The March 2 - 3 tornado outbreak: one EF-4, 39 deaths

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:40 PM GMT on March 05, 2012

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A blanket of snow 2 - 4 inches deep fell yesterday on the regions of Southern Indiana and Northern Kentucky pounded by deadly tornadoes on Friday, adding to the misery of survivors. The violent tornado rampage killed 39 and injured hundreds more, wreaking property damage that will likely exceed $1 billion. Hardest hit were Kentucky and Southern Indiana, which suffered 21 and 12 dead, respectively. Three were killed in Ohio, and one each in Alabama and Georgia. The scale of the outbreak was enormous, with a preliminary total of 139 tornadoes touching down in eleven states, from southern Ohio to Northern Florida. The National Weather Service issued 297 tornado warnings and 388 severe thunderstorm warnings. At one point, 31 separate tornado warnings were in effect during the outbreak, and an area larger than Nebraska--81,000 square miles--received tornado warnings. Tornado watches were posted for 300,000 square miles--an area larger than Texas.


Video 1. Spectacular video of the EF-4 tornado that devastated Henrysville and Marysville, Indiana on March 2, 2012. You can see small satellite vorticies rotating on the side of the main vortex.


Video 2. Another video of the EF-4 tornado that devastated Henrysville and Marysville, Indiana on March 2, 2012, taken from a gas station.

The deadliest and most violent tornado: an EF-4
The deadliest and most violent tornado of the March 2, 2012 outbreak was an EF-4 with winds up to 175 mph that demolished much of Henryville, Chelsea, Marysville, and New Pekin, Indiana. Ten minutes after that tornado demolished much of Henryville, a weaker EF-1 tornado hit the town. The twin tornadoes killed twelve people. The Henryville tornado was the only violent EF-4 tornado of the outbreak.



Figure 1. Radar reflectivity image (top) and Doppler velocity image (bottom) of the two tornadoes that hit Henryville, Indiana on March 2, 2012. The first (rightmost) hook echo on the reflectivity image belonged to the only violent tornado of the outbreak, an EF-4 with winds of 166 - 200 mph. Ten minutes after that tornado demolished much of Henryville, a second tornado hit the town. These tornadoes also caused severe damage to the towns of Chelsea, Marysville, and New Pekin, and killed twelve people.

At least eleven other tornadoes in the outbreak have been classified as EF-3s with winds of 136 - 165 mph. Capitalclimate.com reports that the EF-3 tornadoes that crossed three Eastern Kentucky counties were the first tornadoes that strong ever observed, since tornado records began in 1950. The deadliest of the EF-3 tornadoes hit West Liberty, Kentucky, killing eight. Here's a summary of the deadly tornadoes of the outbreak taken from Wikipedia:

EF-4, 12 deaths, Henrysville, Indiana
EF-3, 8 deaths, West Liberty, Kentucky\
EF-2, 5 deaths, East Bernstadt, Kentucky
EF-3, 4 deaths, Crittenden, Kentucky
EF-3, 2 deaths, Holton, Indiana
EF-3, 3 deaths, Peach Grove, Ohio
EF-3, 2 deaths, Blaine, Kentucky
EF-3, 2 deaths, Salyersville, Kentucky
EF-2, 1 death, Jackson's Gap, Alabama


Figure 2. Damage in West Liberty, Kentucky after the March 2, 2012 EF-3 tornado. Image taken from from a Kentucky National Guard Blackhawk helicopter, while landing in West Liberty, KY (Morgan County).


Figure 3. Radar image of the West Liberty, Kentucky EF-3 tornado of March 2, 2012, showing a classic hook echo. The tornado carved a 60-mile-long path through Eastern Kentucky, causing extreme damage in West Liberty. The tornado killed six in West Liberty and two near Frenchburg. At least 75 people were injured. It was the first EF-3 tornado in Eastern Kentucky since 1988.


Video 3. A woman prays for deliverance of West Liberty as the ominous wall cloud of the developing tornado approaches the town.

Incredibly fast-moving storms
The speed with which some of the storms moved was truly exceptional, thanks to jet stream winds of up to 115 mph that pushed the thunderstorms forward at amazing speeds. A number of the tornadoes ripped through Kentucky with forward speeds of 70 mph, and two tornado warnings in Central Kentucky were issued for parent thunderstorms that moved at 85 mph. NWS damage surveys have not yet determined if one of the tornadoes from the outbreak has beaten the record for the fastest moving tornado, the 73 mph forward speed of the great 1925 Tri-State Tornado, the deadliest U.S. tornado of all-time.


