Damage losses and climate change

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 10:58 PM GMT on January 03, 2012

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During 2011, a series of violent tornado outbreaks hit the Plains and Southeast U.S., bringing an astonishing six billion-dollar disasters in a three-month period. The epic tornado onslaught killed 552 people and brought three of the five largest tornado outbreaks on record in a six-week period, including the largest and most expensive tornado outbreak in U.S. history--the April 25 - 28 Super Outbreak, which did $10.2 billion dollars in damage. Insured losses due to thunderstorms and tornadoes in the U.S. were at least $25 billion in 2011, more than double the previous record set in 2010. Damages from thunderstorms and tornadoes since 1980 have shown a clear increase since 1980 (Figure 2.) Disaster losses world-wide from weather-related natural disasters have also shown a significant increase in recent years, as has the number of these disasters. But how much of this is due to a change in the climate, and how much might be due to increases in population, wealth, and other factors?


Figure 1. Damage in Tuscaloosa, Alabama after the April 27, 2011 EF-4 tornado. Image credit: NOAA.


Not enough evidence to judge if climate change is affecting tornadoes
As I discussed last week in my post, 2011: Year of the Tornado, as far as we can tell, the number of damaging tornadoes has not increased in recent years, though the quality of the data set is to poor to know for sure. This is largely due to the fact that we never directly measure a tornado's winds--a tornado has to run over a building before we can make an EF-scale strength estimate, based on the damage. As tornado researcher Chuck Doswell said in a 2007 paper, "I see no near-term solution to the problem of detecting detailed spatial and temporal trends in the occurrence of tornadoes by using the observed data in its current form or in any form likely to evolve in the near future." My 2008 post, Are tornadoes getting stronger and more frequent?, discussed how a better way to assess how climate change may be affecting tornadoes is to look at how the large-scale environmental conditions favorable for tornado formation have changed through time. The most important ingredients for tornado formation are usually high atmospheric instability (as measured by the Convective Available Potential Energy, or CAPE), and high amounts of wind shear between the surface and 6 km altitude. Not enough work has been done on the subject to judge whether or not climate change is affecting severe thunderstorms and tornadoes, though.


Figure 2. Insured losses due to thunderstorms and tornadoes in the U.S. in 2011 dollars. Data taken from Property Claims Service MR NatCatSERVICE. Image credit: Munich Re.

Are the number of weather-related disasters increasing?
At a talk given last month at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco, Mark Bove of Munich Re insurance company examined trends in both damages and number of natural disasters since 1980. These numbers have shown significant increases since 1980. After we take out the increase in disasters reported due to an increasing population, greater wealth, and more advanced communications, is there a trend due to climate change? One way to check is to compare natural disasters due to geophysical events--earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanic eruptions--to weather-related disasters. Geophysical disasters should remain relatively constant in number in a changing climate (unless sea level rise is occurring so rapidly that it is causing significant changes in stress on earthquake faults, something that is theoretically possible, but has not yet been observed.) If we then look at trends in the number of geophysical disasters versus weather-related disasters reported, it should give us an idea of how much of the recent increase in weather-related disasters may be due to climate change. Between 1980 and 2010, geophysical disasters increased by about a factor of 1.5, while weather-related disasters increased by a factor of 2.7 to 3.5 (Figure 3.) Bove stated that he thought weather-related disasters were likely subject to a higher increase in reporting rate than geophysical disasters, but not enough to account for the huge difference. Climate change was the likely reason for a large portion of the increase in weather-related disasters in recent years, he argued. His talk concluded, "there is quite some probability that natural catastrophe losses are driven already by human-caused climate change."


Figure 3. The number of natural disasters reported has increased markedly worldwide since 1980, particularly for weather-related disasters. Image credit: Munich Re.

However, this conclusion is controversial. A 2010 paper in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society by Netherlands researcher Laurens Bouwer titled, "Have disaster losses increased due to anthropogenic climate change?", looked at 22 disaster loss studies world-wide, published between 2001 and 2010. All of the studies showed an increase in damages from weather-related disasters in recent decades. Fourteen of the 22 studies concluded that there were no trends in damage after correcting for increases in wealth and population, while eight of the studies did find upward trends even after such corrections, bringing up the question whether or not climate change could be responsible for the increased disaster losses. However, Bouwer found that "studies that did find increases after normalization did not fully correct for wealth and population increases, or they identified other sources of exposure increases or vulnerability changes or changing environmental conditions." In all 22 studies, increases in wealth and population were the "most important drivers for growing disaster losses." He concluded that human-caused climate change "so far has not had a significant impact on losses from natural disasters."

