humidity a scant 18%. It is exceedingly rare to get rain when the temperature rises above 100°F, since those kind of temperatures usually require a high pressure system with sinking air that discourages rainfall. However, on June 4, a sea breeze formed along the shores of the Red Sea, and pushed inland 45 miles (71 km) to Mekkah by mid-afternoon. Moist air flowing eastwards from the Red Sea hit the boundary of the sea breeze and was forced upwards, creating rain-bearing thunderstorms. According to weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera, this is the highest known temperature that rain has fallen at, anywhere in the world. He knows of one other case where rain occurred at 109°F (43°C): in Marrakech, Morocco on July 10, 2010. A thunderstorm that began at 5 pm local time brought rain at a remarkably low humidity of 14%, cooling the temperature down to 91°F within an hour.



Figure 1. Thunderstorms at 109°F? This true-color satellite image of Saudi Arabia taken at 2:10 pm local time (11:10 UTC) on June 5, 2012, shows a line of thunderstorms that developed along the edge of the sea breeze from the Red Sea. Three hours after this image was taken, Mekkah (Mecca) recorded a thunderstorm with rain and a temperature of 109°F (43°C.) Image credit: NASA.

More like a hot shower than a cooling rain?
Thunderstorms often produce big drops of cold rain, since these raindrops form several thousand meters high in the atmosphere, where temperatures are much cooler than near the surface. Some drops even get their start as snow or ice particles, which melt on the way to the surface. Additional cooling of the drops occurs due to evaporation on the way down. However, in the case of the June 4, 2012 Mekkah storm, I think the rain was probably more like a hot shower. Large raindrops, like the kind thunderstorms produce, fall at a speed of about 10 meters per second. A balloon sounding of the upper atmosphere taken at 3 pm local time at a nearby station (Al-Midinah) found that the bottom 1000 meters of the atmosphere was 97°F (36°C) or warmer. Thus, the thunderstorms' raindrops would have been subjected to 100 seconds of some very hot air on the way to the surface, likely warming them above 100°F by the time they hit the ground. A classic 1948 study of raindrops found that, in many cases, raindrop temperatures start off cold in the first few minutes of a rain shower, then warm up to within 1°C (1.8°F) of the air temperature within a few minutes. With the air temperature a sizzling 109°F (43°C) at the time of the June 4 thunderstorm in Mekkah, the raindrops could easily have been heated to a temperature of over 105°F (41°C) by the time they reached the surface!

How hot can it be and still rain?
If substantial amounts of liquid water are present on the Earth, the planet will experience rain, as long as some mechanism to lift the warm, moist air and cause condensation can be found. If the climate continues to warm as expected, we should see an increasing number of cases where it rains at temperatures well above 100°F. On Saturday, June 2, the temperature in Mekkah hit 51.4°C (124.5°F), a new record for the city, and just 1.1°F (0.6°C) below the all-time hottest temperature record for Saudi Arabia (125.6°F, or 52°C, recorded at Jeddah on June 22, 2010.) I expect that 20 - 40 years from now, we'll begin seeing occasional cases where rain falls at a temperature above 117°F (47°C) in the desert regions of North Africa and the Middle East.

I'll have a new post by Friday afternoon.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting klew136:
Very bad lightening and thunder going on in Upper Keys right now, scary


Was in Islamorada a month ago....Love that place!! Stay safe!!
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Quoting klew136:
Very bad lightening and thunder going on in Upper Keys right now, scary


Stay safe down there.
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Very bad lightening and thunder going on in Upper Keys right now, scary
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Quoting HurricaneHunterJoe:

Looks to be Carlotta on the 16th going into Mexico per EURO.


She ends up here. But your model is clearer. :)

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Published on Jun 6, 2012
20 years after Chernobyl.
The shocking haunting legacy of a nuclear disaster, the next generation of victims appear.


Published on Jun 6, 2012 by sugminbajstolle 20 years after Chernobyl. The shocking haunting legacy of a nuclear disaster, the next generation of victims appear.


Link
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Looks to be Carlotta on the 16th going into Mexico per EURO.
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Florida had highest single day Iodine-131 concentration of any US monitoring station after Fukushima

Follow-up to: Melbourne, Florida had highest iodine-131 reading of any CTBTO monitoring station in the world from March 22-23 (CHART)

US Particulate and Xenon Measurements Made Following the Fukushima Reactor Accident

Link

http://www.batan.go.id/inge2011/file/day1/1650_mc intyre.pdf
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Quoting traumaboyy:


I hope so too!! Glad you guys are getting rain this year!! Seems last year this time was the beginning of a very long dusty summer for you guys in Texas!


