Extreme temperatures of 2011: 7 national all-time heat records; 1 cold record

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:14 PM GMT on January 13, 2012

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The year 2011 was the tenth warmest year on record for the globe, but the warmest year on record when a La Niña event was present (Ricky Rood has a discussion of this in his lastest post.) Seven nations and one territory broke all-time hottest temperature records. This is a far cry from 2010 (which tied for the warmest year on record), when twenty nations (plus one UK territory) set all-time hottest temperature records. One all-time coldest temperature record was set in 2011; this was the first time since 2009 one of these records was set. The all-time cold record occurred in Zambia, which ironically also set an all-time hottest temperature record in 2011. Here, then, are the most most notable extreme temperatures globally in 2011, courtesy of weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera:

Hottest temperature in the world in 2011: 53.3°C (127.9°F) in Mitrabah, Kuwait, August 3
Coldest temperature in the world in 2011: -80.2°C (-112.4°F) at Dome Fuji, Antarctica, September 18
Hottest temperature in the Southern Hemisphere: 49.4°C (120.9°F) at Roebourne, Australia, on December 21
Coldest temperature in the Northern Hemisphere: -67.2°C (-89°F) at Summit, Greenland, March 18. This is also the coldest March temperature ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere.
Hottest undisputed 24-hour minimum temperature in world history: A minimum temperature of 41.7°C (107°F) measured at Khasab Airport in Oman on June 27


Figure 1. Seven countries and one territory set all-time hottest temperature records in 2011, and one nation set an all-time coldest temperature record. Image credit: Ilissa Ocko, Princeton University.

New country hottest temperature records set in 2011
Iraq recorded its hottest temperature on record on August 3, 2011 in Tallil (Ali military airbase), when the mercury hit 53°C (127.4°F). The previous record was 52.3°C recorded at Diwanya FOB airbase a few days before.

Armenia recorded its hottest temperature on record on July 31 in Meghri, when the mercury hit 43.7°C (110.7°F). The previous record was 43.1°C in Meghri on July 17, 2005.

Iran recorded its hottest temperature in its history on July 28, 2011, when the mercury hit 53°C (127.4°F) at Dehloran. The previous previous record was set just one day earlier at Omidieh and Shoshtar, when the mercury hit 52.6°C (126.6°F). Older hotter temperatures have been measured in Iran using automated stations, but these temperatures have been found to be overestimated.

Kuwait recorded its hottest temperature on record on August 3, 2011, when the mercury hit 53.3°C (127.9°F) at Mitrabah. The previous record was 53.1°C in Sulaibiya on June 15, 2010. The Kuwait Meteorological Center confirmed the reading as authentic, though the temperature sensor had problems between 2009 and July 2010. Some temperatures as high as 53.5°C measured at the Kuwait City Airport during 2011 were in error. The 53.3°C (127.9°F) at Mitrabah thus represents:

1) The hottest temperature measured on Earth in 2011
2) New official national record for Kuwait
3) Second highest (undisputed) temperature ever recorded in Asia
4) Highest temperature ever recorded in an Arabic country
5) Third hottest location in the planet together with Lake Havasu City, AZ (after Death
Valley, CA and Moenjodaro, Pakistan)
6) A new world record for August

China broke its national heat record for both uninhabited and inhabited locations on July 14, 2011, when the temperature soared to 50.2°C (122.4°F) at a automatic station near Adyngkol Lake (just south of Turfan), and 49.4°C (120.9°F) at the town of Tuyoq. A higher reading of 50.7°C at Aydingkol Mirabilite on 23 July 1986 has not been verified as official by the Chinese.

Republic of the Congo set a new all-time extreme heat record on March 8, 2011, when the temperature hit 39.2°C (102.6°F) at M'Pouya. Congo's previous all-time hottest temperature was 39.0°C (102.2°F) at Impfondo on May 14, 2005.