Using storm surge to evaluate damage normalization studies
Damage from landfalling storms can be used to estimate if hurricanes are growing stronger with time, but damage estimates must first be corrected to account for changes in wealth and population over time. A 2008 study by Pielke et al. found that although hurricane damages had been doubling every ten years in recent decades, there were no increases in normalized hurricane damages in the U.S. from 1900 - 2005. They used census and economic data to adjust for how increases in populations and wealth may have affected hurricane damages over time. However, Grinsted et al. (2012) questioned whether or not this was done correctly. They found that storm surge heights of U.S. hurricanes and tropical storms correlated very well with metrics that looked at storm intensity, when looking at many decades of data to see long-term trends. However, the researchers found that while short-term trends in normalized hurricane damage estimated by Pielke et al. (2008) did correlate well historical storm surges, these normalized damages had poor correlation with the storm surge record, when looking at decades-long time scales. This implies that the corrections were biased. Dr. Stephan Lewandowsky of the University of Western Australia makes the case that efforts such as the one done by Pielke et al. (2008) to normalize disaster losses are probably biased too low, since they only look at factors that tend to increase disaster losses with time, but ignore factors that tend to decrease disaster losses. These ignored factors include improvements in building codes, better weather forecasts allowing more preparation time, and improved fire-fighting ability. He writes, "Most normalization research to date has not accounted for those variables because they are extremely difficult to quantify. (And most researchers have been at pains to point that out; e.g., Neumayer & Barthel, 2011, pp. 23-24.) In effect, normalization research to date largely rests on the oddly inconsistent pair of assumptions that (a) we have built up enormous wealth during the 20th century but (b) did so without any technological advance whatsoever." For example, during a severe October 2013 windstorm that did over $1 billion in damage to France, England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Denmark, "The insured losses for the St. Jude's Day storm would have been significantly higher but for the accuracy in weather forecasting several days ahead of the storm's formation", said financial information services company Fitch Services, since "policyholders have more time to protect their property from potential damage, while government agencies, utility firms and transport companies can make logistical arrangements to minimize disruption to power supplies and transport networks."

Conclusion
Studies showing no increase in normalized damage from storms have high uncertainty, and it is possible that higher economic damages due to stronger storms is indeed occurring, though the current research does not show this. Looking at disasters losses to make an argument that climate change is affecting our weather is difficult, due to the rarity of extreme events, and the changes in wealth and population that also affect disaster losses. We are better off looking at how the atmosphere, oceans, and glaciers are changing to find evidence of climate change--and there is plenty of evidence there.

References
Tornado researcher Dr. Harold Brooks has a May 2012 op-ed in New Scientist that discusses the difficulty in predicting how climate change will impact tornadoes.

Bouwer, L, 2010, "Have disaster losses increased due to anthropogenic climate change?", BAMS, January 2011, DOI:10.1175/2010BAMS3092.1

Doswell, C.A., 2007, "Small Sample Size and Data Quality Issues Illustrated Using Tornado Occurrence Data", E-Journal of Severe Storms Meteorology Vol 2, No. 5 (2007).

Del Genio, A.D., M-S Yao, and J. Jonas, 2007,
Will moist convection be stronger in a warmer climate?, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L16703, doi: 10.1029/2007GL030525.

Grinsted, A., J. C. Moore, and S. Jevrejeva, 2012, "A homogeneous record of Atlantic hurricane surge threat since 1923," PNAS 2012, doi:10.1073/pnas.1209542109

Marsh, P.T., H.E. Brooks, and D.J. Karoly, 2007, Assessment of the severe weather environment in North America simulated by a global climate model, Atmospheric Science Letters, 8, 100-106, doi: 10.1002/asl.159.

Neumayer, E. & Barthel, F. (2011). Normalizing economic loss from natural disasters: A global analysis Global Environmental Change, 21, 13-24.

Pielke et al., 2008, "Normalized Hurricane Damage in the United States: 1900–2005", Natural Hazards Review, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp. 29-42.