Video 4. A family gets in their car in an attempt to flee the Borden, Indiana tornado of March 2, 2012. Unless you know what you're doing, fleeing a tornado in a car can be extremely dangerous, especially when the tornadoes are moving at speeds of 50 - 70 mph, as many were doing during the March 2, 2012 outbreak. Most tornado fatalities occur in mobile homes and cars.

Largest 5-day and 2nd largest 2-day tornado outbreak for so early in the year?
The March 2 tornado outbreak spawned 128 tornadoes, according to preliminary reports as of 8 am EST March 7 from NOAA's Storm Prediction Center. An additional 11 tornadoes (preliminary) touched down on March 3, in Florida and Georgia; 3 additional tornadoes touched down on March 1 (Wikipedia does a great job tallying the stats for this tornado outbreak.) These preliminary reports are typically over-counted by 15%, but a few delayed reports will likely come in, bringing the total number of tornadoes from the March 2 - 3 outbreak to 115 - 125, propelling it into second place for the largest two-day tornado outbreak so early in the year. The top five two-day tornado outbreaks for so early in the year, since record keeping began in 1950:

January 21 - 22, 1999: 129 tornadoes, 4 deaths
March 2 - 3, 2012: 139 tornadoes (preliminary), 39 deaths
February 5 - 6, 2008: 87 tornadoes, 57 deaths
February 28 - March 1, 1997: 60 tornadoes, 10 deaths
January 7 - 8, 2008: 56 tornadoes, 4 deaths

Though the 36 tornadoes that occurred during the February 28 - 29 Leap Day outbreak were part of a separate storm system, the five-day tornado total from February 28 - March 3, 2012 is likely to eclipse the late January 18 - 22, 1999 five-day tornado outbreak (131 tornadoes) as the most prolific five-day period of tornado activity on record for so early in the year.


Figure 4. A key ingredient for tornado formation is the presence of warm, moist air near the surface, which helps make the atmosphere unstable. On the day of the March 2, 2012 outbreak, record warm air surged northwards into the tornado formation region, setting or tying daily high temperature records at 28 airports in Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Georgia.

Ingredients for the tornado outbreak
This year's unusually mild winter has led to ocean temperatures across the Gulf of Mexico that are approximately 1°C above average--among the top ten warmest values on record for this time of year, going back to the 1800s. (Averaged over the month of February, the highest sea surface temperatures on record in the Gulf between 20 - 30°N, 85 - 95°W occurred in 2002, when the waters were 1.34°C above average). Friday's tornado outbreak was fueled, in part, by high instability created by unusually warm, moist air flowing north from the Gulf of Mexico due to the high water temperatures there. This exceptionally warm air set record high temperatures at 28 airports in Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Georgia the afternoon of the tornado outbreak (March 2.) Cold, dry air from Canada moved over the outbreak region at high altitudes. This created a highly unstable atmosphere--warm, low-density air rising in thunderstorm updrafts was able to accelerate rapidly upwards to the top of the lower atmosphere, since the surrounding air was cooler and denser at high altitudes. These vigorous updrafts needed some twisting motion to get them spinning and create tornadoes. Very strong twisting forces were present Friday over the tornado outbreak area, thanks to upper-level jet stream winds that blew in excess of 115 mph. These winds changed speed and direction sharply with height,imparting a shearing motion on the atmosphere (wind shear), causing the air to spin. High instability and a high wind shear are the two key ingredients for tornado formation.


Figure 5. The other key ingredient for tornado formation is the presence of very strong winds aloft that change speed and direction sharply with height. This change of wind imparts a shearing motion on the atmosphere (wind shear), causing the air to spin. Here, we see the upper-level wind speeds at the peak of the March 2, 2012 tornado outbreak. The jet stream can be seen as the U-shaped belt of strong winds. Jet stream winds in excess of 100 mph (deep blue colors) were present over the tornado outbreak area in this analysis of data from the NOAA North American Model (NAM) from 7 pm EST March 2, 2012. Image credit: NOAA Environmental Visualization Laboratory.

