Remarkable week-long March heat wave hitting U.S.

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:02 PM GMT on March 14, 2012

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A highly unusual week-long heat wave is building over much of the U.S., and promises to bring the warmest temperatures ever seen so early in year to a large portion of the Midwest. The exceptional heat will also be exceptionally long-lasting: record-breaking temperatures 20 - 30 degrees F above normal are expected today through next Wednesday for much of the Midwest and Northeast U.S. The weather system responsible is a large upper-level ridge of high pressure that is "stuck" in place--a phenomenon known as a "blocking pattern." The jet stream is bending far to the south over the Western U.S., then bending far to the north over the Rockies and into Canada, and lies far to the north of the eastern U.S. Since the jet stream acts as the boundary between cold air to the north and warm air to the south, the current looping pattern is bringing colder than normal temperatures and snow to the mountains of the West, and summer-like warmth to the Eastern U.S. It is common for the jet stream to get stuck in a blocking pattern for a period of a week or more, but not in to this extremity. If the current model forecasts prove correct, a high pressure ridge over the U.S. bringing heat this intense and long-lasting in March will be unprecedented in the historical record, going back to 1872.


Figure 1. Is this March or June? Predicted high temperatures for Wednesday, March 14, 2012 over much of the Midwest are more typical of June than March.

Here are the hottest all-time recorded temperatures measured prior to March 20 for some selected U.S. cities. All of these records will be seriously threatened during the coming week:

Madison, WI: 77°F on March 7, 2000
Milwaukee, WI: 77°F on March 7 - 8, 2000
Minneapolis, MN: 73°F on March 7, 2000
Des Moines, IA: 82°F on March 11, 1972
Chicago, IL: 81°F on March 12, 1990
Detroit, MI: 80°F on March 8, 2000
Lansing, MI: 79°F on March 8, 2000
Muskegon, MI: 73°F on March 8, 2000
Grand Rapids, MI: 78°F on March 8, 2000
Flint, MI: 80°F on March 8, 2000

As you can see, the expected warm temperatures during the coming week will rival those recorded on March 8, 2000, when most of the Upper Midwest set all-time records for the warmest temperature ever measured so early in the year. That warm surge was caused by a ridge of high pressure that was not as strong as the one expected to build in during the coming week, and the March 8, 2000 ridge did not stick around long enough to generate more than two days of record-breaking high temperatures. A powerful low pressure system moved through Northern Wisconsin on March 8, 2000, dragging a cold front through the state that triggered a thunderstorm that spawned the earliest tornado ever recorded in Milwaukee County.


Figure 2. New daily high temperature records were set at 208 locations yesterday, according to our new Extremes web page, with data from NOAA's National Climatic Data Center.

Hot days in Minneapolis
In Minneapolis, Minnesota yesterday, the high temperature reached 67°F, which is the 7th warmest temperature measured so early in the year, and 27°F above the normal high of 40°F for the date. Since weather records in the city go back to 1872, we can expect that Minneapolis will experience a temperature of 67°F or higher this early in the year once every 20 years, on average. What's really remarkable is that the forecast for Minneapolis calls for a high temperature of 70 - 75° every day for the next seven days. Since 1872, there have only been nine days that the temperature has gotten to 70°F prior to March 20, with 73°F on March 7, 2000 being the hottest day. So, over the course of the next week, we are likely to break the all-time high for so early in the year, and add nearly double the number of 70°F-plus days. The situation is similar for much of Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, and surrounding states. With temperatures already averaging at least 5°F over much of the Midwest this month, it's very likely that this month will be the warmest March on record for at least seven states.

Unusual snows on the Oregon coast
As is often the case, record heat in one part of the country means that another part is experiencing unusual cold, due to a kink in the jet stream. On Monday, 6.0" of snow fell at Newport, OR, and 8.5" at Tillamook (about halfway up the coast between Newport and Astoria). According to statistics at the Western Regional Climate Center, the Newport snowfall was their greatest March snowfall on record (previous was 2.0" in March 1906) and the their 3rd greatest snowfall of any month since records began in 1893. The latest-greater snowfall at Newport was 11.0" on Dec. 3-4, 1972. This tied with another 11.0" snow in January 1943 as their greatest snowfalls on record. For Tillamook it was the biggest snow since 9.0" in January 1971 (but well short of their all-time snowfall of 19.0" in March 1951).