Riemann-Campe, K., Fraedrich, K., and F. Lunkeit, 2009, Global climatology of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) and Convective Inhibition (CIN) in ERA-40 reanalysis, Atmospheric Research Volume 93, Issues 1-3, July 2009, Pages 534-545, 4th European Conference on Severe Storms.

Trapp, R.J., N.S. Diffenbaugh, H.E. Brooks, M.E. Baldwin, E.D. Robinson, and J.S. Pal, 2007, Severe thunderstorm environment frequency during the 21st century caused by anthropogenically enhanced global radiative forcing, PNAS 104 no. 50, 19719-19723, Dec. 11, 2007.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting PensacolaDoug:
Lets get that southern storm track to coincide with some seriously cold air! I want to see Feb 1899!
I do know how goofy that sounds! LOL!

That'd definitely be interesting from a meteorological perspective--but can you imagine how debilitating--and devastating--an event like the 1899 one would be now? The Port of New Orleans iced over? Blizzard conditions north of Tampa? Many sub-zero temps across the growing regions of the South?

Of course, you could get your wish; the wicked cold late January 1985 cold snap was preceded by a very warm December, so when the refrigerator door was finally kicked open, it let loose with a vengeance.

For myself, I'll be happy to stick with nights no lower than the mid-50s, TYVM.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13805
Quoting Neapolitan:


I, too, doubt January will be as warm as December was--but the Climate Prediction Center doesn't seem to think it'll be much colder:

Uh-oh

And, in fact, they think next week will seee a return to the way above normal temps that have been in place across the northern tier this fall and winter:

Uh-oh


Yup, could be some snow deficit records by the end of winter for the Mid Atlantic and New England. After this could snap across the east that looks to be it for awhile. The cold should get centered across the western US as the Jetstream starts digging across California in the long range.
Member Since: October 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2651
Quoting severstorm:

Hey I don't mind the cold here in FL. I'm like that Doug guy would like to see some snow here in Fl. Crazy but true.


At this point I would rather have rain as it is getting extremely dry around here. I've had only 2" of rain since November 1st. Anytime you get a freeze when it's this dry is not good. We need rain!!

Member Since: October 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2651
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

After that storm system slides up the East Coast, cold air will follow behind it. No major snow/event...yet.

By the end of this month, the USA as a whole will be significantly colder than what it was in December, which averaged above normal for the whole East Coast.


I, too, doubt January will be as warm as December was--but the Climate Prediction Center doesn't seem to think it'll be much colder:

Uh-oh

And, in fact, they think next week will seee a return to the way above normal temps that have been in place across the northern tier this fall and winter:

Uh-oh
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13805
Quoting j2008:
I feel lucky, everyone is talking about how cold it is......well heres a wish you were here moment for you. Its 41 here right now at my home in Tucson looking for a high of 77. Gonna be another nice day here, feel sorry for those of you in the cold. Gotta go I'll check in tonight.

Hey I don't mind the cold here in FL. I'm like that Doug guy would like to see some snow here in Fl. Crazy but true.
Member Since: November 25, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 992
Quoting PensacolaDoug:


Based on your current experience with Thermometer placement, Don't you think that perhaps there is a grain of truth in the argument that thermometer placement plays a rule in "skewing" the official temperatures to warmer?

Not at all; "official" NWS thermometers are placed and calibrated with accuracy and precision, and so long as they aren't moved constantly, they provide a solid baseline by which to detect long-term trends.

Saying all that, it is true that stations close together can still have widely disparate readings. Case in point: I lived in a valley town in Wyoming for a number of years in which the NWS office was at the airport, which sat on a hill a few hundred feet above the town. There were many still winter days during which the official temperature on the hill was 10-15 degrees above the temperature at my house in the valley bottom, and many summer days during which the opposite was true. But still, that airport office has been there for decades, so long-term trends in temperature or precipitation are perfectly valid.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13805
27 here in NW Orlando. Ouch!
Member Since: October 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2651
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:

After that storm system slides up the East Coast, cold air will follow behind it. No major snow/event...yet.

By the end of this month, the USA as a whole will be significantly colder than what it was in December, which averaged above normal for the whole East Coast.