Another bad year for tornadoes in the U.S.--what's going on?
Last year's tornado season was incredibly severe, and we are off to one of the worst early-season starts to tornado season on record now in 2012. However, it is too soon to ring the alarm bells on climate change being responsible for this. The tornado data base going back to 1950 doesn't show an increasing trend in strong tornadoes in recent decades. While climate change could potentially lead to an increase in tornadoes, by increasing instability, it could also decrease them, by decreasing wind shear. I'd need to see a lot more bad tornado years before blaming climate change for the severe tornado seasons of the past two years. One thing that climate change may be doing, though, is shifting the season earlier in the year. The 5-day total of tornadoes from February 28 - March 3 will probably break the record of 131 set in 1999 for the largest tornado outbreak so early in the year. Warmer winters, and an earlier arrival of spring due to a warming climate, will allow tornado season to start earlier--and end earlier. This year's early start to tornado season is consistent with what we would expect from a warming climate. I have a more extensive article on this subject that has just been published by Weatherwise magazine, and a 2008 post, Are tornadoes getting stronger and more frequent? Dr. Jonathan Martin of the University of Wisconsin-Madison is doing interesting research on the type of situation we saw with some of the recent severe tornado outbreaks, when two branches of the jet stream, the polar jet and the subtropical jet, merge to form a "superjet." In a December 2011 interview with sciencedaily.com, he said: "There is reason to believe that in a warmer climate, this kind of overlapping of the jet streams that can lead to high-impact weather may be more frequent."

I don't see any storm systems coming over the next 10 days that could cause a major tornado outbreak, though March weather is too volatile to forecast reliably that far in advance. There is a storm system expected to develop on Thursday in the Plains we will have to watch, but so far, indications are that it will not be capable of generating a major tornado outbreak.

Portlight disaster relief charity responds to the tornado disaster
The Portlight disaster relief charity reports that volunteers from colleges and churches made a strong showing in tornado-devastated Harrisburg, Illinois on Sunday. Team Rubicon and Portlight will push east to Indiana, where volunteer work is still restricted because of gas leaks and continuing SAR (search and rescue) operations.

I'll edit this post with new stats on the tornado outbreak as they become available, and have an entirely new post on Wednesday.

Jeff Masters

Tornado (JimAtTn)
This picture of a small tornado was taken on Friday March 02, 2012 in southern Lincoln County, Tennessee about 7 miles south of Fayetteville. Photographer: Angela Currey-Echols
Tornado
3/2/12 Tornado (charles7013)
A tornado in Dodsen Brach TN.
3/2/12 Tornado
High Risk (LightningFastMedia)
Rotating wall cloud and a possible funnel yesterday, north of Evansville, IN.
High Risk
tornado damage 3/2/12 (clerese3)
3/2/12 tornado damage to a business I pass on my way to and from work. This was a beautiful brick building.
tornado damage 3/2/12
Tornado Damage - TN (GeorgiaPeach)
I uploaded this photo once already and it was rejected for having the wrong date. I explained before, but I will explain again. The tornado came through March 2nd but I had just gotten out of the hospital, so I didn't get out to take pictures of the damage until today. This is five miles from my house in Hamilton County, TN.
Tornado Damage - TN

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Quoting BobinTampa:
144 - you sure that's the same homesite? The driveway shape isn't the same and the hill seems much closer to the home in the after photo. Plus, where's the slab? The tornado ripped up the entire slab?
It's the same homesite.

EDIT: after closer look, I believe you're correct. However, I think the home is in Henryville area.

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167 - look at the proximity of the trees. That's not the same site.
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Uploaded by ve3en1 on Mar 5, 2012

Here is a couple of movies by SDO, STEREO Behind COR2 and CACTus showing the X1.1 Solar Flare and the Coronal Mass Ejection that resulted.
The CACTus analysis shows a small portion of cloud appears to be Earth


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128874
Quoting BobinTampa:
144 - you sure that's the same homesite? The driveway shape isn't the same and the hill seems much closer to the home in the after photo. Plus, where's the slab? The tornado ripped up the entire slab?


It looks right to me, just at a slightly different angle. It appears the back left portion of the slab is covered in debris
Member Since: August 18, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 635
Quoting BobinTampa:
144 - you sure that's the same homesite? The driveway shape isn't the same and the hill seems much closer to the home in the after photo. Plus, where's the slab? The tornado ripped up the entire slab?