Jeff Masters

Too soon. Too soon for flowers. (Fieldofflowers)
Uh Oh. After a couple record breaking highs and a week of 60+ degree days in forecast, our spring flowers are springing out really early. This rain storm is only going to make this columbine and other things grow even more.
Too soon. Too soon for flowers.
CoastalSnow!! (kristinarinell)
after a day of high winds, high surf we now get snow!!!
CoastalSnow!!
Robin in Maple Buds (gardner48197)
Robin in Maple Buds

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Quoting Patrap:



In the latest Lasco and STEREO COR2 images, you can see a Comet making its way towards the Sun. This rock does not appear to be very large and should burn up on approach.

note the time stamps here..





These solar pictures are just incredible. Especially the comet one with the solar flare coming off the sun. Hard to believe there was a time when we didn't have the tools to observe any of this. The wonder of the universe keeps being shown to us. Thanks for posting these.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Neapolitan:
Well, again, take it or leave it, but both Reed Timmer and Henry Margusity are very bullish on the Great Plains getting back in on the action in the next week. From Margusity:

"The bigger severe weather event is coming early next week as the massive storm that hits the West eventually moves into the Plains. This could be our first major severe weather outbreak of tornadoes in the Plains since 2010. Last year, all the big tornadoes were in the Tennessee Valley and South. We did have a major outbreak in that area two weeks ago Friday, but I think this time, it's in the Plains that gets hit by big tornadoes. I will have more as we get closer to the event."


What about two 190 mph EF4s and an EF5 in central OK May 24, 2011? Might May 22 in Joplin qualify(edit: as big tornadoes)? Maybe this man doesn't consider OK and MO "the Plains." Much of OK is certainly the southern Plains, at least the way SPC writes it up. Maybe just an innocent mistake by Marguisty or (different) take on geography, though I doubt many people would consider Oklahoma or SW MO to be the TN Valley or the South.

Somebody want to send him a memo? Or what do we do these days, tweet? lol
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Quoting PlazaRed:
Ive got a really simple question?
Its in the realms of,"Do You Think?"

Are many people in the USA and Canada taking the consequences of this winter heat wave seriously?

Apart from the few hundreds who read and contribute to this site and probably a few other similar weather awareness sites?


yes
a sense of something is not right
is in the air if you will say
just finish a convo with my landscaper
and he himself just said
in the 41 years
he has been in the business
he has never seen a winter
or early spring as is right now
somethings not right
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 173 Comments: 54315
I would watch for seabreeze collision Tampa north along the western side of FL as looking west from here there are some tall clouds building.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Neither was this.



SE US looks very summer-ish!
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Uploaded by SungrazerComets on Mar 14, 2012

Here's comet SWAN in SOHO/LASCO C3 images. Note the large coronal mass ejection half-way through the movie that floods the image with high-energy particles.

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128632
Quoting JNCali:
This was not here 30 minutes ago...

Neither was this.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32256
Quoting MAweatherboy1:

I love that picture! How long will it take that comet to reach the Sun?



In the latest Lasco and STEREO COR2 images, you can see a Comet making its way towards the Sun. This rock does not appear to be very large and should burn up on approach.

note the time stamps here..



Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128632
This was not here 30 minutes ago...
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Despite having really high instability, mid-level lapse rates, and low-level lapse rates, wind shear is very low, so the threat of a tornado anywhere across the entire CONUS is almost nonexistent.



Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32256
It's plum chilly here compared to other places. That's ok. The heat will be on soon enough. It's a beautiful day. :)

Orange County Airport
Lat: 30.07 Lon: -93.8 Elev: 13
Last Update on Mar 14, 3:35 pm CDT

Partly Cloudy

79 °F
(26 °C)
Humidity: 65 %
Wind Speed: S 12 G 16 MPH
Barometer: 30.17"
Dewpoint: 66 °F (19 °C)
Heat Index: 81 °F (27 °C)
Visibility: 10.00 mi.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


Went to a Publix with my dad and got 4 in our truck when we got back in it. Boy do they seem to like to land on people.