Yeah I know you guys may finally get a Nor-Easter but the cold will be gone by then so just rain/wind and no snow or ice.
Member Since: October 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2651
I feel lucky, everyone is talking about how cold it is......well heres a wish you were here moment for you. Its 41 here right now at my home in Tucson looking for a high of 77. Gonna be another nice day here, feel sorry for those of you in the cold. Gotta go I'll check in tonight.
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Quoting StormTracker2K:
Boy look at this Southern branch getting established. This is great news from California to FL as this would bring several shots of heavy rain across the south.




After that storm system slides up the East Coast, cold air will follow behind it. No major snow/event...yet.

By the end of this month, the USA as a whole will be significantly colder than what it was in December, which averaged above normal for the whole East Coast.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32877
Quoting severstorm:

Morning, We going to get any rain in wcfl? Sure would be nice.


If the GFS has it's way then we should see the pattern change come later this weekend to a warmer and wetter pattern across FL. What the GFS is showing today is what the Euro has been showing on every run until yesterday afternoon but I would expect the Euro to pick this back up as the Euro has been wanting to cut off the ULL over California and given the current pattern that doesn't seem likely.

Member Since: October 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2651
Lets get that southern storm track to coincide with some seriously cold air! I want to see Feb 1899!
I do know how goofy that sounds! LOL!
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Boy look at this Southern branch getting established. This is great news from California to FL as this would bring several shots of heavy rain across the south.



Member Since: October 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2651
Quoting StormTracker2K:
Big storm early next week starting in the Gulf and going up the eastern seaboard.




Morning, We going to get any rain in wcfl? Sure would be nice.
Member Since: November 25, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 992
Big storm early next week starting in the Gulf and going up the eastern seaboard.


Member Since: October 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 2651
Waking up this morning to temperatures around 15 °F in complete sunshine. We'll be lucky to make it out of the 30s today.

COLD..
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32877
Oil company moved me to North Dakota last spring. Very warm up here this winter. December averaged almost 10 deg. above average. Yesterday we saw upper 40`s. 35 deg. this morning.
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Quoting TomTaylor:
Photo credits go to a friend of mine but here is a picture of tonight's sunset in San Diego, California.

love to sail on Mission Bay.. this morning wind chill brings temp to 14 in Mid TN.. there's never any traffic though!
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Quoting PensacolaDoug:


Wow!

Just to let you know I live out in the middle of nowhere and in a valley. Always 10 to 15 degrees colder than Tampa.
Member Since: November 25, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 992
Woke up to 12 degrees in Northern Virginia 15 miles outside of DC..... Wasn't expecting it to be that cold.....
Member Since: September 3, 2011 Posts: 13 Comments: 3477
Quoting severstorm:
Morning, Here in zephyrhills had a low of 21.7 at 5:30 when i left for work. Have a great day.


Wow!
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Morning, Here in zephyrhills had a low of 21.7 at 5:30 when i left for work. Have a great day.
Member Since: November 25, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 992
Waking up to 33.5 F near my location at 33774. I'm about 5 min. due east of Indian Rocks Beach. I see some areas away from the beach have dipped below freezing. 29.0 F at a weather station in Clearwater. Pasadena in St. Petersburg is right at freezing.
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According to:

http://mapcenter.hamweather.com/records/yesterday /us.html

there were 40 high and 1 low temperature records tied or bested yesterday in the continental US. The one that got me was the 60 degree high in Fort Benton, MT. 60 degrees on Montana's plains in January must have some folks scratching their heads (and some pretty happy cows).
Member Since: August 23, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 99
Quoting Neapolitan:
My (sometimes) trusty thermometer has me at 29.7 degrees here in the north end of Naples (though the NWS says it's 36 at the airport). Looking at the forecast, I see that most of the Great Plains will be as warm as, if not warmer than, most of Florida today and tomorrow. For instance, Denver is supposed to reach 61 today and 66 tomorrow, which is identical to the Naples forecast. But just one more day, and then the rebound begins; from Saturday onward, we should be in the middle 70s for highs and upper 50s for lows, or about right where we ought to be in early January...


Based on your current experience with Thermometer placement, Don't you think that perhaps there is a grain of truth in the argument that thermometer placement plays a rule in "skewing" the official temperatures to warmer?

