Hottest rain on record? Rain falls at 109°F in Saudi Arabia

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 11:24 AM GMT on June 07, 2012

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Pilgrims to the holy city of Mekkah (Mecca), Saudi Arabia must have been astonished on Tuesday afternoon, June 5, when the weather transformed from widespread dust with a temperature of 113°F (45°C) to a thunderstorm with rain. Remarkably, the air temperature during the thunderstorm was a sizzling 109°F (43°C), and the relative humidity a scant 18%. It is exceedingly rare to get rain when the temperature rises above 100°F, since those kind of temperatures usually require a high pressure system with sinking air that discourages rainfall. However, on June 4, a sea breeze formed along the shores of the Red Sea, and pushed inland 45 miles (71 km) to Mekkah by mid-afternoon. Moist air flowing eastwards from the Red Sea hit the boundary of the sea breeze and was forced upwards, creating rain-bearing thunderstorms. According to weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera, this is the highest known temperature that rain has fallen at, anywhere in the world. He knows of one other case where rain occurred at 109°F (43°C): in Marrakech, Morocco on July 10, 2010. A thunderstorm that began at 5 pm local time brought rain at a remarkably low humidity of 14%, cooling the temperature down to 91°F within an hour.



Figure 1. Thunderstorms at 109°F? This true-color satellite image of Saudi Arabia taken at 2:10 pm local time (11:10 UTC) on June 5, 2012, shows a line of thunderstorms that developed along the edge of the sea breeze from the Red Sea. Three hours after this image was taken, Mekkah (Mecca) recorded a thunderstorm with rain and a temperature of 109°F (43°C.) Image credit: NASA.

More like a hot shower than a cooling rain?
Thunderstorms often produce big drops of cold rain, since these raindrops form several thousand meters high in the atmosphere, where temperatures are much cooler than near the surface. Some drops even get their start as snow or ice particles, which melt on the way to the surface. Additional cooling of the drops occurs due to evaporation on the way down. However, in the case of the June 4, 2012 Mekkah storm, I think the rain was probably more like a hot shower. Large raindrops, like the kind thunderstorms produce, fall at a speed of about 10 meters per second. A balloon sounding of the upper atmosphere taken at 3 pm local time at a nearby station (Al-Midinah) found that the bottom 1000 meters of the atmosphere was 97°F (36°C) or warmer. Thus, the thunderstorms' raindrops would have been subjected to 100 seconds of some very hot air on the way to the surface, likely warming them above 100°F by the time they hit the ground. A classic 1948 study of raindrops found that, in many cases, raindrop temperatures start off cold in the first few minutes of a rain shower, then warm up to within 1°C (1.8°F) of the air temperature within a few minutes. With the air temperature a sizzling 109°F (43°C) at the time of the June 4 thunderstorm in Mekkah, the raindrops could easily have been heated to a temperature of over 105°F (41°C) by the time they reached the surface!

How hot can it be and still rain?
If substantial amounts of liquid water are present on the Earth, the planet will experience rain, as long as some mechanism to lift the warm, moist air and cause condensation can be found. If the climate continues to warm as expected, we should see an increasing number of cases where it rains at temperatures well above 100°F. On Saturday, June 2, the temperature in Mekkah hit 51.4°C (124.5°F), a new record for the city, and just 1.1°F (0.6°C) below the all-time hottest temperature record for Saudi Arabia (125.6°F, or 52°C, recorded at Jeddah on June 22, 2010.) I expect that 20 - 40 years from now, we'll begin seeing occasional cases where rain falls at a temperature above 117°F (47°C) in the desert regions of North Africa and the Middle East.

I'll have a new post by Friday afternoon.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting RitaEvac:


Pathetic looking, but is out there



Yes it is. I hope it gets its act together and gives us some rain.
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Quoting DavidHOUTX:
Looks like that swirl off shore of TX/LA boarder is heading towards Texas! At least I hope it does lol


Pathetic looking, but is out there

Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
Looks like that swirl off shore of TX/LA boarder is heading towards Texas! At least I hope it does lol
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Gulf Of Mexico - False Color RGB Loop
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78. wpb
Synopsis: There is a 50% chance that El Niño conditions will develop during the second http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_mon i toring/enso_advisory/index.shtmllf of 2012
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Quoting LargoFl:
yes thought i saw that yesterday also

