2011: Year of the Tornado

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 7:25 PM GMT on December 27, 2011

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The year 2011 will forever be known as Year of the Tornado in the U.S. A series of violent severe storms swept across the Plains and Southeast U.S., bringing an astonishing six billion-dollar disasters in a three-month period. The epic tornado onslaught killed 552 people and caused $25 billion in damage. Three of the five largest tornado outbreaks on record hit in a six-week period, including the largest and most expensive tornado outbreak in U.S. history--the $10.2 billion dollar Southeast U.S. Super Outbreak, April 25 - 28. Even more stunning was the $9 billion late-May tornado outbreak that brought an EF-5 tornado to Joplin, Missouri. The Joplin tornado did $3 billion in damage and killed 158 people--the largest death toll from a U.S. tornado since 1947, seventh deadliest tornado in U.S. history, and the most expensive tornado in world history. In a year of amazing weather extremes, this year's tornado season ranks as the top U.S. weather story of 2011.


Video 1. Remarkable video of the tornado that hit Tuscaloosa, Alabama on April 27, 2011. Fast forward to minute four to see the worst of the storm.



Figure 1. A truly frightening radar image: multiple hook echoes from at least ten supercell thunderstorms cover Mississippi, Alabama, and Tennessee during the height of the April 27, 2011 Super Outbreak. A multi-hour animation is available here.

A record six EF-5 tornadoes confirmed in 2011
Six top-end EF-5 tornadoes hit the U.S. in 2011, tying this year with 1974 for the greatest number of these most destructive tornadoes. The EF-5 tornadoes of 2011:

1) The April 27, 2011 Neshoba/Kemper/Winston/Noxubee Counties, Mississippi tornado (3 killed, 29 mile path length.)

2) The April 27, 2011 Smithville, Mississippi tornado (22 killed, 15 mile path length.)

3) The April 27, 2011 Hackleburg, Alabama tornado (71 killed, 25 mile path length.)

4) The April 27, 2011 Rainsville/Dekalb County, Alabama tornado (26 killed, 34 mile path length.)

5) The May 22, 2011 Joplin Missouri tornado (158 killed, 14 mile path length.)

6) The May 24, 2011 Binger-El Reno-Peidmont-Guthrie, Oklahoma tornado. (9 killed, 75 mile path length.)


Figure 2. Aerial view of damage from the May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado. Image credit: Wikipedia.


Figure 3. EF-5 damage from the April 27, 2011 Neshoba tornado in Mississippi. The tornado was so powerful that it dug out the ground to a depth of two feet over an area 25 - 50 yards wide and several hundred yards long. Image credit: NWS.

A few other remarkable statistics on the tornado season of 2011, compiled from NOAA's official press release, the NOAA Extreme Weather 2011 page, and Wikipedia's excellent tornado pages:

- The tornado death toll of 552 in 2011 ties 1936 as the second deadliest year for tornadoes in U.S. history. Only 1925, with 794 fatalities, was deadlier. In 1936, violent tornadoes hit Tupelo Mississippi (216 killed), and Gainesville, Georgia (203 killed.) During the 1930s, the tornado death rate per million people was 60 - 70 times as great as in the year 2000 (Figure 4), implying that this year's tornadoes may have killed tens of thousands of people if we did not have our modern tornado modern warning system.


Figure 4. Death rate per million people per year in U.S., 1875-2011. Thin line with dots is raw rate, curved thick line is death rate, filtered by 3-point median and 5-point running mean filter, and straight solid lines are least squares fit to filtered death rate for 1875-1925 and 1925-2011. Dashed lines are estimates of 10th and 90th percentile death rates from 1925-2000. The death rate fell from 8 per million to .12 per million between 1940 and 2010. Image credit: A Brief History of Deaths from Tornadoes in the United States, Harold Brooks and Charles Doswell III, and updated by Harold Brooks in 2011.