My three outdoor theremometers are reading: 27.1, 27.7 and 26.9 respectively. The current temp at the Pensacola Airport, the "official" station, is 33.
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My (sometimes) trusty thermometer has me at 29.7 degrees here in the north end of Naples (though the NWS says it's 36 at the airport). Looking at the forecast, I see that most of the Great Plains will be as warm as, if not warmer than, most of Florida today and tomorrow. For instance, Denver is supposed to reach 61 today and 66 tomorrow, which is identical to the Naples forecast. But just one more day, and then the rebound begins; from Saturday onward, we should be in the middle 70s for highs and upper 50s for lows, or about right where we ought to be in early January...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13805
We just reached freezing here, so it looks like about 6-6 1/2 hours of freezing. Close enough. Also not very far inland numerous 26-29 degree readings. I think it'll be pretty close to the forecast in the morning.. May not hit 25 but it'll be within a few degrees.
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Quoting Patrap:
Congrats to University of Michigan Football Team for Winning the 2012 Sugar Bowl over Virginia Tech in the Superdome.

Michigan 23

Virginia Tech 20



Va Tech got robbed in OT
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Quoting Jedkins01:


The inland areas however are looking right on target which is unfortunate cause that's where all the farms are and where damage can be done from the cold. It finally just reached 39 here, I kinda want to see it hit ore fall below freezing since its a rare event, the wind is still blowing pretty good here which if it stays that way all night should hold temps around 33 to 36 but if it actually goes calm before say 3 AM we'll likely achieve freeze warning conditions.


The Hard Freeze Warning for Pinellas is just as a cover, usually they leave the Pinellas and Lee Counties with freeze warnings but because in NE Lee county it could drop into the mid 20s, they included all counties. Believe it or not NWS Ruskin has the low for Whitehead at 39 and Tarpon Spring 32. See link below.
P.S. I love cold weather and I am hoping for the same thing, I want 29 in FMY!

Go up to tally, there in the low 20s!
Link
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Congrats to University of Michigan Football Team for Winning the 2012 Sugar Bowl over Virginia Tech in the Superdome.

Michigan 23

Virginia Tech 20

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129909
Quoting TomTaylor:
probably another 7-9 degrees, but yea I don't think it will drop that much either


The inland areas however are looking right on target which is unfortunate cause that's where all the farms are and where damage can be done from the cold. It finally just reached 39 here, I kinda want to see it hit ore fall below freezing since its a rare event, the wind is still blowing pretty good here which if it stays that way all night should hold temps around 33 to 36 but if it actually goes calm before say 3 AM we'll likely achieve freeze warning conditions.
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Quoting Jedkins01:
I think forecasters are really not gonna come out on top with this cold event in Tampa Bay. Where I live in northern Pinellas its still 40 degrees with a stiff wind and 40 at Tampa, yet somehow they have a hard freeze warning here with a low supposedly 27 here and 24 at Tampa by morning. It is highly unlikely that it will be 24 in Tampa by morning, and there is no way Pinellas will experience a hard freeze. Its a very cold night don't get me wrong, but we do not see a a big snow pack up north and single digits up north like have occurred with other cold blasts where numbers that low have actually occurred in the Tampa Bay area. Also due to a very warm December gulf temps were very warm going into this event, with other big cold events like this we had much colder gulf waters.

Brooksville to the north is already 24 degrees, so the forecasts are right for those areas. But around here the wind is still blowing strong and its been stuck near 40 for 3 or 4 hours now, I find it hard to believe it will plunge 13 degrees at some point during the next 7 hours.
probably another 7-9 degrees, but yea I don't think it will drop that much either
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4358
I think forecasters are really not gonna come out on top with this cold event in Tampa Bay. Where I live in northern Pinellas its still 40 degrees with a stiff wind and 40 at Tampa, yet somehow they have a hard freeze warning here with a low supposedly 27 here and 24 at Tampa by morning. It is highly unlikely that it will be 24 in Tampa by morning, and there is no way Pinellas will experience a hard freeze. Its a very cold night don't get me wrong, but we do not see a a big snow pack up north and single digits up north like have occurred with other cold blasts where numbers that low have actually occurred in the Tampa Bay area. Also due to a very warm December gulf temps were very warm going into this event, with other big cold events like this we had much colder gulf waters.