Kudzu bug. Don't squeeze them. They stink and can stain clothes/carpet.
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Quoting hurricanehunter27:
Its like early summer late spring in GA.
Link


84 on Sunday! I can remember going to my grand parents house in Macdonough, GA(just south of Atlanta) many times in March over spring break and experiecing freezing rain/ sleet on numerous occasions as a kid.
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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


Went to a Publix with my dad and got 4 in our truck when we got back in it. Boy do they seem to like to land on people.
Yah I had one fly right into my mouth walking to the bus. Was not pleasant at all.
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Quoting dogsgomoo:


Yeah. Like the pics in the links. Trapezoidal, i guess. Flatish at the head area.


Went to a Publix with my dad and got 4 in our truck when we got back in it. Boy do they seem to like to land on people.
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Quoting Neapolitan:
Well, again, take it or leave it, but both Reed Timmer and Henry Margusity are very bullish on the Great Plains getting back in on the action in the next week. From Margusity:

"The bigger severe weather event is coming early next week as the massive storm that hits the West eventually moves into the Plains. This could be our first major severe weather outbreak of tornadoes in the Plains since 2010. Last year, all the big tornadoes were in the Tennessee Valley and South. We did have a major outbreak in that area two weeks ago Friday, but I think this time, it's in the Plains that gets hit by big tornadoes. I will have more as we get closer to the event."
The plains had there fair share strong tornadoes. I believe there was an EF5 in Joplin and an EF5 in OK.
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Its like early summer late spring in GA.
Link
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Quoting dabirds:
86 in StL right now, warmer than FL!


LOL! I wouldn't go that far. It's in the mid to upper 80's here as well. Only in the interior of FL away from the ocean.

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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


diamondish shaped and less than a cm in length?


Yeah. Like the pics in the links. Trapezoidal, i guess. Flatish at the head area.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Ive got a really simple question?
Its in the realms of,"Do You Think?"

Are many people in the USA and Canada taking the consequences of this winter heat wave seriously?

Apart from the few hundreds who read and contribute to this site and probably a few other similar weather awareness sites?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting dogsgomoo:
Just went out for a stroll and it sure feels and smells like late May. The bumblers are out as are the dead fried worms on the asphalt.

As i was walking around the office complex I noticed a large number of bugs. I have never seen them around before and today they are everywhere.

After a bit of googlefu I've found out that these are an invasive Asian species of stink bug that's been srpreading through GA since late 2009. And they do stink as I found out when I crushed one on my neck. Awesome. Perfume de Lablab Bug.

It appears that they love this early warmth and are going to get a leg up on native insects... Thankfully their favorite diet is Kudzu but they also love Soy.

http://www.whatsthatbug.com/2011/08/03/lablab-bug s-invade-home-in-georgia/
http://www.caes.uga.edu/Publications/pubDetail.cf m?pk_id=7891


diamondish shaped and less than a cm in length?
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Quoting Patrap:
Updated 3/14/2012 @ 15:00 UTC

Solar Update / Comet


In the latest Lasco and STEREO COR2 images, you can see a Comet making its way towards the Sun. This rock does not appear to be very large and should burn up on approach.

Incoming Comet (Wednesday) - Lasco C3


I love that picture! How long will it take that comet to reach the Sun?
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7834
Just went out for a stroll and it sure feels and smells like late May. The bumblers are out as are the dead fried worms on the asphalt.

As i was walking around the office complex I noticed a large number of bugs. I have never seen them around before and today they are everywhere.

After a bit of googlefu I've found out that these are an invasive Asian species of stink bug that's been srpreading through GA since late 2009. And they do stink as I found out when I crushed one on my neck. Awesome. Perfume de Lablab Bug.