Zambia set an all-time national heat record of 109.0°F (42.8°C) at Mfuwe, on October 26, 2011, breaking the previous national record of 108.1°F (42.3°C) also set at Mfuwe, on November 17, 2010. A no longer functioning station at Lusitu, Zambia measured a higher temperature in November 1990, but surrounding stations were all about 10°C cooler, so the Lusitu 1990 reading is considered unreliable.

The French Southern and Antarctic Lands Territory tied its all-time hottest temperature record when Europa Island recorded 35.6°C (96.1°F) on November 12, 2011. The previous record was set at Juan de Nova Island on March 31, 1997.

New country coldest temperature records set in 2011
For the first time since 2009, a new national extreme cold temperature record was set. Zambia set an all-time national cold record of -9°C (16°F) at Choma on June 27, 2011, breaking the previous national record of -8°C (18°F), set on July 10, 1898, at Nalisa Western Province.

Special mention:
Russia had its hottest temperature on record at a regular synoptic reporting staion on July 30, 2011, when the mercury hit 44.3°C (111.7°F) at Divnoe in Russia's Kalmykia Republic. Three hotter temperatures have been recorded at automated stations: 45.4°C in 2010 at a hydrological station at Utta, plus readings of 45°C at El'ton and 44.5°C at Verhjnky Baskunkak in August 1940.

Weather records researcher Maximiliano Herrera is the primary source of the weather records listed here and has worked tremendously hard to research them. He maintains a comprehensive list of extreme temperature records for every nation in the world on his website. If you reproduce this list of extremes, please cite Maximiliano Herrera as the primary source of the weather records.

Other posts looking back at the remarkable weather events of 2011
U.S. weather in 2011: unprecedented rains and wet/dry extremes
Top ten global weather events of 2011
2011: Year of the Tornado
Deadliest weather disaster of 2011: the East African drought
Tropical Storm Lee's flood in Binghamton: was global warming the final straw?
Wettest year on record in Philadelphia; 2011 sets record for wet/dry extremes in U.S.
Hurricane Irene: New York City dodges a potential storm surge mega-disaster


Figure 2. Portlight volunteers help distribute bottled water in the aftermath of Hurricane Irene in Raleigh, North Carolina.

Weather Underground renews as National Sponsor of Portlight Disaster Relief
This week, wunderground put out a press release in concert with Portlight Strategies, Inc.--a national grassroots non-profit organization--that Weather Underground, Inc., will again be a National Sponsor of Portlight Disaster Relief.

Hundreds of members of the wunderground.com blog community have teamed with Portlight Strategies, Inc., throughout the last three and a half years to provide much needed relief services and supplies to victims and survivors of several natural disasters, both domestically and internationally.

These relief efforts focused on helping people with disabilities, as well as people in small towns and rural areas often marginalized by the larger institutional relief infrastructure.

Portlight Strategies, Inc., has committed to building on the stunning success of this collaborative, grassroots initiative.

"Weather Underground stepping up to be one of our National Sponsors again in 2012 is a huge honor", said Paul Timmons, Jr., Portlight Strategies, Inc., Board Chair.

"We are very pleased to continue our support of Portlight Strategies because they make a real difference to otherwise neglected communities that are affected by weather-related disasters around the globe", added Alan Steremberg, President and co-founder of Weather Underground.

Visit the Portlight blog on wunderground to learn more. Donations are always welcome!

Have a great weekend everyone, and I'll be back Monday with a new post.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting ChillinInTheKeys:
Well, another season comes to an end!!!
That was a classic game! You have nothing to hang your head over, some teams wish they were in the spot you guys were in.
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Quoting yqt1001:


That's fine. :P It's just I'm an extreme leftist (not communist though, a moderate form of state capitalism) and I generally take offense to anything that is anti-socialist.


The general population in the US knows as much about socialism as they do about world geography.
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


Then the rest of the community can vote on and create a law against the actions of that person. We live in a democratic-republic. The people of the country can still influence laws despite what some people think.