- April 2011 had the most tornadoes of any month in U.S. history--753. The previous record was 542, set in May 2003. The previous busiest April was in 1974, with 267 tornadoes. The average number of tornadoes for the month of April during the past decade was 161, and the 30-year average for April tornadoes was 135.

- On April 27, 199 confirmed tornadoes touched down. This is the largest 1-day tornado total on record, beating the 148 recorded in 24 hours on April 3 - 4, 1974.

The year 2011 now has three of the top five tornado outbreaks on record (note, though, that reliable records for number of tornadoes only extend back in time to about the early 1990s):

- The April 25 - 28, 2011 Super tornado outbreak, with 343 tornadoes, is now the largest tornado outbreak in U.S. history. The previous record (3 days or less duration) was 148 tornadoes, set during the April 3 - 4, 1974 Super Outbreak.

- The May 22 - 27, 2011 tornado outbreak, with 180 confirmed tornadoes, ranks as the 4th largest 6-day or shorter tornado outbreak on record. A May 2003 6-day outbreak had 289 tornadoes, and a May 2004 6-day outbreak had 229 tornadoes.

- The April 14 - 16, 2011 tornado outbreak, with 177 confirmed tornadoes, ranks as the second largest tornado outbreak of three days or less duration on record, and 5th largest outbreak of six or fewer days duration.

- The May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado killed 158 people and injured 1150, making it the deadliest U.S. tornado since 1947, and 7th deadliest in history. The $3 billion estimate of insured damage makes it the most expensive tornado in world history.

- Preliminary damage estimates from Munich Re insurance company put 2011's insured losses due to U.S. thunderstorms and tornadoes at $25 billion, more than double the previous record set in 2010.

- The year 2011 now ranks in 2nd place behind 1973 for greatest number of tornadoes greater than EF-0 strength (EF-1, EF-2, EF-3, EF-4 and EF-5 strength, Figure 5.)


Figure 5. Number of EF-1, EF-2, EF-3, EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes from 1950 to 2011. The total shown for 2011 is preliminary and uses unofficial numbers through November 17, but 2011 now ranks in 2nd place behind 1973. There is not a decades-long increasing trend in the numbers of tornadoes stronger than EF-0, implying that climate change, as yet, is not having a noticeable impact on U.S. tornadoes. However, statistics of tornado frequency and intensity are highly uncertain. Major changes in the rating process occurred in the mid-1970s (when all tornadoes occurring prior to about 1975 were retrospectively rated), and again in 2001, when scientists began rating tornadoes lower because of engineering concerns and unintended consequences of National Weather Service policy changes. Also, beginning in 2007, NOAA switched from the F-scale to the EF-scale for rating tornado damage, causing additional problems with attempting to assess if tornadoes are changing over time. Data provided by Harold Brooks, NOAA/National Severe Storms Laboratory.

Other posts looking back at the remarkable weather events of 2011
Deadliest weather disaster of 2011: the East African drought
Tropical Storm Lee's flood in Binghamton: was global warming the final straw?
Wettest year on record in Philadelphia; 2011 sets record for wet/dry extremes in U.S.
Hurricane Irene: New York City dodges a potential storm surge mega-disaster

The NWS posted a summary of the records set during the tornado season of 2011 in February 2012.

Jeff Masters

Joplin Tornado Damage (thebige)
Joplin Tornado Damage
Tornado - Pine Apple,AL (EarlBcom)
Tornado just south of Pine Apple, AL on around 5:40pm. This storm was a part of the Alabama tornado outbreak on April 15, 2011. earlb.com VIDEO - See video of tornado at earlb.com
Tornado - Pine Apple,AL
As Is (teach50)
My husband and I were visiting my parents in Birmingham, Alabama. We decided to take a day trip to Tuscaloosa to see the damage from the April 27 tornado. It was a sight that I will never forget. Blocks and blocks of flattened houses and stores. This area has not been touched in 2 months. It was so moving that I started to cry thinking of all these poor people.
As Is