Hey we might get some more of that wet stuff that falls out of the sky,I think they call it rain been a little dry here.
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Quoting WxGeekVA:
I just went outside and there isn't a single cloud in the sky.... I haven't seen it so clear in a long time!
But it's cool and windy outside.
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Quoting MississippiBoy2:
Do any of ya'll see a spin in GOM AT Texas/Lousiana border?
yes thought i saw that yesterday also
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I just went outside and there isn't a single cloud in the sky.... I haven't seen it so clear in a long time!
Member Since: September 3, 2011 Posts: 13 Comments: 3468
The rainman cometh...
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72. wpb
http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/products/analysis_moni toring/enso_advisory/index.shtml
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Yeah!



You are lucky, GA is always in a drought except when one ends by flooding.

We have had the drought years, separated by the flood year.

(I actually think it has more to do with the lack of major tropical systems in GA since 06)
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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


idk, never heard of it ;)
You know what I mean.It rhymes with Irene.
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Do any of ya'll see a spin in GOM AT Texas/Lousiana border?
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Chris is a strong possibility even though the models aren't really feeling it.How did the models do with Arlean?.


idk, never heard of it ;)
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Quoting Bluestorm5:
Look like my area is finally no longer under drought for first time in few years... WHOO!

Link

Yeah!
Quoting washingtonian115:
Chris is a strong possibility even though the models aren't really feeling it.How did the models do with Arlean?.

Haha, that was a year ago. I have no clue. I can go search though.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Good morning all.

Models continue to forecast a strong MJO pulse entering our side of the world as we head around June 20. This pulse is stronger than the ones that spawned both Alberto and Beryl, and the pattern appears more favorable for development as opposed to the one that the previous two named storms developed in. With lowering pressures across the Western Atlantic...specifically the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...the area will need to be watched very closely from ~June 15 and on. The East Pacific could get "Carlotta" out of this pulse as depicted by the GFS and ECMWF as well.

Chris is a strong possibility even though the models aren't really feeling it.How did the models do with Arlean?.
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Look like my area is finally no longer under drought for first time in few years... WHOO!

Link
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61 jskweather: ...Just sayin...

La Ninja...
Member Since: August 21, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 4860
Quoting aspectre:
57 hydrus: ...How many posts do we get of someone describing what it was like to go through 1956,s Hurricane Flossie...

Zero: that pretty much looks like a standard Wiki
This is it.I haven't made any hurricanes but have suffered through a few.

In 1947, when I was about 3 months old my home town, Pointe-Ala-Hache, LA was hit by Hurricane George, The Fort Lauderdale Hurricane. My folks, building there own house at the time, were flooded in my grandmother's house. I was there but don't remember this one.

In 1956, Hurricane Flossy did not worry my father enough for him to evacuate us so at about 2 in the morning we children were awakened by our parents and evacuated to the attic. The house got about 5 feet of water in it but thankfully we didn't need the axe to cut our way out to the roof. I can still remember the morning view of the waves crashing into my cousin's house next door. Why my father had two windows put into the attic is still beyond me but they were used that morning. We were cleaning up the house by afternoon. My memory of that was sweeping the marsh grass out of the door as the water retreated and the water moccasin we found in one of the closets. My mother never tolerated staying at home again during any storm of consequence.

Had a few minor experiences during the rest of my hometown life but it wasn't till several days after I left for LSU in 1965 that Hurricane Betsy virtually destroyed the place. That hurricane did major damage to the town and it never fully recovered. My folk's house, raised to 11 feet off the ground after Flossy, was moved over 1/2 mile along the Mississippi River levee. My father had it returned to the site, raised even a little further, and he (with his sons helping) built the supporting structure very, very strong. It was months before the family got resettled into the house and if it wasn't for the iron will of my mother it might have never happened. The entire inside of the house had to be re-built.

In 1969 we had a very close call when Hurricane Camille passed a little east of Pointe-Ala-Hache. The storm surge up the river washed logs over the Mississippi River levee but not enough water to flood the town. The re-built (after Betsy in '65) Gulf side levee held. We never even lost electricity while the areas further SE in the Parish were badly damaged and flooded again. Later that same hurricane would dump enough rain over Nelson county, Virginia, my present home county, to kill 1% of the population in one night. A night of horror in the mountains when brooks and tiny creeks became raging rivers 40 feet deep. Some of the victims have never been found.