Any democratic system DEPENDS on a well educated populace. Without a well educated public the whole system falls apart. And in case you haven't noticed, the US education scores haven't been all that stellar.

Voting doesn't matter. Once you've convinced people and got them voting against their own best interests, then democracy effectively dies.
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Quoting misanthrope:


Amazing for someone so young to be so intolerant. I guess this is what home schooling gets you.





No, that's what you get when you get intolerant people teaching kids.
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339. Skyepony (Mod)
SPL~ I thought someone answered this right after you asked it the first time? Anyways, here's how it effects NC..
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Quoting Grothar:


Here you are SPL. The full synopsis. I hope you enjoy it. If you have any further questions, ask me in the morning. P.S. There are 3 grammatical errors in the report. See if you can find them.

Link


;-)
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Quoting SPLbeater:


LOL. your never on wen i ask so i go ahead and put my questioN here and see the answer(if there is one) in the morning

watch the grammer u wont see it again xD

What effect does the PNA have on the Continental United States? Third time asked I do believe.

nite aLl!


Here you are SPL. The full synopsis. I hope you enjoy it. If you have any further questions, ask me in the morning. P.S. There are 3 grammatical errors in the report. See if you can find them.

Link
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336. BtnTx
Quoting Grothar:


Hey, Bt. Long time no see. You've been in lurk mode, too?
Yes as I just watch, listen, learn
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Quoting Grothar:


Yes, I've noticed!


LOL. your never on wen i ask so i go ahead and put my questioN here and see the answer(if there is one) in the morning

watch the grammer u wont see it again xD

What effect does the PNA have on the Continental United States? Third time asked I do believe.

nite aLl!
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4481
Quoting BtnTx:
It is good to hear from the wise Grothar


Hey, Bt. Long time no see. You've been in lurk mode, too?
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Quoting SPLbeater:


well unfortunately i ask questions and nobody answers. its like a "somebody else will do it" thing i think. so i leave alot to visit the NOAA sites n stuff


doing grammar since 1st grade and still dont use it lol


Yes, I've noticed!
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332. BtnTx
Quoting Grothar:


We stop learning, when we stop listening.
It is good to hear from the wise Grothar
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Quoting Grothar:


We stop learning, when we stop listening.


well unfortunately i ask questions and nobody answers. its like a "somebody else will do it" thing i think. so i leave alot to visit the NOAA sites n stuff


doing grammar since 1st grade and still dont use it lol
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4481
Quoting SPLbeater:


not me! im lurking bcuz all the climate talk...i hate climate talk lol...thats why i can barely wait for some tropical activity


We stop learning, when we stop listening.
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Quoting Grothar:
I see everyone is just toying around tonight.


not me! im lurking bcuz all the climate talk...i hate climate talk lol...thats why i can barely wait for some tropical activity
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4481
Quoting Grothar:
I see everyone is just toying around tonight.


Are you just toying with us? ;-)
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327. Skyepony (Mod)
0.36 microSv/h from snowfall in Saint Louis.
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I see everyone is just toying around tonight.
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325. Skyepony (Mod)
Japanese government is going to build a remote Japanese city in Chennai of India by cooperating with private sector.
It can accommodate 50,000 people with factory complex, shopping mall, and hospital etc..
Edano, minister of economy visited Chennal on 1/10/2012 to ask for the state’s help.

Mizuho corporate bank and JGC corporation are going to invest 4 billion JPY on the local development company.
Factory complex (2.3 km2) will start being sold from this summer, they will already start operating the factories in 2013.
Residential area will have 2 km2 area, consist of resort city beside Indian ocean, which will be developed from 2013. Japanese shopping mall, golf course, hospitals with Japanese doctors will be included too.

This plan was announced without any advance notice, and starting the factories in 2013 is really soon.
It’s giving some Japanese people the impression that Japanese government is building the ark only for rich people.
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Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 127874
Quoting ShenValleyFlyFish:
He who dies is dead toys or no toys. He who dies with the most love is loved.
That was so POETIC.-__-.
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Quoting hydrus:
You are a righteous dude Rook..:)...There are gifts we receive during a lifetime that all the money in the world cannot buy, And those gifts stay with you for eternity.