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Quoting AtHomeInTX:


I don't know about other places, but around here the mets brought out the slosh models oh about 3 or 4 hours before Ike made landfall. This I saw online from way up in Longview. When we left on the 11th water was washing cars off the road. That was the night of the 12th he made landfall around 2am (of course) on the 13th. I could go on and on about who messed up what but I won't. Just frustrating. Another thing was people saying it's just a 2. Not all storms are created equal! I don't know what the answer is about making the storm surge products better but maybe the timing of them, and in some cases throwing the category out the window. That's kind of what scares me the most is somebody not taking the Category seriously after seeing what Ike did.  I'd put my 2 cents in there if they ever let me register. Lol. Good post though thank you. If anyone has any ideas tell 'em!


Irene was 'just a 1' and it washed out a road conecting the outer banks to the rest of them islands and the mainland(i think) with 85 mph windspeeds. i seriously wish to have a scale created with storm surge a factor!
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Quoting TomTaylor:
1.2 million

That's a LOTTTTTTTT of people. :/ poor guys
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Look like mirror image .. clockwise/Counterclockwise vortices.

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Thane making landfall now



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Quoting Skyepony:
The National Hurricane Center's Storm Surge Unit is providing this platform to engage the community to submit ideas, vote on existing ideas, and/or add comments to improve storm surge products and services.

I don't know about other places, but around here the mets brought out the slosh models oh about 3 or 4 hours before Ike made landfall. This I saw online from way up in Longview. When we left on the 11th water was washing cars off the road. That was the night of the 12th he made landfall around 2am (of course) on the 13th. I could go on and on about who messed up what but I won't. Just frustrating. Another thing was people saying it's just a 2. Not all storms are created equal! I don't know what the answer is about making the storm surge products better but maybe the timing of them, and in some cases throwing the category out the window. That's kind of what scares me the most is somebody not taking the Category seriously after seeing what Ike did.  I'd put my 2 cents in there if they ever let me register. Lol. Good post though thank you. If anyone has any ideas tell 'em!
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Quoting SPLbeater:


yeah, pondicherry has over 500k people
1.2 million
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405. BtnTx
Quoting Patrap:




Cyclone Warning threat issued for Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
New Delhi, Fri, 30 Dec 2011ANI




New Delhi, Dec 29 (ANI): The cyclonic storm 'THANE' over southwest Bay of Bengal is likely to move westwards and cross north Tamil Nadu coast between Nagapattinam and Chennai, close to Puducherry around early morning of December 30.

The system was centered at noon today about 180 kilometre east of Puduchery and at the same distance southeast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu.


Sea condition is very rough. It will gradually become very high to phenomenal along and of north Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and south Andhra Pradesh coasts.

"Fishermen along north Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and south Andhra Pradesh coasts are advised not venture into sea during next 48 hours," said a Ministry of Earth Sciences release.

Under the influence of this system, rainfall at most places with heavy to very heavy falls a few places and isolated extremely heavy falls (25 cm or more) would occur over north Tamil Nadu and Puducherry during next 48 hours.

Rainfall at most places with isolated heavy to very heavy rainfall would also occur over south coastal Andhra Pradesh and Rayalseema and isolated heavy rainfall would occur over south Tamil Nadu during the same period.

Squally winds speed reaching 55-65 kilometre per hour gusting to 75 kilometre per hour is likely along and off north Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and south Andhra Pradesh coasts.

The wind speed will increase gradually becoming 110-120 kilometre per hour gusting to 135 kilometre per hour along and off north Tamil Nadu and adjoining south Andhra Pradesh coast from today coast from today night onwards.

