Heartland Institute documents reveal strategy of attacks against climate science

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:15 PM GMT on February 17, 2012

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Documents illegally leaked from the Heartland Institute, one of the most active groups engaged in attacking the science of climate change, provide an unprecedented look into how these groups operate. The story was broken Tuesday by DeSmogBlog, a website dedicated to exposing false claims about climate change science. The documents reveal that donors to Heartland included oil billionaire Charles Koch, and Heartland has spent several million dollars over the past five years to undermine climate science. Tens of thousands of dollars are slated to go this year to well-known climate contrarians S.Fred Singer, Craig Idso, and Anthony Watts of the Watts Up With That? website. Naturally, the leaked documents have lit up the blogosphere, but none of the revelations are particularly surprising. The U.S. has a very successful and well-funded climate change denial industry, primarily funded by fossil fuel companies, that has spent hundreds of millions of dollars over the past few decades on a PR campaign against climate change science. I made a lengthy post on the subject in 2009 called, The Manufactured Doubt industry and the hacked email controversy. I won't say more here, but getenergysmartnow.com has compiled a long list of blogs that have interesting posts on the Heartland Institute affair for those interested in following this story.



Eight books challenging the Manufactured Doubt industry
Important scientific findings should always be challenged with the goal of finding flaws and improving our scientific understanding. But there's nothing a scientist hates more than to see good science attacked and the reputations of good scientists smeared in name of protecting corporate profits or ideology. A number of scientists have fought back against the recent unfounded assaults on climate change science by publishing books calling attention to the Manufactured Doubt industry's tactics and goals. Anyone priding themselves on being a open-minded skeptic of human-caused global warming should challenge their skepticism by reading one of these works. I thought so highly of Unscientific America, Merchants of Doubt, and Climate Coverup, that I donated 50 copies of these books to undergraduates at the University of Michigan last year. Here's a short synopsis of eight books published in the past three years defending climate change science against the attacks of the Manufactured Doubt industry:

Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming, by Naomi Oreskes and Erik Conway. If you're going to read one book on the attacks on climate science, this should probably be the one--Dr. Oreskes, a history professor at UC San Diego, was voted climate change communicator of the year in 2011. A review of Merchants of Doubt and a video of her defending her book against skeptics is at climateprogress.org, my favorite website for staying current on the politics of climate change. From the review: "Make the journey with them, and you’ll see renowned scientists abandon science, you’ll see environmentalism equated with communism, and you’ll discover the connection between the Cold War and climate denial. And for the most part, you’ll be entertained along the way."

Climate Cover-up: The Crusade to Deny Global Warming, by desmogblog.com co-founders James Hoggan and Richard Littlemore. The main author, James Hoggan, owns a Canadian public relations firm, and is intimately familiar with how public relations campaigns work. It's another fascinating and very readable book.

Unscientific America: How Scientific Illiteracy Threatens our Future, by science writer Chris Mooney. He writes a blog focusing on science communication called the intersection. This is a fantastic book, and should be required reading for all college science majors.

Climate Change Denial: Heads in the Sand, by Haydn Washington and John Cook. John Cook writes for one of my favorite climate science blogs, skepticalscience.com, which focuses on debunking false skeptic claims about climate science. The book does a great job debunking all the classic climate change denial arguments.

Doubt is Their Product: How Industry's Assault on Science Threatens Your Health, by George Washington University epidemiologist David Michaels, who now heads the Occupational Health and Safety Administration (OSHA). This meticulously-researched book has just one chapter on climate change, and focuses more on tobacco and hazardous chemicals. About the the tobacco industry's Manufactured Doubt campaigns, Michaels wrote: "the industry understood that the public is in no position to distinguish good science from bad. Create doubt, uncertainty, and confusion. Throw mud at the anti-smoking research under the assumption that some of it is bound to stick. And buy time, lots of it, in the bargain". The title of Michaels' book comes from a 1969 memo from a tobacco company executive: "Doubt is our product since it is the best means of competing with the 'body of fact' that exists in the minds of the general public. It is also the means of establishing a controversy".