It appears that they love this early warmth and are going to get a leg up on native insects... Thankfully their favorite diet is Kudzu but they also love Soy.

http://www.whatsthatbug.com/2011/08/03/lablab-bug s-invade-home-in-georgia/
http://www.caes.uga.edu/Publications/pubDetail.cf m?pk_id=7891
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Quoting StormTracker2K:
This was fast!




Its due to unusually cold air aloft/some short wave energy
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Updated 3/14/2012 @ 15:00 UTC

Solar Update / Comet


In the latest Lasco and STEREO COR2 images, you can see a Comet making its way towards the Sun. This rock does not appear to be very large and should burn up on approach.

Incoming Comet (Wednesday) - Lasco C3

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128632
86 in StL right now, warmer than FL!
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81 and a bit humid herein Mid TN.. beautiful morning for some tennis with the kids (Spring Break). Lots of T-storms starting to form to the SW now so we'll see if any head this way..
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Strong storm just NNW of JAX.

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This was fast!

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Thanks for this new blog.
Only 7 days left until sunrise at the north pole!
With all this heat about snow hasn't got a chance hope in Hell, So what tiny fraction of a percent of reflectivity can a deep dusting down the US West Coast give.
Its not just the US of course who are having the non winter, I would hazard a guess that most of the Northern Hemisphere is down on snow cover and up on heat?
So heat that should traditionally get reflected will get absorbed! More heat, more melting, rains on snows giving increased melting.
I think a lot of people on here genuinely care about what is going on this year especially and I am in a way glad that awareness will be highlighted to droughts, as the Olympics is going to be staged in the middle of one!
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The average temperature here is 64 F.

We're sitting at 80 F right now, and it will be even warmer tomorrow.

The record is 87 F, so we'll probably not pass that.

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32256
What do we think: Is Lua strengthening, weakening, or staying the same?

3 hours ago:


Now:
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 83 Comments: 7834
Quoting MontanaZephyr:
Illinois officials upset with FEMA denial of disaster aid

http://usnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/03/12/1065 5838-illinois-officials-upset-with-fema-denial-of- disaster-aid


Link
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Quoting GeorgiaStormz:
Dang its hot as blazes.Low 80s.
Highest capes of the year, might get a diurnal pulse storm. Wish a cloud would pass over the sun


Think bigger, I wish I could get a strong cold front to cool it down into the 50's for a high. Heck, I'll even take highs of 30 so I can get some snow. I've had enough warm weather this winter.
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Dang its hot as blazes.Low 80s.
Highest capes of the year, might get a diurnal pulse storm. Wish a cloud would pass over the sun
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102. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Center
Tropical Cyclone Advice #4
TROPICAL CYCLONE LUA, CATEGORY TWO (16U)
3:00 AM WST March 15 2012
===========================

At 2:00 AM WST, Tropical Cyclone Lua, Category Two (975 hPa) located at 15.6S 113.0E or 700 km northwest of Karratha 790 km northwest of Port Hedland has 10 minute sustained winds of 55 knots with gusts of 75 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving north at 2 knots.

Storm Force Winds
=================
45 NM from the center

Gale Force Winds
=============
120 NM from the center

Dvorak Intensity: T4.0/4.0/D1.0/24 HRS

Lua's movement has slowed over the last 6 hours, and it is likely to turn back towards the Pilbara coast during Thursday. Lua is expected to intensify into a severe tropical cyclone during Thursday and remain intense as it approaches the coast.

Gales are not expected in coastal areas during Thursday. Gales are expected to develop during Friday or early Saturday as the cyclone approaches the coast. Destructive to very destructive winds are expected to develop in coastal areas near the centre of the cyclone during Saturday.

Heavy rainfall is expected in coastal areas of the east Pilbara and west Kimberley during Thursday and Friday.

FESA-State Emergency Service advises that there are no community alerts at present. Communities between Mardie and Cape Leveque should listen for the next advice.