Storm surge of about 1.0-1.5 meter height above the astronomical tide would inundate the low lying areas of Puducherry and Chennai, Tiruvallur, Kanchipuram and Villpuram districts of north Tamil Nadu at the time of landfall. (ANI)

-
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Quoting BDAwx:

From Chennai Radar it looks like only the western eyewall has made it onshore. I'd say there's still at least an hour until the center does the same.
Hopefully it isn't a bad storm there, but it is a heavily populated area so chances are in favor of bad news.Chennai Radar


yeah, pondicherry has over 500k people
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403. BDAwx
Quoting SPLbeater:


Thane has already made landfall

From Chennai Radar it looks like only the western eyewall has made it onshore. I'd say there's still at least an hour until the center does the same.
Hopefully it isn't a bad storm there, but it is a heavily populated area so chances are in favor of bad news.Chennai Radar
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Cyclone Warning threat issued for Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh
New Delhi, Fri, 30 Dec 2011ANI




New Delhi, Dec 29 (ANI): The cyclonic storm 'THANE' over southwest Bay of Bengal is likely to move westwards and cross north Tamil Nadu coast between Nagapattinam and Chennai, close to Puducherry around early morning of December 30.

The system was centered at noon today about 180 kilometre east of Puduchery and at the same distance southeast of Chennai, Tamil Nadu.


Sea condition is very rough. It will gradually become very high to phenomenal along and of north Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and south Andhra Pradesh coasts.

"Fishermen along north Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and south Andhra Pradesh coasts are advised not venture into sea during next 48 hours," said a Ministry of Earth Sciences release.

Under the influence of this system, rainfall at most places with heavy to very heavy falls a few places and isolated extremely heavy falls (25 cm or more) would occur over north Tamil Nadu and Puducherry during next 48 hours.

Rainfall at most places with isolated heavy to very heavy rainfall would also occur over south coastal Andhra Pradesh and Rayalseema and isolated heavy rainfall would occur over south Tamil Nadu during the same period.

Squally winds speed reaching 55-65 kilometre per hour gusting to 75 kilometre per hour is likely along and off north Tamil Nadu, Puducherry and south Andhra Pradesh coasts.

The wind speed will increase gradually becoming 110-120 kilometre per hour gusting to 135 kilometre per hour along and off north Tamil Nadu and adjoining south Andhra Pradesh coast from today coast from today night onwards.

Storm surge of about 1.0-1.5 meter height above the astronomical tide would inundate the low lying areas of Puducherry and Chennai, Tiruvallur, Kanchipuram and Villpuram districts of north Tamil Nadu at the time of landfall. (ANI)

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IO062011 - Tropical Cyclone (<64 kt) THANE

Enhanced Infrared (IR) Imagery (4 km Mercator)/ Loop

..click image to run Loop

..click on Loop to ZOOM

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Quoting BDAwx:
A dangerous night in southeast India with Thane making landfall in the next few hours. I disagree with JTWC suggesting that it is now at 60kts. I would say it should at least be 70kts, especially since it continues to have 2/3 - 3/4 of an eyewall feature as shown on Chennai radar. But its nbd.


Thane has already made landfall
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399. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)


Still 70-75 knots from IMD.
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398. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Fiji Meteorological Services
Tropical Disturbance Summary
TROPICAL DEPRESSION 02F
9:00 AM FST December 30 2011
===================================

At 21:00 PM UTC, Tropical Depresssion 02F (1002 hPa) located at 20.5S 163.0W is reported as slowly moving. Position poor based on visible and multispectral infrared. Sea surface temperature is 29C.

Organization has not improved significantly and convection remains persistent in the past 24 hours. Cyclonic circulation is from surface to 700 hPA. The system lies under an upper diffluent region and highly sheared environment.

Global models have picked up the system and are slowly moving it southeastward with little intensification.