Exactly what I thought, not the same site, concrete driveway doesn't match, and the house slab would be big considering the size of it
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144 - you sure that's the same homesite? The driveway shape isn't the same and the hill seems much closer to the home in the after photo. Plus, where's the slab? The tornado ripped up the entire slab?
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Saw this:

Expert Dr.Greg Forbes suggests highway damage north of Palmyra,IN from Henryville tornado might be from EF5 winds
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Google maps has updated the Galveston area, pics are from last spring early summer. You can see how brown and dead everything is, plus NW of the Island on the intracoastal waterway. During drought
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
house image

no basement all wood design prone to severe damage in direct line impact
That's a good reason for the house being rated EF4 damage...
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Just goes to show you that when tornadoes get to EF4/EF5 strength, no where above ground is safe...



They might need to do a reassessment...
Maybe if you email NWS Louisville with that photo, they would look at it. NWS spends few days studying the pictures (that's what NWS Raleigh people told me after Sanford tornado). I remembered asking why Sanford wasn't an EF4 if Lowe's was so damaged and they told me that according to damage measurements, EF3 can damages Lowe's like that. Yesterday, I asked if NWS Louisville was done with the survey in Henryville/Marysville because I noticed some EF5 damages in Marysville.
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house image

no basement all wood design prone to severe damage in direct line impact
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WSA-Enlil Solar Wind Prediction

Description: Latest CME-based model run
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Just goes to show you that when tornadoes get to EF4/EF5 strength, no where above ground is safe...



They might need to do a reassessment...
I suddenly don't feel very comforted thinking about jumping in the bathtub and holding a mattress over my head...
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Quoting hydrus:
I think what I said is true. The brain is at the very least super-complex. You managed all that from just one image. You could probably write a book with this..:)

Looks like a bunch of nonsense to me..
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32347
SOLAR FLARE ALERT:

A pair of moderate solar flares, including an M2.1 at 16:16 UTC was detected.
The solar flares were centered around Sunspot 1429. Stay Tuned to SolarHam.com for the latest information.


Uploaded by ve3en1 on Mar 5, 2012

Here is a movie showing two M-Class flares within 15 minutes of each other around AR1429 on March 5, 2012.



www.solarham.com
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128874
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Just goes to show you that when tornadoes get to EF4/EF5 strength, no where above ground is safe...



They might need to do a reassessment...


How was that not an EF5 that did that? That is amazing
Member Since: August 18, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 635
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Henryville, IN.
That was no small house. It begs the question was it occupied when the tornado hit.?
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will it flare again appears to be recharging
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#115 -

StormGoddess, I don't think it was necessarily Xyrus' intent to insult or demean you in his response explaining human perceptions / interpretations via our senses... Perhaps at the end he might have used better wording than "seeing faces because you want to see faces"... Heck, sometimes they're just staring at us as we look up! Fortunately, unlike presslord's problem in the shower curtain, da cloud faces do move on... ;)

And right on cue, as we were sayin' -

Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


There is more there than just the bat. There are two elephants fighting over who gets the bat. The bat looks worried and confused as the elephants look determined and self assured. And then there is .... hey. Are those bat droppings (guano) below the bat? ... What do you all think of that???? ;-)


That does it Rookie - stay outta me and Pat's Abita stash!
;)

Okay, work a'callin'
Y'all be good!
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Quoting hydrus:
Where on Earth was that?

Henryville, IN.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Just goes to show you that when tornadoes get to EF4/EF5 strength, no where above ground is safe...



They might need to do a reassessment...
Where on Earth was that?
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21507
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

Additionally, soil/asphalt has been ripped out of the ground in parts of Henryville.

From past experience from Joplin...this was an EF5. Maybe the NWS didn't see this house or something, but...
It looked 5....5 and a half
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


There is more there than just the bat. There are two elephants fighting over who gets the bat. The bat looks worried and confused as the elephants look determined and self assured. And then there is .... hey. Are those bat droppings (guano) below the bat? ... What do you all think of that???? ;-)
I think what I said is true. The brain is at the very least super-complex. You managed all that from just one image. You could probably write a book with this..:)
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21507
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Just goes to show you that when tornadoes get to EF4/EF5 strength, no where above ground is safe...



They might need to do a reassessment...

Additionally, soil/asphalt has been ripped out of the ground in parts of Henryville.