The Hockey Stick and the Climate Wars: Dispatches from the Front Lines, by climate scientist Dr. Michael Mann. Dr. Mann is the originator of the much-debated "hockey stick" graph of global temperatures over the past 1,000 years, which looks like a hockey stick due to the sharp increase in temperatures in recent decades. This book just came out last week, and I hope to write a review on it this spring. Dr. Mann is one of the main contributors to my favorite web site for staying current on climate change research, realclimate.org. John Cook of skepticalscience.com wrote a review, calling it "an eye-opening account of the lengths the opponents of climate science will go to in their campaign to slander climate scientists and distract the public from the realities of human caused global warming."

Fool Me Twice: Fighting the Assault on Science in America by Shawn Lawrence Otto. I haven't had a chance to read this one yet, but it looks interesting. A review by Katherine O’Konski of Climate Science Watch called the book "a fascinating look at the status of science in American society."

The Inquisition of Climate Science, by Dr. James Lawrence Powell, a geochemist with a distinguished career as a college teacher, college president, museum director, and author of books on earth science for general audiences. I haven't read it, but John Cook of skepticalscience.com wrote a review, calling it "a must-read for anyone who wishes to understand the full scope of the denial industry and their modern day persecution of climate science."

Have a great weekend, everyone! I'll be taking a few vacation days next week, and wunderground meteorologist Angela Fritz will probably be doing most of the blogging for me during the coming week.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting KeyWestSun:
Good tornado talk guys. Another interesting thing to note is the tally that designated "Dixie Alley" were tornadoes from the time period of 1950-2006. These, therefore, did not include last years deadly, massive, and long-lived twisters in N. Alabama, MS, TN, and GA.

Here's the PDF of that link so you can zoom in:

Link


Not really thinking about tornadoes right now. Too excited and waiting for the SNOW! I'll check it out later, though.
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 67
Quoting SPLbeater:


isnt North Carolina great! home to the tallest mountain above sea level east of the mississippi river, and the largest sound in the US(Albermarle, Pamlico)

but i wish we could be called the wolfpack state instead of the old nasty tar heel, lol
Home of the tallest mountain east of the Mississippi River..? How many mountains east of the Mississippi are below sea level.?
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Quoting uncwhurricane85:


obsessed from wilmington but lived in fayetteville some where the north half of town got demolished last year by that f3 tornado, and you know what im talking about being you are from sanford, its the perfect place for all seasons and so consistant...take tonight for example...wilmington nc/severe threat 2-4 inches of rain, raleigh (110 NW) and points north and west winter weather advisory 1-3 inches and winter storm warning(boone another 170 miles west) for 6-12 inches of snow...you can drive that in no time to get it all!!


and we have the outerbanks...DUH!
Member Since: August 4, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 572
Quoting SPLbeater:


i am bout 40-50 miles west of I-95.


Sanford, right? I live in Greensboro now but my hometown is Wilmington. I go down to Wilmington quite a bit to see my parents and the rest of my family. Sometimes I take 421 through Sanford to avoid Raleigh traffic on I-40. I am VERY familiar with Horner Blvd. :)
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 67
Quoting SPLbeater:


isnt North Carolina great! home to the tallest mountain above sea level east of the mississippi river, and the largest sound in the US(Albermarle, Pamlico)


obsessed from wilmington but lived in fayetteville some where the north half of town got demolished last year by that f3 tornado, and you know what im talking about being you are from sanford, its the perfect place for all seasons and so consistant...take tonight for example...wilmington nc/severe threat 2-4 inches of rain, raleigh (110 NW) and points north and west winter weather advisory 1-3 inches and winter storm warning(boone another 170 miles west) for 6-12 inches of snow...you can drive that in no time to get it all!!
Member Since: August 4, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 572
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128654
Quoting uncwhurricane85:


considering the coastline is only 25% of what texas is and N.C. still has just a good of a chance ofif not more of getting a direct hit, and you can be in the mountains in 4.5 hours from the beach where areas near boone recieve and average of nearly 50 inches of snow..and we get tornadoes every year to, and hey last year an earthquake!!