Brooksville to the north is already 24 degrees, so the forecasts are right for those areas. But around here the wind is still blowing strong and its been stuck near 40 for 3 or 4 hours now, I find it hard to believe it will plunge 13 degrees at some point during the next 7 hours.
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garsh i got to go watch another episode of Tour Of Duty....so addicting. bbl
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488
Quoting BahaHurican:
On the wx station, Wunderground has a wiki and IIRC a blog dedicated to reporting members.... haven't looked in a while, but both should be linked in the weather stations section....

Hope this helps....

And on that note, I'm out for the night [like a light]... I am BEAT!!!!!

goodnight and stay warm lol
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 19 Comments: 4358
On the wx station, Wunderground has a wiki and IIRC a blog dedicated to reporting members.... haven't looked in a while, but both should be linked in the weather stations section....

Hope this helps....

And on that note, I'm out for the night [like a light]... I am BEAT!!!!!

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Quoting Grothar:


That is Spa. You can write two ss%u2019s for that letter.

Spass or Spa. And yes, you are correct.


didnt know that. sorry i havnt learned THAT much....but thanks for that:D
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488
I got another one.What bad word can you find in Florida????.FAIL.(No really you can).Florida FAILS when it comes to insurance.
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Quoting SPLbeater:


Und der NWS hotseat hat ein Drehbuch in Iowa das Spal3 macht.


That is Spaß. You can write two ss’s for that letter.

Spass or Spaß. And yes, you are correct.
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I am having issues getting my weather info from my weather station to wunderground. Any suggestions as to what software is the best to use? TIA
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Quoting BahaHurican:
Actually, WY is ok, so long as u can take wide open spaces interrupted by high mountains and deep ravines.... and basically nothing for miles.....

No really big cities there, though....


das the way i like it! four-wheeler country!


for some reason i have been wanting to convert my neighborhood into an active military airbase....maybe i should lay off the military movies lol
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488
Quoting SPLbeater:


you sound bored.

i figured that Wyoming was the most boring state cuz u never hear bout it(no offense to any wyoming residents reading dis)
Actually, WY is ok, so long as u can take wide open spaces interrupted by high mountains and deep ravines.... and basically nothing for miles.....

No really big cities there, though....
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Quoting Grothar:


Iowa is not a boring state. I spent a week there one night.
Well we don't(us outsiders) don't really here anything exciting comming from out of the state.like Navada for an exsample.I have to admit though that was a good joke.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
I got a joke for this one.WY OM(um) did y'all forget about us??????.


LOL!!! should keep that one!
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488
Quoting Grothar:


Iowa is not a boring state. I spent a week there one night.


The only time you hear about Iowa and New Hampshire is during election season.
I am going to build a cave under my covers.
goodnight!
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Quoting Grothar:


Iowa is not a boring state. I spent a week there one night.


Und der NWS hotseat hat ein Drehbuch in Iowa das Spal3 macht.
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488
Quoting SPLbeater:


you sound bored.

i figured that Wyoming was the most boring state cuz u never hear bout it(no offense to any wyoming residents reading dis)
I got a joke for this one.WY OM(um) did y'all forget about us??????.
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Quoting SPLbeater:


is that you LOL jk


No, I am much taller. It is a picture of my neighbor who is waiting for the meteor shower tonight.
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Looking at disasters losses to make an argument that climate change is affecting our weather is difficult, due to the rarity of extreme events, and the changes in wealth and population that also affect disaster losses. We are better off looking at how the atmosphere, oceans, and glaciers are changing to find evidence of climate change. -- Jeff Masters

And it does appear the glaciers and ice caps are melting.
Right now, it is very cold in ECFL but by this weekend, we'll be back in the low 70s. Thank goodness cold weather is not a permanent condition here!
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Iowa,Iowa,Iowa is all iv'e been hear'in the last few days.Iowa sounds like a boring state......Even the state's name sound boring.More like "I O WANNA GET OUTTA HERE"!!!!!!!!.Heh heh.That was my best joke since the Florida and Navada one.lolol.


Iowa is not a boring state. I spent a week there one night.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Iowa,Iowa,Iowa is all iv'e been hear'in the last few days.Iowa sounds like a boring state......Even the state's name sound boring.More like "I O WANNA GET OUTTA HERE"!!!!!!!!.Heh heh.That was my best joke since the Florida and Navada one.lolol.


you sound bored.

i figured that Wyoming was the most boring state cuz u never hear bout it(no offense to any wyoming residents reading dis)
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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