Finally, after both of my parents died, we sold the family place in Pointe-Ala-Hache, two weeks before Hurricane Katrina slammed ashore. Very, very few houses survived in town. Two that were destroyed were over 150 years old. But my parents home did take the 20 feet plus of storm surge and the mighty winds and waves. Several of the windows, including the frames, were completely knocked out and there was a refrigerator up in a tree outside but the house was one of the first completely re-built after the hurricane.

For all practical purposes the town, one of the oldest ones along the mighty Mississippi, has ceased to resemble anything I remember as a kid just 60 years ago.

Brief summaries each, but some of my history with hurricanes.
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Quoting aspectre:
57 hydrus: ...How many posts do we get of someone describing what it was like to go through 1956,s Hurricane Flossie...

Zero: that pretty much looks like a standard Wiki
Hold on Aspectre. I forgot something...Please go back and read again...
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Quoting aspectre:
50 Neapolitan: The Climate Prediction center today upped the chances of an El Nino to 50% :

Rain at 109degreesF in 2010, and rain at 113degreesF in 2012...
...I suspect that a La Ninja season is at least as likely.


Considering the prediction moved up to 50%, I think you're repeating. 50% = "is at least as likely"

Just sayin...
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57 hydrus: ...How many posts do we get of someone describing what it was like to go through 1956,s Hurricane Flossie...

Zero: that pretty much looks like a standard Wiki
Member Since: August 21, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 4860
Good morning all.

Models continue to forecast a strong MJO pulse entering our side of the world as we head around June 20. This pulse is stronger than the ones that spawned both Alberto and Beryl, and the pattern appears more favorable for development as opposed to the one that the previous two named storms developed in. With lowering pressures across the Western Atlantic...specifically the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean...the area will need to be watched very closely from ~June 15 and on. The East Pacific could get "Carlotta" out of this pulse as depicted by the GFS and ECMWF as well.

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amazing kind of a day here,a storm rolls in, you get a downpour then it leaves, sun comes out again and so on, not at all like yesterday where it was total overcast,windy with rain..and they said today was supposed to be the worst of this..i dont see it
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I wanted to repost this and thank PercyLives for posting it. I believe real life accounts of hurricanes, especially from a long time ago, are important. Each story is unique and valuable, and if not written somewhere, that story is gone for ever with that person. It was a great post. How many posts do we get of someone describing what it was like to go through 1956,s Hurricane Flossie..!..Hurricane Flossy originated from a tropical disturbance in the eastern Pacific Ocean and moved across Central America into the Gulf of Mexico as a tropical depression on September 21, which became a tropical storm on September 22 and a hurricane on September 23. The hurricane peaked with maximum sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) before it struck the central Gulf coast of the United States as a Category 1 hurricane on September 24, and evolved into an extratropical cyclone on September 25. It was the first hurricane to affect oil refining in the Gulf of Mexico. The tropical cyclone led to flooding in New Orleans, and broke a drought across the eastern United States. The death toll was 15, and total damages reached $24.8 million (1956 USD).A tropical disturbance moved northward, crossing Guatemala from the eastern Pacific ocean into the northwest Caribbean Sea between September 20 and September 21. It became a tropical cyclone soon after emerging into the Caribbean, and moved across the Yucatán Peninsula as a tropical depression before becoming a tropical storm in the Gulf of Mexico on September 22 and a hurricane on September 23. It turned sharply east-northeast across the Mouth of the Mississippi river on September 24 as a minor hurricane. The storm continued east-northeast and made landfall in Florida east of Pensacola. The system evolved into an extratropical cyclone soon after passing out of the Sunshine State and continued moving east to northeast hugging the Atlantic Seaboard to near the Virginia Capes before moving slowly through the shipping lanes between Canada and Bermuda, blocked by a high pressure system in southeast Canada.This was the first hurricane to cause significant disruption to oil refining in the Gulf of Mexico.[9] Several hundred active wells went out of service, and drilling came to a halt for a few days during and after the cyclone's passage. One of Humble company's tenders saw three-quarters of its mooring chains compromised, which swung it around into an adjacent oil platform, causing $200,000 in damage (1956 USD).[10] The cost to downtime in production was greater than the damage Flossy created to the oil rigs.[11] There was no loss of life.[12] Due to the impact of Flossy on oil refining in the Gulf of Mexico, the American Petroleum Institute formed a committee called Fundamental Research on Weather Forecasting. Their goal was to use mathematical models and historic data to better predict hurricane formation and path. Studies went on into 1962, but no reliable forecast mechanism was found.[11]
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Quoting Neapolitan:
The Climate Prediction center today upped the chances of an El Nino to 50%:

The extensive volume of above-average sub-surface water temperatures indicates that the tropical Pacific SST anomalies will likely warm further in the coming months. A majority of models predict ENSO-neutral to continue through the June-August (JJA) season (Fig. 6). Thereafter, most of the dynamical models predict El Niño to develop during JAS, while the statistical models tend to favor the continuation of ENSO-neutral. Thus, there remains uncertainty as to whether ENSO-neutral or El Niño will prevail during the second half of the year. The evolving conditions, combined with model forecasts (Fig. 6), suggest that ENSO-neutral and El Niño are roughly equally likely during the late northern summer and fall. The CPC/IRI forecast calls for ENSO-neutral conditions through JAS, followed by an approximately 50% likelihood for El Niño during the remainder of the year (see CPC/IRI consensus forecast).
This season is going to be a bust.J/K.
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50 Neapolitan: The Climate Prediction center today upped the chances of an El Nino to 50% :

Rain at 109degreesF in 2010, and rain at 113degreesF in 2012...
...I suspect that a La Ninja is at least as likely.
Member Since: August 21, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 4860
Quoting sonofagunn:
Heads up Tampa folks, according to my storm relative velocity radar, there is a little bit of spin in the line approaching the Pinellas coast. Might get some good waterspouts.
thanks
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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


sure, but there isnt much of a low on the other side, and why does the low go back NW?


Not sure but apparently the big ridge in the central conus is not allowing it to progress eastward so maybe it is just meandering in light steering flow?
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The Climate Prediction center today upped the chances of an El Nino to 50%:

The extensive volume of above-average sub-surface water temperatures indicates that the tropical Pacific SST anomalies will likely warm further in the coming months. A majority of models predict ENSO-neutral to continue through the June-August (JJA) season (Fig. 6). Thereafter, most of the dynamical models predict El Niño to develop during JAS, while the statistical models tend to favor the continuation of ENSO-neutral. Thus, there remains uncertainty as to whether ENSO-neutral or El Niño will prevail during the second half of the year. The evolving conditions, combined with model forecasts (Fig. 6), suggest that ENSO-neutral and El Niño are roughly equally likely during the late northern summer and fall. The CPC/IRI forecast calls for ENSO-neutral conditions through JAS, followed by an approximately 50% likelihood for El Niño during the remainder of the year (see CPC/IRI consensus forecast).
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Heads up Tampa folks, according to my storm relative velocity radar, there is a little bit of spin in the line approaching the Pinellas coast. Might get some good waterspouts.
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Quoting ProgressivePulse:


Looks like an Omega Block to me.


sure, but there isnt much of a low on the other side, and why does the low go back NW?
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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:
What exactly is this:


It starts as a deepening trough going SE at about 200hrs, dives due south from WA, OR, and ID, through NV, to AR and CA, and then goes back West out to sea before going back north again.


Looks like an Omega Block to me.

Omega blocks

Omega blocks are so-named because the height fields associated with them resemble an %u03A9, the uppercase Greek letter omega. The typical pattern for these is low-high-low, arranged in the west%u2013east direction.


Sample image of an Omega Block

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46. MTWX
Quoting Neapolitan:
You might see it in his handle...


Considering his WU "born on date" is 2007, I sure hope he is not that rank anymore! LOL!

And you can see his rank in at least one of the pictures...
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The Sun is out!!!:)
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East of Corpus, south of TX/LA border, spin
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
Quoting ProgressivePulse:
Morning All.

A thick 81 degrees this morning in Jupiter, FL. 90% humidity and 78 degree dew point. In your face summertime is here in the peninsula.