*like*

Another thing to consider...much of inland Texas's severe weather comes from dry-line fronts which move through VERY quickly. Many of the worst storms in eastern NC come from Piedmont troughs converging with seabreeze fronts. In those set-ups, the severe storms tend to produce a LOT of lightning and train over the same area for an extended period of time.
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 67
Quoting uncwhurricane85:


considering the coastline is only 25% of what texas is and N.C. still has just a good of a chance ofif not more of getting a direct hit, and you can be in the mountains in 4.5 hours from the beach where areas near boone recieve and average of nearly 50 inches of snow..and we get tornadoes every year to, and hey last year an earthquake!!


isnt North Carolina great! home to the tallest mountain above sea level east of the mississippi river, and the largest sound in the US(Albermarle, Pamlico)

but i wish we could be called the wolfpack state instead of the old nasty tar heel, lol
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4486
Quoting GeorgiaStormz:
Come to think of it, I think I should move to Texas. A little snow in winter, thunderstorms in summer, and hurricanes in fall.

Or maybe NC but I cant count on the hurricanes up there.

If only they would overlap neatly so i could pick my dream home to have to repair every spring.


considering the coastline is only 25% of what texas is and N.C. still has just a good of a chance ofif not more of getting a direct hit, and you can be in the mountains in 4.5 hours from the beach where areas near boone recieve and average of nearly 50 inches of snow..and we get tornadoes every year to, and hey last year an earthquake!!
Member Since: August 4, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 572
Quoting natrwalkn:


Hmmm..depends on which part of the state you're in. The I-95 corridor in NC is the nations #4 tornado alley.



Distant #4 that is:


Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting natrwalkn:


Hmmm..depends on which part of the state you're in. The I-95 corridor in NC is the nations #4 tornado alley.


i am bout 40-50 miles west of I-95.
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4486
Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


How did I know you would say that?
GA is better forever,your severe weather is terrible, with you being on the wrong side of the appalachians.

The squall line is progressing nicely:


ya but severe storms threatening from the west get ripped to peices by the appalachians.


But...when a warm front rises from the south, we best tie everything down for some bad weather :D

I do love the summertime tho, nice and hot lol
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4486
Quoting GeorgiaStormz:


How did I know you would say that?
GA is better forever,your severe weather is terrible, with you being on the wrong side of the appalachians.

The squall line is progressing nicely:


Hmmm..depends on which part of the state you're in. The I-95 corridor in NC is the nations #4 tornado alley.
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 67
Quoting SPLbeater:


NC is great!!!!!


How did I know you would say that?
GA is better forever,your severe weather is terrible, with you being on the wrong side of the appalachians.

The squall line is progressing nicely:
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting GeorgiaStormz:
Come to think of it, I think I should move to Texas. A little snow in winter, thunderstorms in summer, and hurricanes in fall.

Or maybe NC but I cant count on the hurricanes up there.

If only they would overlap neatly so i could pick my dream home to have to repair every spring.


NC is great!!!!!
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4486
Quoting natrwalkn:


NC has a higher hurricane strike frequency than Texas. More winter weather too. The pattern over the past decade or so has been to send 'canes into the Gulf (this past year with Irene excluded), but check out the pattern we were in during the late '90s. We were HURRICANE ALLEY!


The severe weather is not as good,and the hurricanes are not as strong as in texas.

Besides,you have to be by the coast to be hit by a hurricane, and there the snow is not as heavy.

So NC and Texas get a tie in my book since in Texas it doesnt really snow on the coast where the hurricanes are.


Or I can decide i dont need to be rich and take the perfect job of being a reporter for TWC so i never miss a storm.

The NWS should have their own reporters but the government would probably not support that
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting GeorgiaStormz:
Come to think of it, I think I should move to Texas. A little snow in winter, thunderstorms in summer, and hurricanes in fall.

Or maybe NC but I cant count on the hurricanes up there.

If only they would overlap neatly so i could pick my dream home to have to repair every spring.