From past experience from Joplin...this was an EF5. Maybe the NWS didn't see this house or something, but...
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32347
Quoting BobWallace:


Sounds like there's a business opportunity awaiting.

If you could take shipping containers, weld up the existing doors, install a smaller, strong entry door, and waterproof them at a central location and then deliver/plop them into a hole you might have a winner.

It's not like these shelters have to have lots of interior amenities. It's a place to hide out while waiting for a system to move through. Even if the occupants' homes are wiped out there are supplies of food and water not far away. Tornado shelters don't need to be outfitted for long term habitation.
looks like used shipping containers run anywhere from $2500.00 up.. not bad for tornado insurance. Not sure how much a hole that big would cost though.
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Quoting BobWallace:


Sounds like there's a business opportunity awaiting.

If you could take shipping containers, weld up the existing doors, install a smaller, strong entry door, and waterproof them at a central location and then deliver/plop them into a hole you might have a winner.

It's not like these shelters have to have lots of interior amenities. It's a place to hide out while waiting for a system to move through. Even if the occupants' homes are wiped out there are supplies of food and water not far away. Tornado shelters don't need to be outfitted for long term habitation.
Link
link to Hydrotech, hot rubber waterproofing system. Has a lot of flexibility for expansion and contraction. reinforced with an embedded polyester mat with a felt protecting the exposed surfaces.
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Just goes to show you that when tornadoes get to EF4/EF5 strength, no where above ground is safe...



They might need to do a reassessment...
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32347
Houston... Perhaps these rain chances should be on the increase as we get closer to the weekend..

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Launch madness will hit the east coast in March as NASA launches five rockets in approximately five minutes to study the high-altitude jet stream from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.

Sometime here in March as I'm pretty sure they will be assessing Upper Level Wind Forecasts and Sky Viewing conditions as they will dictate the actual Launch time.



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Quoting TampaSpin:



I captured this RADAR Imagery as it was Nearing Jasper, Indiana.......Called my Brother at his Manufacturing Plant and he got all his employees in a secure location. He went outside just for a moment to look and could see this Funnel Cloud Approaching. They were lucky it stayed a funnel cause this was the same Funnel that eventually hit the Marysville Town that was wiped out.....HE feels very lucky!
I've downloaded the trial version of this interesting software. Unfortunately, I was too excited watching everything to learn how to operate the GR2Analyst on March 2, but it's a cool looking deal, and you can try it out fully, for free for about three weeks.

I agree that it has some real life saving potential.

Speaking of life saving potential, here's a forecast that I'm making for 2012 that I suspect may have some weather related elements. Mine are clearly more abstract, which is putting it mildly sometimes, but art is used to convey many things, and the abstract should never be ignored in terms of intuition. I have an arguably good record for making these intuitive, abstract forecasts.

So to put this forecast in some perspective, think rare East Coast Earthquake 8-23-2011, announcing the correct position of hurricane Irene in the Atlantic at that exact time she was poised to make landfall three times along the U.S. East Coast.("three tongues of fire buried by the sea" 7-4-2011 Post 366)

Enjoy the film because something is about to happen. I'm still guessing as to how to interpret it, but the ending is quite dark and worrisome. Will a very big natural event hit D.C., or is this just representative of the nation as a whole? My guess is not to ignore the location in terms of disaster preparation.










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Quoting Patrap:


ATREX Overview
Launch Madness at Wallops in March - "Five in Five"



Launch madness will hit the east coast in March as NASA launches five rockets in approximately five minutes to study the high-altitude jet stream from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.

The Anomalous Transport Rocket Experiment (ATREX) is a Heliophysics sounding rocket mission that will gather information needed to better understand the process responsible for the high-altitude jet stream located 60 to 65 miles above the surface of the Earth.

The high-altitude jet stream is higher than the one commonly reported in weather forecasts. The winds found in this upper jet stream typically have speeds of 200 to well over 300 mph and create rapid transport from the Earth's mid latitudes to the polar regions. This jet stream is located in the same region where strong electrical currents occur in the ionosphere. It is therefore a region with a lot of electrical turbulence, of the type that can adversely affect satellite and radio communications.

The sounding rockets being used for the mission are two Terrier-Improved Malemutes , two Terrier-Improved Orions and one Terrier-Oriole.