64 degrees here, with 66% humidity and a dewpoint of 53 degrees. Nice and refreshing. It's 62 degrees in the house right now, since the windows were cracked last night, and it dropped into the 40s.
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Looks like the Tampa Bay Area is going to have another rainy day today!
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lol!
Quoting bohonkweatherman:
That sounds terrible, I hate humidity!
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Quoting LargoFl:
that storm in texas was in the same area yesterday wasnt it? boy they must have some rainfall totals now
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GFLOOD ADVISORY
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE TAMPA BAY AREA - RUSKIN FL
902 AM EDT THU JUN 7 2012

FLC081-071400-
/O.NEW.KTBW.FA.Y.0021.120607T1302Z-120607T1400Z/
/00000.N.ER.000000T0000Z.000000T0000Z.000000T0000 Z.OO/
MANATEE FL-
902 AM EDT THU JUN 7 2012

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN RUSKIN HAS ISSUED AN

* URBAN FLOOD ADVISORY FOR...
WESTERN MANATEE COUNTY IN FLORIDA.
THIS INCLUDES THE CITY OF BRADENTON


* UNTIL 1000 AM EDT

* AT 902 AM EDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED
RAINFALL RATES OF TWO INCHES PER HOUR ASSOCIATED WITH THUNDERSTORMS
OVER THE ADVISED AREA...LOCALIZED FLOODING IS IMMINENT OR OCCURRING.

PRECAUTIONARY/PREPAREDNESS ACTIONS...

KEEP CHILDREN FROM BEING SWEPT AWAY IN FLOODED DITCHES AND DRAINS.
FLOOD WATERS ARE USUALLY DEEPER THAN THEY APPEAR AND MAY STALL YOUR
VEHICLE. JUST ONE FOOT OF FLOWING WATER IS POWERFUL ENOUGH TO SWEEP
VEHICLES OFF THE ROAD. TURN AROUND...DONT DROWN.

&&

LAT...LON 2751 8265 2749 8255 2740 8254 2743 8262

$$ee I am sure we are going to get more of these reports before the day is out huh...........
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Quoting SFLWeatherman:
80 degrees this morning in Wellington, FL. 92% humidity and 78 degree dew point.
That sounds terrible, I hate humidity!
Member Since: July 5, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 1348
What exactly is this:


It starts as a deepening trough going SE at about 200hrs, dives due south from WA, OR, and ID, through NV, to AR and CA, and then goes back West out to sea before going back north again.
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SPECIAL WEATHER STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MELBOURNE FL
826 AM EDT THU JUN 7 2012

FLZ045-046-141-147-071330-
COASTAL VOLUSIA COUNTY-NORTHERN BREVARD COUNTY-ORANGE-SEMINOLE-
826 AM EDT THU JUN 7 2012

...A SIGNIFICANT WEATHER ADVISORY IS IN EFFECT FOR STRONG WIND GUSTS
BETWEEN 45 AND 55 MPH OVER EASTERN ORANGE...SEMINOLE...NORTHERN
BREVARD...AND SOUTHEASTERN VOLUSIA COUNTIES...

* UNTIL 930 AM EDT.

AT 825 AM EDT...NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE DOPPLER RADAR INDICATED A
LINE OF STORMS CAPABLE OF PRODUCING STRONG WIND GUSTS FROM FERN PARK
TO 10 MILES WEST OF LONE CABBAGE FISH CAMP...MOVING NORTHEAST AT 30
MPH.

LOCATIONS IN THE PATH OF THE STORM WHICH MAY EXPERIENCE STRONG WINDS
INCLUDE BITHLO...CHRISTMAS..OVIEDO...CHULUOTA...TITUSVILLE ...MIMS.

THE PRIMARY THREAT WILL BE CLOUD TO GROUND LIGHTNING STRIKES AND
GUSTY WINDS OF 45 TO 55 MPH...WHICH CAN CAUSE UNSECURED OBJECTS TO
BLOW AROUND...SNAP TREE LIMBS OR CAUSE POWER OUTAGES. HEAVY RAINFALL
WILL TEMPORARILY REDUCE VISIBILITY. SEEK SHELTER INDOORS UNTIL THE
STORM PASSES.

LAT...LON 2866 8152 2880 8121 2878 8117 2881 8107
2886 8108 2889 8100 2876 8073 2871 8071
2874 8069 2870 8067 2870 8071 2863 8063
2847 8057 2846 8061 2850 8060 2850 8063
2843 8066 2835 8084 2835 8112 2850 8120
TIME...MOT...LOC 1222Z 243DEG 24KT 2866 8134 2854 8110
2837 8103

$$



CRISTALDI
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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