NC has a higher hurricane strike frequency than Texas. More winter weather too. The pattern over the past decade or so has been to send 'canes into the Gulf (this past year with Irene excluded), but check out the pattern we were in during the late '90s. We were HURRICANE ALLEY!
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 67


Current surface forecast for Monday evening... shows frontal passage through the Bahamas by then. The storm centre will already be off the coast. Looks like best chance for whatever frozen precip. is tomorrow.

this one fits the Feb trackss for years like this; low track with the centre skirting the GoM N coast and crossing anywhere between central FL and Central GA.... these can be bad systems for the N Bahamas as well.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
It was real warm here too... hot enough to work up a sweat out in a friend's garden around noon. Today it felt like winter, such as it was, was pretty much done. However, I'll wait until this latest line moves through before I call the fat lady to the stage.... lol

DC115, I hope u get ur much desired snow tomorrow...
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Come to think of it, I think I should move to Texas. A little snow in winter, thunderstorms in summer, and hurricanes in fall.

Or maybe NC but I cant count on the hurricanes up there.

If only they would overlap neatly so i could pick my dream home to have to repair every spring.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting KeyWestSun:

Ha. Maybe a cane, but that's about it. Have relatives outside of Chicago, and they get let out for excessive heat, extreme cold, snow (big storms like last years blizzards, of course). Pretty lucky. But you wait for the summer all year up there after the cold months according to my cousins, so then it's a bummer cuz you just have to make up the days in June when schools out for the year.

c'est la vie


Yeah, I have relatives up in MA, and they deal with the same thing, making up all the days in June. Here in my county, for whenever a tropical storm or hurricane strikes, there are days during the school year that are make-up days (i.e. the Wednesday before Thanksgiving, Teacher Work Days, etc.). As for college, there are no make-up days.
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Been really busy all today.I've been up since 5:00 am this morning I'm really yearning for some sleep now.I was down their at the convention center with my son and daughter and I had to stand in line for 3 hours....So my legs hurt to.I drove the whole 25 miles of D.C today.From southeast to northwest where I live.It has been really sunny today.Like blinding light type sunny.Winds been kicking up all afternoon.It was almost 60 today.Hard to believe a snow storm is tomorrow.....
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Here's a newbie question:

Can you chime in with what is your favorite weather radio?

Even though we haven't hardly had winter here this year, I still remember hiding in the basement, listening to the train roar of a tornado as it went by too close to our neighborhood. The warning had it coming right at us, but it took a little turn first.

Earthquakes, I 'know' those… but this thing called Real Weather, well that's different ;-)

Signed,
California native still getting used to living in Raleigh NC
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Quoting KeyWestSun:

Oh the memories of destroying many of pairs of gloves making those from the snow near the curb. Our road was always in bad condition, so the plows really dug into that soot and stuff. lol


We never need plows, except on busy roads where people mash the snow into an icepack quickly.
Last January roadcrews took thousands of reflective dots of the pavement trying the scrape compacted ice up. Salt works much better than plows.

And what snow by the curb, that always melts:)
(If you can't tell, i am jealous of your snowy memories)

Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting MAweatherboy1:


This is our forgotten friend Giovanna... She's been busy circumnavigating Madagascar

Hmmm.... quite amazing to see that's held together that long... Most systems don't make it back that far.

Quoting reedzone:
Well this is semi-depressing. I expected a strong squall line to form in the Gulf but so far the NAM is right. The NAM predicted the storms to graze north of the peninsula while a few scattered showers hits towards the south. Still time for the NAM to be wrong and for the storms to form over the GOM.
I was wondering if we'd actually get some of this by Monday or maybe early Tuesday. I wouldn't mind another bout of showers; it keeps the dust down and the forest fires out.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


College, and I have a test... so I hope it gets canceled!!


I got a test too, no way it gets cancelled with me living in Florida LOL
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18z GFS has a strong storm heading into Nova Scotia about a week from now with some decent cold behind it for the eastern US
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Quoting KeyWestSun:

Now I know why you want the day off so bad! School's bad enough, but a test. On a Monday?... Ugh!! :p


Yeah actually asking us to study on a sunday, so terrible.
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Quoting LargoFl:
oh man, what memories you bring back!! Snow forts!!! the kids today have no idea how it was back then..


Try to build one with the wet slush that falls here and you might as well call it a mud fort. Its disgusting when you try do anything with the stuff.
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting caneswatch:


You're in classes Monday too? I thought i'd be the only one who had to go to college (or high school) that day.