The five rockets will release a chemical tracer that will form milky, white tracer clouds that allow scientists and the public to "see" the winds in space. In addition, two of the rockets will have instrumented payloads, to measure the pressure and temperature in the atmosphere at the height of the high-speed winds.




when is this?!
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Quoting hydrus:
Not too mention that the brain is at the very least super-complex....Besides, it does not take much imagination to see bats with a lot of these ink-blot images....From Wiki....The Rorschach test (German pronunciation: [ˈʁoːɐʃax]; also known as the Rorschach inkblot test, the Rorschach technique, or simply the inkblot test) is a psychological test in which subjects' perceptions of inkblots are recorded and then analyzed using psychological interpretation, complex algorithms, or both. Some psychologists use this test to examine a person's personality characteristics and emotional functioning. It has been employed to detect underlying thought disorder, especially in cases where patients are reluctant to describe their thinking processes openly.The test is named after its creator, Swiss psychologist Hermann Rorschach.


There is more there than just the bat. There are two elephants fighting over who gets the bat. The bat looks worried and confused as the elephants look determined and self assured. And then there is .... hey. Are those bat droppings (guano) below the bat? ... What do you all think of that???? ;-)
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Orlando
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Quoting presslord:


Should we charge for admission?
no charge em to let them out
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54637


ATREX Overview
Launch Madness at Wallops in March - "Five in Five"



Launch madness will hit the east coast in March as NASA launches five rockets in approximately five minutes to study the high-altitude jet stream from its Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia.

The Anomalous Transport Rocket Experiment (ATREX) is a Heliophysics sounding rocket mission that will gather information needed to better understand the process responsible for the high-altitude jet stream located 60 to 65 miles above the surface of the Earth.

The high-altitude jet stream is higher than the one commonly reported in weather forecasts. The winds found in this upper jet stream typically have speeds of 200 to well over 300 mph and create rapid transport from the Earth's mid latitudes to the polar regions. This jet stream is located in the same region where strong electrical currents occur in the ionosphere. It is therefore a region with a lot of electrical turbulence, of the type that can adversely affect satellite and radio communications.

The sounding rockets being used for the mission are two Terrier-Improved Malemutes , two Terrier-Improved Orions and one Terrier-Oriole.

The five rockets will release a chemical tracer that will form milky, white tracer clouds that allow scientists and the public to "see" the winds in space. In addition, two of the rockets will have instrumented payloads, to measure the pressure and temperature in the atmosphere at the height of the high-speed winds.


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128874
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
don't mess wit the curtain been no canes since it first introduced
This is true. ( excluding Irene maybe ). Bill Gates may have some competition when it comes to staving off natures fury.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21507
Quoting BobWallace:


It's not just the all caps, but it's also a 'full screen' issue. At one point a couple of days ago there were several of these pastes, almost in sequence.

I'm thinking that few people outside of the effected area read the details. If people could quickly see the warned area it might be less disruptive.


--

I find all caps (or no caps) much harder to read than normal capitalization. If sentences and place names are capitalized I can skim quicker.

Perhaps it's time for government agencies to realize that we're no longer using teletypes....


Although your mileage may vary, studies have shown that all caps is much harder to read than lower case or mixed case. The reason for this is that we rely in part on the visual "shape" of words to read them. You see this particularly with longer words ... alligator is easier to read than ALLIGATOR. In the former case there are a number of visual clues (the double "l"s, the dropped part of the "g", the "t" sticking up). In the latter case it's just a block of letters like any other. We don't read letters, we read shapes. Although all caps conveys urgency, it is much harder to read.

In our case, large blocks of all caps should be reserved for NWS and other official sources, so as to avoid confusion. Past troll tricks include using all caps to make their posts look official.

Some of the more remote weather stations still use teletype, which is part of the reason why all caps is still used.
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#121 -

LOL Pat, my fires were never that noticeable, and on that note - I tried piling up some to just rot, ya know, return to soil... until realized how bad a haven for rats and cottonmouths they were becoming! Saved some usable wood and gave more to others, but yeah, burned good bit of remnants past Winter...

Anyhow, initially appears a marsh fire someone's set E of B Blue along / just S of Hwy 90 in Lafourche Parish, based on long radar loop and my observer's estimate location...

#123 -

Hiya MS Wx!
Good to see ya too! Enjoying the last few days for sure!
May be a bit boring but guess we need a break after last couple severe outbreaks... We know the fine folks at SPC and NWS need catch their collective breaths even more so!
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Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128874
Quoting BobWallace:


Sounds like there's a business opportunity awaiting.