Potential for this tropical depression to form into a tropical cyclone within the next 24-48 hours remains LOW.
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Quoting BDAwx:
A dangerous night in southeast India with Thane making landfall in the next few hours. I disagree with JTWC suggesting that it is now at 60kts. I would say it should at least be 70kts, especially since it continues to have 2/3 - 3/4 of an eyewall feature as shown on Chennai radar. But its nbd.
We don't need no more deadly storms this year...
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396. BDAwx
A dangerous night in southeast India with Thane making landfall in the next few hours. I disagree with JTWC suggesting that it is now at 60kts. I would say it should at least be 70kts, especially since it continues to have 2/3 - 3/4 of an eyewall feature as shown on Chennai radar. But its nbd.
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Quoting PlazaRed:

Happens all the time at my place, with my children and my mother shouting at me to stop wasting time and turn of the computer and go to bed,just when its ever so interesting over in the States with everybody bickering and its 1am here.
They get to watch the TV so that doesn't count in their world as wasting time.


I always liked arguing in Britain. They do it much more politely than here. Have you noticed that the British always want you to agree with them when they insult you. e.g. "You're quite the twit, aren't you?" or "It must be difficult being so humble", you practice all the time, don't you". Got to love it!
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Quoting Ameister12:
Benilde and Thane
I like how one is going one way and the other is going the oppisite way.
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Benilde and Thane
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Quoting Grothar:


Wait until you are my age and your children tell you to go to bed, then you can start complaining.

Happens all the time at my place, with my children and my mother shouting at me to stop wasting time and turn of the computer and go to bed,just when its ever so interesting over in the States with everybody bickering and its 1am here.
They get to watch the TV so that doesn't count in their world as wasting time.
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Quoting ncgnto25:
Back a few years I had heard that January 16 was the only day of the year that had not had a tornado recorded on it. Does anyone know if that is still true?

According to the Tornado History Project, there have been seven U.S. tornadoes on January 16: four in Florida, and one each in Texas, California, and Washington state.
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Quoting Grothar:


Wait until you are my age and your children tell you to go to bed, then you can start complaining.

LOL.
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Back a few years I had heard that January 16 was the only day of the year that had not had a tornado recorded on it. Does anyone know if that is still true?
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Four is now TS Benilde

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Afternoon! Hey I just wanted to stop in real quick, if anyone in SWFL or WCFL needs any weather station parts I have a WMR100N Console with a Temp Sensor, and a rainfall gague, almost brand new, Had to use the anemometer and swap it out for one that failed, trying to get rid of stuff I don't need, I'll give em to you really cheap, just trying to clean some things out. WU Mail me if you're interested.
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Quoting Minnemike:
thanks Tom! that depicts it very well.
there is some similar behavior to the dipole affect, resulting in what appears to be a pole-crossing jet. still, i completely agree with your synopsis given the evidence. but i am curious if this very instance is particularly anomalous, or if such pole-crossing jets occur with any seasonal regularity. i always had a notion that any intrusion of mid-latitude air was difficult to breach circumpolar jets in the Antarctic.
Yeah it is similar in the sense that you get a jet crossing the pole but its not a dipole.

If there is any season regularity to it, it would be during the summer months when the pressure gradient is weakest. Although that doesn't mean that these jets are common.

Also keep in mind the mid-latitude air isn't really crossing the jet (although obviously some does, a jetstream is not an impenetrable barrier), the jet itself is extending poleward due to the amplified pattern, which pushes the mid-latitude air poleward.

And it makes sense that this type of jetstream is harder to achieve in the Antarctic because the pressure gradient is certainly stronger than it is in the Arctic.
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384. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
India Meteorological Department
Tropical Cyclone Advisory #31
VERY SEVERE CYCLONIC STORM THANE (BOB05-2011)
23:30 PM IST December 29 2011
===================================

SUBJECT: Very Severe Cyclonic Storm "THANE" Over Southwest Bay Of Bengal

Cyclone Warning for north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh coast: Red Message

At 18:00 PM UTC, Very Severe Cyclonic Storm Thane over southwest Bay of Bengal moved westward and lays at centered near 12.0N 80.6E, about 90 km east of Puducherry, 125 km south-southeast of Chennai (Tamilnadu) and 380 km northwest of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka).