College, and I have a test... so I hope it gets canceled!!
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Well this is semi-depressing. I expected a strong squall line to form in the Gulf but so far the NAM is right. The NAM predicted the storms to graze north of the peninsula while a few scattered showers hits towards the south. Still time for the NAM to be wrong and for the storms to form over the GOM.
Member Since: July 1, 2008 Posts: 13 Comments: 7396


This is our forgotten friend Giovanna... She's been busy circumnavigating Madagascar

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URGENT - IMMEDIATE BROADCAST REQUESTED
TORNADO WATCH NUMBER 31
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
450 PM CST SAT FEB 18 2012

THE NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER HAS ISSUED A
TORNADO WATCH FOR PORTIONS OF

SOUTHERN ALABAMA
THE WESTERN FLORIDA PANHANDLE
FAR SOUTHEAST LOUISIANA
COASTAL WATERS


EFFECTIVE THIS SATURDAY AFTERNOON FROM 450 PM UNTIL MIDNIGHT CST.

TORNADOES...HAIL TO 1 INCH IN DIAMETER...THUNDERSTORM WIND GUSTS
TO 70 MPH...AND DANGEROUS LIGHTNING ARE POSSIBLE IN THESE AREAS.

THE TORNADO WATCH AREA IS APPROXIMATELY ALONG AND 45 STATUTE
MILES NORTH AND SOUTH OF A LINE FROM 20 MILES EAST OF CRESTVIEW
FLORIDA TO 120 MILES WEST SOUTHWEST OF BOOTHVILLE LOUISIANA. FOR
A COMPLETE DEPICTION OF THE WATCH SEE THE ASSOCIATED WATCH
OUTLINE UPDATE (WOUS64 KWNS WOU1).

REMEMBER...A TORNADO WATCH MEANS CONDITIONS ARE FAVORABLE FOR
TORNADOES AND SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS IN AND CLOSE TO THE WATCH
AREA. PERSONS IN THESE AREAS SHOULD BE ON THE LOOKOUT FOR
THREATENING WEATHER CONDITIONS AND LISTEN FOR LATER STATEMENTS
AND POSSIBLE WARNINGS.

OTHER WATCH INFORMATION...THIS TORNADO WATCH REPLACES TORNADO
WATCH NUMBER 29. WATCH NUMBER 29 WILL NOT BE IN EFFECT AFTER 450
PM CST. CONTINUE...WW 30...

DISCUSSION...PREFRONTAL SQLN NOW EXTENDING SSW FROM THE MOBILE AREA
EXPECTED TO CONTINUE E INTO THE FL PANHANDLE AND FAR SRN AL.
EMBEDDED SUSTAINED STORMS/SUPERCELLS WILL POSE A CONTINUED RISK FOR
ISOLD TORNADOES AND SMALL BOWS WITH DMGG WIND. FARTHER
W...ADDITIONAL STRONG TO SVR STORMS MAY GLANCE FAR SE LA AND THE
ADJACENT CSTL WATERS AS COLD FRONT OVERTAKES SWRN EXTENSION OF THE
SQLN AND ASSOCIATED OUTFLOW BOUNDARY OVER THE NRN GULF. WITH LOW TO
MID LVL WIND FIELD EXPECTED TO SOMEWHAT INCREASE OVER REGION GIVEN
CONTINUED EWD MOTION OF E TX UPR TROUGH...SVR THREAT MAY PERSIST AND
POSSIBLY INCREASE THIS EVE DESPITE GRADUAL VEERING OF LOW LVL FLOW.

AVIATION...TORNADOES AND A FEW SEVERE THUNDERSTORMS WITH HAIL
SURFACE AND ALOFT TO 1 INCH. EXTREME TURBULENCE AND SURFACE WIND
GUSTS TO 60 KNOTS. A FEW CUMULONIMBI WITH MAXIMUM TOPS TO 500.
MEAN STORM MOTION VECTOR 24040.