Yes, and very well said, hydrus.
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


I agree with your opinion, hydrus. I have love, from my family, that no amount of toys could ever gain for me. ... One will always have to wonder, when you have the "toys". Do they love me for the me, or do they love the toys I have?
You are a righteous dude Rook..:)...There are gifts we receive during a lifetime that all the money in the world cannot buy, And those gifts stay with you for eternity.
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Quoting hydrus:
And there are individuals who will do ANYTHING to get those toys, only to have it come back and bite them on the butt later in life. I would rather be respected for my achievements as opposed to how many "toys" I have when my life ends...jmo


I agree with your opinion, hydrus. I have love, from my family, that no amount of toys could ever gain for me. ... One will always have to wonder, when you have the "toys". Do they love me for the me, or do they love the toys I have?
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Quoting ShenValleyFlyFish:
He who dies is dead toys or no toys. He who dies with the most love is loved.


+1000
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


" He who dies with the most toys wins "

Wins what? How many "toys" do you get to take with you? Your toys are something that someone else gets to play with when you are dead and you never get to play with them again.
And there are individuals who will do ANYTHING to get those toys, only to have it come back and bite them on the butt later in life. I would rather be respected for my achievements as opposed to how many "toys" I have when my life ends...jmo
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Quoting nymore:
I hope it is me your sissy non calling out ass is talking about. New England looks sure to cover the spread so at half time I gonna go have some cock tails free of charge from my handicapper ( bookie ) losing sux but winning never gets old

Edit: Before I go remember this old saying " He who dies with the most toys wins "

Looks like GOD took the night off SORRY TEBOW
He who dies is dead toys or no toys. He who dies with the most love is loved.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
This is how rain is created guys.
PSSSSSS ha ha ha.
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This is how rain is created guys.
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The real cold is here :).Been in and out of it all day long.Been real busy today with the kids and all and just finished watching my Titanic.
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Quoting nymore:
I hope it is me your sissy non calling out ass is talking about. New England looks sure to cover the spread so at half time I gonna go have some cock tails free of charge from my handicapper ( bookie ) losing sux but winning never gets old

Edit: Before I go remember this old saying " He who dies with the most toys wins "

Looks like GOD took the night off SORRY TEBOW


" He who dies with the most toys wins "

Wins what? How many "toys" do you get to take with you? Your toys are something that someone else gets to play with when you are dead and you never get to play with them again.
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Member Since: August 2, 2010 Posts: 21 Comments: 9803
An exageration?

Study: Fukushima Radiation Has Already Killed 14,000 Americans



Submitted by George Washington on 12/27/2011 01:53 -0500
Member Since: August 2, 2010 Posts: 21 Comments: 9803
Quoting bappit:
People on here often have the dubious belief that what is posted on this blog matters. Just a thought, but perhaps people should think of it as a carnie game. It is rigged--because the people you are trying to convince will rarely ever admit you are right no matter what. And I mean rarely.










Looking back at some of the personal attacks over the last dozen or so posts (everyone knows who you are), perhaps it is time for the indicated individual to sit back and eat a snickers. Of course, I am only fooling myself by saying this. The game is rigged!


never heard truer..truth. lol. although i would prefer a King-sized Reese's peanut butter cup xD
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4481
People on here often have the dubious belief that what is posted on this blog matters. Just a thought, but perhaps people should think of it as a carnie game. It is rigged--because the people you are trying to convince will rarely ever admit you are right no matter what. And I mean rarely.

This idea came to me after I came across a post on Neatorama linking to the appropriately named web site www.ArtofManliness.com. The title of the article is "Beat the Carnies: The Secrets to Winning 5 Popular State Fair Games". This article goes into a fair amount of detail on some carnival games offered at state fairs. The following general guideline seemed apropos to this forum.