The system is likely to move westwards and cross north Tamil Nadu coast close to Puducherry around early this morning.

According to satellite imagery, the Dvorak intensity of the system is T4.5. The lowest cloud top temperature is about -77C. Associated intense to very intense convection is seen over Bay of Bengal between 10.5N to 14.0N and west of 81.5E. The eye temperature is -50C.

3 minute sustained winds near the center is 75 knots with gusts of 85 knots. The central pressure is 976 hPa. The state of the sea is phenomenal around the system center.

Storm surge of about 1.0-1.5 meter height above the astronomical tide would inundate the low lying areas of Puducherry and Chennai, Tiruvallur, Kanchipuram & Villupuram districts of north Tamil Nadu at the time of landfall.

POST LANDFALL OUTLOOK
======================

Even after landfall the system is likely to maintain its intensity for 12 hours and weaken gradually. Under its influence rainfall at most places with heavy to very heavy falls at a few places and isolated extremely heavy fall is likely to continue over north Tamil Nadu and Pudducherry during next 24 hours after landfall causing inundation of low lying areas. Gale/squally wind speed reaching 45-50 knots gusting to 55 knots causing damage to thatched roofs and huts breaking of tree branches causing minor damage to power and communication lines over north Tamil Nadu and Pudducherry during 12 hours after the landfall. People are advised to remain indoor/safe place and cooperate with state Govt. officials and disaster management agencies.

Forecast and Intensity
========================

6 HRS: 12.0N 79.9E - 60-65 knots (Severe Cyclonic Storm)
12 HRS: 12.0N 79.2E - 40-45 knots (Cyclonic Storm)
36 HRS: 12.0N 77.0E - Low Pressure Area
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TS Four is at 40 knots forecast to be Cat 2(Saffire-Simpson Scale)
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TS Thane now, 2100Z 60 knots
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381. Skyepony (Mod)
TRMM got a pass on Thane today..click for quicktime movie.
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380. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Tropical Cyclone Advisory #7
TEMPETE TROPICALE MODEREE BENILDE (04-20112012)
22:00 PM RET December 29 2011
===================================

At 18:00 PM UTC, Tropical Storm Benilde (996 hPa) located at 13.7S 82.9E has 10 minute sustained winds of 35 knots with gusts of 50 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving west southwest at 13 knots.

Dvorak Intensity: T2.5/2.5/D0.5/6 HRS

Gale Force Winds
==================
40 NM radius from the center extending up to 50 NM in the southern semi-circle

Near Gale Force Winds
=====================
60 NM radius from the center and 90 NM radius from the center in the southern semi-circle and should very locally extend to 200 NM in the southern semi-circle due to the gradient effect with the subtropical high pressures

Forecast and Intensity
=====================

12 HRS: 14.3S 80.9E - 40 knots (Tempête Tropicale Moderée)
24 HRS: 15.2S 78.9E - 45 knots (Tempête Tropicale Moderée)
48 HRS: 16.8S 76.7E - 55 knots (Forte Tempête Tropicale)
72 HRS: 18.8S 75.3E - 70 knots (CYCLONE Tropical)

Additional Information
=======================

Last infrared animated pictures show a good consolidation of the deep convection near the low level center. System has been named "Benilde" at 18:00 PM UTC by Mauritius Meteorological Services.

Easterly wind shear is relaxing (confirmed by CIMSS analysis at 15:00 UTC). Low level inflow is good poleward on the two sides. System is expected to keep on intensifying slowly on Friday then more clearly on and after Saturday as it will track under the upper level ridge and as two upper level outflow channels will build aloft on the both sides in the same time. It is expected to reach its maximum of intensity on Monday before undergoing an upper level constraint (west northwesterly wind shear) and over less heat oceanic content. Available numerical weather prediction models keep on being in good agreement fore a west southwestward track over the northern edge of the subtropical high pressures within low levels and mid-levels, then more southwestward to south southwestward track under the combined effects of a forecast weakness in the low-level subtropical high pressures (in relationship with a transiting polar trough), and of the steering influence of a building ridge east of the system in the mid-levels.