Tropical Cyclone Watches/Warnings
=================================

A Cyclone WATCH is current for coastal areas from Cape Leveque to Mardie, as well as adjacent inland parts

Forecast and Intensity
===============

12 HRS: 15.5S 113.4E - 65 knots (CAT 3)
24 HRS: 15.8S 114.7E - 75 knots (CAT 3)
48 HRS: 18.2S 118.9E - 90 knots (CAT 4)
72 HRS: 23.3S 120.6E - 35 knots (CAT 1)

Additional Information
=======================

Position is based on microwave passes at 1048Z and 1413Z.

Dvorak analysis on late afternoon visible imagery yielded curved band wrap of 0.8-1.0 giving a DT of 3.5. The low level circulation center is clearly embedded deeply into the overcast. MET is 4.0 based on a trend of Dvorak, PAT is 4.0 and FT is set to 4.0. SATCON 13Z is estimating 55-60 knots 10-min mean. Final intensity estimate is set to 55 knots 10-min mean.

Ocean heat content is very favorable and shear conditions are generally expected to be favorable over the next 48 hours. A period of very favorable shear conditions with strong upper divergence is expected as an upper trough approaches, followed by unfavorable shear as upper northwesterlies increase over the system.

Movement has been to the north with the steering under the influence of an upper ridge to the southwest, but this has started to slow. During Thursday the system should begin to move to the southeast and a faster southeasterly track is forecast for Friday as the ridge weakens and the monsoon intensifies. There is very good general agreement across model guidance for this scenario, although speed of movement varies somewhat.

The next tropical cyclone bulletin on Tropical Cyclone Lua from the Perth Tropical Cyclone Warning Center will be issued at 1:30 AM UTC..
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 51 Comments: 45570
Quoting SPLbeater:


How can that be i am in central North Carolina lol.



I stand corrected.
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Quoting MTWX:
Suppose to be in the mid to upper 80's all week here in north MS!! Our average high for this time of year is 63! My pear trees have already leafed out, and my maples and oaks aren't far behind! Heck I started mowing the yard in February!


You did not start mowing the lawn until February?!?!?! Slacker! LOL ... I have mowed my yard as many times in January and February of this year as I did all of last year. To make matters worse, gas was a lot cheaper last year when I did not hardly need to mow than it is this year and I mowing like it is late spring spring already. ... I have resigned to the fact that I just cannot win. sigh
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Quoting StormTracker2K:


I don't think so as we normally have ridging around FL this time of year as it's our dry season and even with that many areas aren't that far from average now for the year due to recent heavy rains. Melbourne, FL had 2.24" last Sunday alone!



No not really, a few isolated areas in Eastern Florida are near normal, most of us are in heavy drought. Just because there was some rain around your area doesn't mean the rest of Florida also has.
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What precentage of the atmosphere is made up of CO2?
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97. JeffMasters (Admin)
An update on this afternoon's warmth:

Grand Rapids, Michigan hit 79°F, the warmest it's ever been this early in the year, going back to 1892. Previous record: 78°F on March 8, 2000.

Chicago, Illinois just hit 80°F; that's the 2nd warmest it's ever been this early in the year, going back to 1872. Record: 81°F on March 12, 1990.

Madison, Wisconsin is at 76°F, the 2nd warmest it's ever been this early in the year, going back to 1869. Record: 77°F on March 8, 2000.

Muskegon, Michigan hit 74°F, the warmest it's ever been this early in the year, going back to 1896. Previous record: 73°F on March 8, 2000.

Traverse City, Michigan hit 79°F, the warmest it's ever been this early in the year, going back to 1892. Previous record: 77°F on March 7, 2000.

Indianapolis, Indiana hit 80°F, the warmest it's ever been this early in the year, going back to 1871. The city also hit 80°F on March 8, 1974 and March 13, 2007.

Jeff Masters
Quoting Neapolitan:
Well, again, take it or leave it, but both Reed Timmer and Henry Margusity are very bullish on the Great Plains getting back in on the action in the next week. From Margusity:

"The bigger severe weather event is coming early next week as the massive storm that hits the West eventually moves into the Plains. This could be our first major severe weather outbreak of tornadoes in the Plains since 2010. Last year, all the big tornadoes were in the Tennessee Valley and South. We did have a major outbreak in that area two weeks ago Friday, but I think this time, it's in the Plains that gets hit by big tornadoes. I will have more as we get closer to the event."