...CORFIDI
Member Since: April 29, 2006 Posts: 154 Comments: 18742
Quoting KeyWestSun:

You are due for the big one then. You and the blogger washingtonian115 have the same wish! I was little and my Dad built a snow fort for us with the snow blower. That was of course three days after the storm before we were able to get the garage door open. Nowadays, watching doppler radar loops and you guys blog about it is plenty enough for me. :)
oh man, what memories you bring back!! Snow forts!!! the kids today have no idea how it was back then..
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Quoting yqt1001:


I don't doubt that the Vikings were the first Europeans on the new world. Although, even had they existed until the time of the 1500s, they would've been doubted by the rest of Europe and their settlements destroyed, in a similar fashion as the natives, not really affecting the course of history...other than the fact that Europe would've had to dealt with them for a longer period of time, probably delaying Western influence on the new world.

There's also some theorizing that Sub-Saharan Africans travelled to the Caribbean tropics, though scientific / anthropological evidence for this is relatively scarce.

However, the point about the impact of potential hurricanes on exploration is noted, and there are several other historical incidents where tropical cyclones impacted the course of history. One theory about the disappearance of that early NC colony, e.g. is that a hurricane wiped it out.

It would sure be interesting to be able to tell what global conditions were between 1490 and 1515 or so....
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
"Torando" report near Mobile.
2210 GRAND BAY MOBILE AL 3048 8834
PUBLIC REPORT OF A TORANDO TOUCHDOWN NEAR GRAND BAY,AL. ALSO PRODUCED TREE DAMAGE. (MOB)


MESOSCALE DISCUSSION 0131
NWS STORM PREDICTION CENTER NORMAN OK
0429 PM CST SAT FEB 18 2012

AREAS AFFECTED...SERN LA/FAR SERN MS/PARTS OF SWRN AL AND WRN FL
PANHANDLE

CONCERNING...TORNADO WATCH 29...

VALID 182229Z - 182300Z

THE SEVERE WEATHER THREAT FOR TORNADO WATCH 29 CONTINUES.

NEW REPLACEMENT TORNADO WATCH WILL BE COORDINATED SHORTLY FOR WW/S
28 AND 29...AS INDICATED BY SPC MESOSCALE DISCUSSION 130.

IN ADDITION TO THE CONTINUED SEVERE WEATHER THREAT WITH ACTIVITY
ALONG AND INVOF THE LEADING EFFECTIVE OUTFLOW BOUNDARY...TSTMS
FARTHER WWD EXTENDING NNE-SSW FROM SOUTH CENTRAL LA INTO THE GULF
WILL INTERSECT WWD EXTENSION OF LEADING OUTFLOW BOUNDARY...AS THIS
NNE-SSW LINE ADVANCES EWD ACROSS COASTAL AREAS OF SOUTH CENTRAL/SERN
LA
. DESPITE MUCAPE AROUND 500 J/KG...STRONG LOW LEVEL SHEAR VALUES
/EFFECTIVE SRH 300-400 M2 PER S2/ INVOF OF SURFACE BOUNDARIES AND
WITHIN THE WARM SECTOR...COMBINED WITH STRONG DEEP LAYER SHEAR WILL
MAINTAIN LIKELIHOOD FOR ORGANIZED STORMS PRODUCING DAMAGING WINDS
AND A TORNADO THREAT INTO THE EVENING
.

..PETERS.. 02/18/2012
Member Since: April 29, 2006 Posts: 154 Comments: 18742


Another tornado reported recently...
PUBLIC REPORT OF A TORANDO TOUCHDOWN NEAR GRAND BAY,AL. ALSO PRODUCED TREE DAMAGE
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Quoting KeyWestSun:

Oh man. I remember that one. I'll be hiding if that happens again.


Wasn't quite born yet, most snow i've seen was the 6 in from last year
Member Since: February 11, 2012 Posts: 0 Comments: 9731
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


That doesn't tell me why they should be counted as reliable?


Because the planetary scale factors that the climate models focua on are easier to predict than something that is sub-synoptic scale. It's the same reason why we can look at the jet stream pattern in a long range global model to get the overall feel what is ahead.

Typically you find the grid spacing on a climate model to be higher than a global weather model like the GFS and ECMWF.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.