The next tropical cyclone advisory from Mauritius Meteorological Services on Tropical Cyclone Benilde will be issued at 0:30 AM UTC..
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 52 Comments: 46908
thanks Tom! that depicts it very well.
there is some similar behavior to the dipole affect, resulting in what appears to be a pole-crossing jet. still, i completely agree with your synopsis given the evidence. but i am curious if this very instance is particularly anomalous, or if such pole-crossing jets occur with any seasonal regularity. i always had a notion that any intrusion of mid-latitude air was difficult to breach circumpolar jets in the Antarctic.
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HeY EvErYbOdY. nEw BlOg.
Link tO iT
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Quoting Articuno:

Due to my strict parents, I have to go to bed at 10 or even 9. you would HATE to be me.


LOL. thats how my neighbors' kids are treated, they think 10 PM is late. my parents go to bed and ADVISE me to go to bed, but i stay here for bout 5 more hours xD
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Enhanced Infrared (IR) Imagery (4 km Mercator)


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Quoting Articuno:

Due to my strict parents, I have to go to bed at 10 or even 9. you would HATE to be me.


Wait until you are my age and your children tell you to go to bed, then you can start complaining.
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Quoting Minnemike:
i don't observe South Pole weather patterns, so i'm curious if that kind of steering is normal... very reminiscent of the Arctic Dipole observed in the last few years. anyone familiar with common prevailing patterns down there?
The event that occurred over Antarctica was not due to a Arctic Dipole-like event. The Arctic dipole occurs when we get a large area of anomalously low pressure over Eurasia (mostly Russia) and anomalously high pressure over the North American polar region (Northern Canada, Greenland, and Alaska), basically creating one large area of low pressure and one large area of high pressure over the Arctic region. What happened over the Antarctic was not the same thing. In the days before the event occurred, the pattern around Antarctica amplified. As a result, the low around the Ross sea intensified and amplified which caused the high downstream of the low to also amplify and intensify. This produced strong northerly winds between the two systems which advected a large amount of warmer mid-latitude air directly toward the south pole.

30 Day 500mb Anomaly Animation

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Quoting bappit:
Durst was found not guilty because he said the victim threatened him with a shotgun. It makes sense to me. I'd be so frightened I'd chop up the body and dump it in the bay, too.
Guy was a sicko from a very very rich family. My sister lives next door to the main family home.
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Quoting StormTracker2K:
All though both the Tuscaloosa and Jopling tornadoes were both EF-5 I think the Joplin tornado had wind speeds well over 300 mph based on damage assements (stronger than that of the Tuscaloosa Tornado).


Based on...? I don't think there are any damage indicators on the EF scale that go nearly that high.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
I went to bed early last night (12:30 a.m.), so what did Thane peak as?


How did you fall asleep that early!? :O Otherwise, Thane peaked at 90mph 1-min and 85mph 3-min. 976mb.
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
I went to bed early last night (12:30 a.m.), so what did Thane peak as?

Due to my strict parents, I have to go to bed at 10 or even 9. you would HATE to be me.
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The western eyewall looks nasty.