If you could take shipping containers, weld up the existing doors, install a smaller, strong entry door, and waterproof them at a central location and then deliver/plop them into a hole you might have a winner.

It's not like these shelters have to have lots of interior amenities. It's a place to hide out while waiting for a system to move through. Even if the occupants' homes are wiped out there are supplies of food and water not far away. Tornado shelters don't need to be outfitted for long term habitation.


Should we charge for admission?
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Quoting BahaHurican:
RE the shower curtain....
Does this include if it has little fishies on it?
don't mess wit the curtain been no canes since it first introduced
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54637
127. MTWX
Quoting SPLbeater:


where u git the tornado information? i cant find anything like that:/

February 29, 2012 Photos, Damage Surveys, and Other Information...Updated 03/05 9:40 AM EST


They even have maps of the exact damage path.
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Quoting Xyrus2000:


It's all in your head. .....

In short, you're seeing faces because you want to see faces. Just like when you see a bunny in the clouds, or you see Jesus in a cheese sandwich, or see Elvis on your shower curtain. It's because you want see it there.
RE the shower curtain....
Does this include if it has little fishies on it?
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22359
Quoting IFuSAYso:

Hot rubber is commonly used for building envelope below grade and "Green roofs/roof gardens". It is inexpensive, durable, and would prevent exterior oxidization. Most roofing companies that perform BUR (hot asphaltic/tar)can apply hot rubber. Hot rubber buried below grade will last indefinitely since it primary enemy is UV.


Sounds like there's a business opportunity awaiting.

If you could take shipping containers, weld up the existing doors, install a smaller, strong entry door, and waterproof them at a central location and then deliver/plop them into a hole you might have a winner.

It's not like these shelters have to have lots of interior amenities. It's a place to hide out while waiting for a system to move through. Even if the occupants' homes are wiped out there are supplies of food and water not far away. Tornado shelters don't need to be outfitted for long term habitation.
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Large File, today,16:24 UTC
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128874
Quoting DocNDswamp:


Pat, thanks for posting that!

Nahhh, negative on rainfall, clear blue skies, however -
Amazing what can see with radar in clear air mode - wow, it's a fire! Went outside, saw smoke coming across, further looped the radar, got a bit alarmed as the fire's near Mom's house at Gray / B Blue - called, thankfully all okay there and adjacent property, but it's close... I'll have to investigate the source this aftn, unsure if marsh fire... or worse... Sure was towering black smoke for a bit, from my viewpoint...


Hey, Doc! Good to see ya on the board. Hope the weather has been good to you!
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The ESL Imagery may show that fire later if I can find the link, or the MODIS file.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128874
Quoting DocNDswamp:


Pat, thanks for posting that!

Nahhh, negative on rainfall, clear blue skies, however -
Amazing what can see with radar in clear air mode - wow, it's a fire! Went outside, saw smoke coming across, further looped the radar, got a bit alarmed as the fire's near Mom's house at Gray / B Blue - called, thankfully all okay there and adjacent property, but it's close... I'll have to investigate the source this aftn, unsure if marsh fire... or worse... Sure was towering black smoke for a bit, from my viewpoint...


That's cool,as one thought ran thru my head was of you burning Broken Pecan and Oak still from Gustav down dere.



Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128874
Quoting MTWX:
From the NWS Louisville regarding a tornado on the 29th...

Russell/Casey County (1 tornado):

Strength: EF-2

Path Length: 8.0 miles
Path Width: 175 yards Maximum

Estimated touchdown/ending time: 225 PM EST - 229 PM EST
Narrative: Tornado touched down north of Russell Springs in northern Russell county near the junction of Highway 127 and Mount Union Rd. The tornado then tracked northeast through northern Russell County and into southern Casey County where it lifted around Windsor. The worst damage was in Russell County for 1-2 miles east of U.S. 127 where outbuildings, barns, and mobile homes were destroyed. Some modular built homes were moved and damaged. Lesser amounts of damage were found in Casey County where the tornado strength decreased to EF-1 intensity. In Casey County, 1 outbuilding was damaged and trees were uprooted and snapped.

Not sure the time frame is correct... If it is, that tornado was traveling across the earth at 120 MPH!!!



where u git the tornado information? i cant find anything like that:/
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4487

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.