Yep. Completely different here this year. Even got to go fishing when the lakes filled back up. lol. Although it's getting real close to being too hot to fish. Time for some some night time pier fishing. :)
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Quoting AtHomeInTX:


Hey Trauma. Glad y'all are getting your rain. We got a good downpour here today. After a wet and rainy winter and spring we were starting to dry out again. So that was nice. Let's hope they're all beneficial storms this year. :)


I hope so too!! Glad you guys are getting rain this year!! Seems last year this time was the beginning of a very long dusty summer for you guys in Texas!
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Quoting traumaboyy:


Hey Trauma. Glad y'all are getting your rain. We got a good downpour here today. After a wet and rainy winter and spring we were starting to dry out again. So that was nice. Let's hope they're all beneficial storms this year. :)
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Quoting AtHomeInTX:
Moving up in time.

IMG style="MAX-WIDTH: 501px;


Hey AtHome!! Fantastic....More rain for NW Florida!! Last year, NO rain....this year....got 4 inches yesterday!!
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By HassonGrove





Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
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Moving up in time.



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Quoting RitaEvac:
Got garage open watching it from lawn chair, sucking that heat outta the garage, get cool wind and mist blowing in, and then rush of hot air hittin ya as it gets sucked out, locked in now and steady to heavy rains, feels like 70 out there. Urban and small stream flood advisory out now


Harris Gully FWS gauge at TMC reports 1.56 inches fallen since midnight yesterday. Isolated areas of 0.30 to 1.00 inches as well in the northern half of the loop with values averaging 1.00 inch in the southern half down to the beltway.
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665. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting RussianWinter:


Where is this going?


May go ENE til Monday, stall then wander south a few days.
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Quoting RitaEvac:


Is now
thats good it is given everything thats needed
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Got garage open watching it from lawn chair, sucking that heat outta the garage, get cool wind and mist blowing in, and then rush of hot air hittin ya as it gets sucked out, locked in now and steady to heavy rains, feels like 70 out there. Urban and small stream flood advisory out now
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
Quoting RussianWinter:


Where is this going?
looks like east let me get an anim of it
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

I paid no attention to that area. Looks interesting.



Where is this going?
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i doubt it will be much interesting all the same
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
has the little dove get any rain


Is now
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Morning night shift!! Coffee is ready!
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with a streak of weak mid level shear overhead
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656. Skyepony (Mod)
Fairly fresh ASCAT
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

I paid no attention to that area. Looks interesting.


The shear over-head is probably helping to cause this burst of convection.

The faster air moves above an area, the lower the pressure underneath.

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Quoting RitaEvac:
Rapidly moving outflow boundary coming at me from the SW, incoming outflow boundary coming at me from NE, with stalled out washed out boundary directly over me...go ahead there fella... make my day



Looks like another heavy batch headed for the Inner Loop.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

I paid no attention to that area. Looks interesting.


Neither did I!
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SE of Fort Collins
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651. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

I paid no attention to that area. Looks interesting.



Yeah~ it has already started. GEOS-5 has hinted at it for 3-4 days now. Real sheared, until today more cold core or subtropical. The 12Z run was tight, tropical, sheared & small. Kinda par for the year so far.
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About time I saw some rain! That's more like it!

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Quoting Skyepony:
Outside chance of an invest forming east of FL late Friday or over this weekend.
its been showing many different senarios but that region seems to be a hotbed for activity so far this pre season maybe we get some seasonal action as well

wait watch see as always
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Quoting Skyepony:
Outside chance of an invest forming east of FL late Friday or over this weekend.

I paid no attention to that area. Looks interesting.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 31510
646. Skyepony (Mod)
Outside chance of an invest forming east of FL late Friday or over this weekend.
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Sound the tornado sirens...
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This is the best picture of today's Wyoming tornado I have seen yet.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 31510
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
yeah it will be in the West Caribbean region from the 13th till the 16th

Excited anticipation to see what happens :P
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Outflow boundary collision imminent

has the little dove get any rain
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Outflow boundary collision imminent





All of the rain is moving away just to my north... :/
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

That wave over Africa should aid in the development of a tropical cyclone in the West Caribbean when it reaches that area in about 10 days.
yeah it will be in the West Caribbean region from the 13th till the 16th
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ENSO Alert System Status: El Niño Watch
Synopsis: There is a 50% chance that El Niño conditions will develop during the second half of 2012.
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Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 31510
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:

That wave over Africa should aid in the development of a tropical cyclone in the West Caribbean when it reaches that area in about 10 days.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 31510
Good evening everyone...much better performance from the "Miami Heat" today

Daily SOI: -9.0
30 Day SOI: -2.6
90 Day SOI: -2.3
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Outflow boundary collision imminent

Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
its midnight 175 days remain
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Quoting WxGeekVA:


Now THAT'S a blob about to move off of Africa!
and its at the perfect height or region for ejection out to the water
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poss event detected
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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