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Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:
HPC Extended Forecast Discussion

Excerpt:

VERY WINDY AND CHILLY CONDITIONS ACROSS THE NORTHERN AND CENTRAL
PLAINS INTO THE LAKES REGION AND LOWER OH VALLEY SUNDAY WITH THESE
CONDITIONS PUSHING EASTWARD TO THE EAST COAST MONDAY AND TUESDAY.
THIS IS THE FIRST TRUE ARCTIC OUTBREAK OF WINTER INTO THE EASTERN
HALF OF CONUS. TEMPERATURES WILL BE UP TO 10 OR MORE DEGREES BELOW
AVERAGE WHICH IS NOT UNUSUAL BUT WILL BE IN SHARP CONTRAST TO THE
PRECEDING WARM DECEMBER AND WILL BE VERY NOTICABLE ESPECIALLY WITH
WIDESPREAD WINDY CONDITIONS. LAKE EFFECT SNOWS CAN BE EXPECTED
ACROSS THE GREAT LAKES REGION STARTING FROM WEST TO EAST SUNDAY
WITH DOWNSTREAM SNOW PLUMES REACHING INTO THE HIGHER APPALACHIAN
ELEVATIONS OF PA/MD/WV/VA/NC. GALE CONDITIONS LIKELY ATLANTIC
SEABOARD/BAYS AND SOUNDS MONDAY AND TUESDAY. FREEZING TEMPERATURES
WILL OCCUR AS FAR SOUTH AS THE GULF COAST AND NORTHERN FLORIDA
TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY.



i want snow!
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488
HPC Extended Forecast Discussion

Excerpt:

VERY WINDY AND CHILLY CONDITIONS ACROSS THE NORTHERN AND CENTRAL
PLAINS INTO THE LAKES REGION AND LOWER OH VALLEY SUNDAY WITH THESE
CONDITIONS PUSHING EASTWARD TO THE EAST COAST MONDAY AND TUESDAY.
THIS IS THE FIRST TRUE ARCTIC OUTBREAK OF WINTER INTO THE EASTERN
HALF OF CONUS. TEMPERATURES WILL BE UP TO 10 OR MORE DEGREES BELOW
AVERAGE WHICH IS NOT UNUSUAL BUT WILL BE IN SHARP CONTRAST TO THE
PRECEDING WARM DECEMBER AND WILL BE VERY NOTICABLE ESPECIALLY WITH
WIDESPREAD WINDY CONDITIONS. LAKE EFFECT SNOWS CAN BE EXPECTED
ACROSS THE GREAT LAKES REGION STARTING FROM WEST TO EAST SUNDAY
WITH DOWNSTREAM SNOW PLUMES REACHING INTO THE HIGHER APPALACHIAN
ELEVATIONS OF PA/MD/WV/VA/NC. GALE CONDITIONS LIKELY ATLANTIC
SEABOARD/BAYS AND SOUNDS MONDAY AND TUESDAY. FREEZING TEMPERATURES
WILL OCCUR AS FAR SOUTH AS THE GULF COAST AND NORTHERN FLORIDA
TUESDAY AND WEDNESDAY.

Member Since: September 23, 2005 Posts: 15 Comments: 11342
I still feel that a lot of people never really understood how devastating the flooding was across the interior of NY and Vermont. These are not areas that are used to seeing flooding/mudslides at all really.

Vt. to reopen last highway destroyed by Irene


MONTPELIER, Vt. - After the hauling of hundreds of thousands of tons of rock and tens of thousands of man-hours on heavy equipment, Vermont is ready to celebrate the completion of a Herculean task and the biggest single engineering challenge following the flooding from the remnants of Hurricane Irene: the reopening of the last state highway washed out by the storm. . .
Member Since: May 2, 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 1344
Quoting Skyepony:
The National Hurricane Center's Storm Surge Unit is providing this platform to engage the community to submit ideas, vote on existing ideas, and/or add comments to improve storm surge products and services.


That's pretty doggone cool!!!!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Durst was found not guilty because he said the victim threatened him with a shotgun. It makes sense to me. I'd be so frightened I'd chop up the body and dump it in the bay, too.
Member Since: May 18, 2006 Posts: 10 Comments: 6157
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
I went to bed early last night (12:30 a.m.), so what did Thane peak as?


I was up till 2 AM(EST) and it didnt get any higher then 75 knots.
Member Since: August 4, 2011 Posts: 46 Comments: 4488

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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