Last I checked, Joplin was not in the Tennessee valley...
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Illinois officials upset with FEMA denial of disaster aid

http://usnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/03/12/1065 5838-illinois-officials-upset-with-fema-denial-of- disaster-aid
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Quoting Minnemike:
definitely one of my concerns, seeing the low pond and stream levels. we had some nice precipitation events recently, hopefully that continues!



All we ever deal with these days is drought around here, welcome to the club...
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Another Dixie Alley year?

Well, again, take it or leave it, but both Reed Timmer and Henry Margusity are very bullish on the Great Plains getting back in on the action in the next week. From Margusity:

"The bigger severe weather event is coming early next week as the massive storm that hits the West eventually moves into the Plains. This could be our first major severe weather outbreak of tornadoes in the Plains since 2010. Last year, all the big tornadoes were in the Tennessee Valley and South. We did have a major outbreak in that area two weeks ago Friday, but I think this time, it's in the Plains that gets hit by big tornadoes. I will have more as we get closer to the event."
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13549
Quoting hydrus:
Its Quetzalcoatl ....There is 281 days , 10 hours and 34 minutes left...omg


He's coming back and MAN is he mad...
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Another Dixie Alley year?

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32256
Quoting Thrawst:
Nassau's first thunderstorm of the year just happened - Good solid half inch of rain.
This easterly wave is a good one!


Yeah a little spin with this trough as well as it moves west with another further north .


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MESOSCALE DISCUSSION 0254
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
0242 PM CDT WED MAR 14 2012

AREAS AFFECTED...FAR NWRN MS...NRN AL...S-CNTRL TN

CONCERNING...SEVERE POTENTIAL...WATCH UNLIKELY

VALID 141942Z - 142145Z

A MARGINAL THREAT FOR DMGG WINDS WILL EXIST LATE THIS AFTERNOON AND
EVENING ACROSS PORTIONS OF FAR NWRN MS...NRN AL...S-CNTRL TN.
EXPECTED ISOLATED NATURE OF THE THREAT LIMITS THE NEED FOR A WW.

TEMPERATURES HAVE WARMED INTO THE UPPER 70S AND LOW 80S AND MOISTURE
ADVECTION ASSOCIATED WITH RETURN FLOW ACROSS A BROAD WARM SECTOR HAS
KEPT DEWPOINTS IN THE MID 60S. ADDITIONALLY... NEAR DRY ADIABATIC
LAPSE RATES ARE PRESENT ABOVE 700 MB. AS A RESULT...AN UNCAPPED
ENVIRONMENT WITH SBCAPE VALUES AOA 2500 J/KG EXISTS OVER THE REGION.
HOWEVER...THE SEVERE THREAT IS EXPECTED TO BE LIMITED...OWING TO THE
LACK OF STRONG FORCING AND EFFECTIVE BULK SHEAR OF 25-30 KT /LOWER
MARGINS FOR PERSISTENT STORMS/. CONSEQUENTLY...A MARGINAL THREAT FOR
DMGG WINDS IS POSSIBLE BUT THE LIMITED COVERAGE WILL PRECLUDE THE
NEED FOR A WW.

..MOSIER.. 03/14/2012
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32256
82F

Current temp in Tallahassee.....Feels like 90 outside.

Here is part of the Tally NWS discussion from 3:00 as to the general trend for the East coast over the next week:

This amounts to a synoptically evident pattern
favoring widespread warmth and above normal temperatures over the eastern half of the country (including our area). ECMWF, GEM and GFS
all show 850mb temperatures around 12C from the weekend into early next week which is similar to what was observed on the 00z TAE sounding today (highs today were around 82-83F at most inland
locations). Therefore, it seems likely that highs will continue to be in the low-to-mid 80s through at least Tuesday with no major pattern change on the horizon. As statistical guidance (like the
MEX) tends to be weighted to climatology at longer time scales, we will maintain the warmer temperature forecast with high confidence in improving on MOS highs.

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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