"Have fun! Don't forget to have fun. Some people take these games way too seriously and scream bloody murder if they lose. If you lose, no need to make a federal case out of it. Most of the prizes aren't even worth the $2 you paid to play the game. When I play state fair midway games, I like to think I'm paying $2 for a chance to test my skill at a particular game and to match wits with a carnie. It's entertainment! If I lose, at least I had some fun doing it. On to the deep fried Snickers bar!"

Looking back at some of the personal attacks over the last dozen or so posts (everyone knows who you are), perhaps it is time for the indicated individual to sit back and eat a snickers. Of course, I am only fooling myself by saying this. The game is rigged!
Member Since: May 18, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 6011
Numerical value of reactor thermometer rise Fukushima 2 machine, meter defectiveness?

As for Tokyo Electric Power on the 13th, Fukushima 1st nuclear plant 2 at one of the thermometers which is the reactor pressure vessel bottom vicinity of the machine, numerical value rose and announced that it exceeded 100 degrees. The thermometer near because it is stable with the degree of 40~50, sees as the meter defectiveness.

According to Tokyo Electric Power Company, as for numerical value rising, the thermometer which is installed in the tube where the device in order to move the control rod enters. The temperature which 12th at 5 o%u2019clock in the afternoon is 48.4 degrees, same day at 11 o%u2019clock in the afternoon 102.3 degrees zooming, 13th at 5 o%u2019clock in the morning showed 116.4 degrees.

The thermometer which measures the pressure container bottom which becomes standard of cool temperature stopped state stabilizes at 48 degree level. As for Tokyo Electric Power Company, the fuel which dissolved moves, the possibility re-criticality occurring have assumed that it is low.
Member Since: August 2, 2010 Posts: 21 Comments: 9803
Felt like something exploded underground, several Fukushima people talked Posted by Mochizuki on January 14th, 2012 · No Comments

Following up this article ..Hydrogen explosion of reactor 4 may have happened on 1/9/2012
A Fukushima citizen, who evacuated to Akita, the next prefecture tweed about the situation of the plant and the suspected dosemeter of Fukushima local government.



I heard from several friends in Fukushima that something exploded underground a few days ago. As expected, something is going on underground. You can guess it if you think about how deep the fuel has sunk now. Government is trying to conceal this. We are running out of time.

As I repeated, dosemeter ,which is distributed by government, is meaningless, you can just smash it. We put ours at a highly radioactive place and the result was only 0.1. My friends received 3 dosemeters and put one inside of the house, one in outside, and one with her all the time but the results were all the same. It doesn’t protect us or anything.

Member Since: August 2, 2010 Posts: 21 Comments: 9803
Quoting Patrap:
Congrats to the WU server and the San Fran Crew.

On to Hosting the NFC Championship.

Go Giants


Shouldn't of hit the plus button until after I read the last two words lol! Go Pack! Although no matter how it goes it's gonna be a good game.
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Updates on Grunt when they come in ... nothing this eve as of 002 UTC, update in the morning - take care - RB


out for the nite - eve
Member Since: April 21, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 785
Time to Geaux home.
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Well, another season comes to an end!!!
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Dang!!!
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Quoting Patrap:
Congrats to the WU server and the San Fran Crew.

On to Hosting the NFC Championship.
picking the Giants?
Member Since: July 6, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2259
who dat who dat Answer 49 errrrrrrrrrrrrss
Member Since: July 6, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2259
Congrats to the WU server and the San Fran Crew.

On to Hosting the NFC Championship.

Go Giants
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 423 Comments: 127874
What a game!!
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4357
I should have bet the moneyline and not the spread but first rule don't get greedy when gambling at least the Saints won't cover the spread thank you 49 errrrrrrrrs
Member Since: July 6, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2259
on that note..where can i find a 850mb, 700mb and 500mb temperature map? any help very much appreciated
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4481

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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