Arctic sea ice bottoms out near all-time low; August was Earth's 4th - 8th warmest

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 6:11 PM GMT on September 17, 2011

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Arctic sea ice extent hit its minimum on September 9 this year, falling to its second lowest value since satellite measurements began in 1979, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center . More than one third (35%) of the Arctic sea ice was missing this summer, compared to the 1979 - 2000 average. This is an area about the size of the Mediterranean Sea. The 2011 sea ice minimum was very close to the all-time record low set in 2007; in fact, the University of Bremen rated the 2011 loss the greatest on record. For the fourth consecutive year, and fourth time in recorded history, ice-free navigation was possible in the Arctic along the coast of Canada (the Northwest Passage), and along the coast of Russia (the Northeast Passage.) Mariners have been attempting to sail these waters since 1497.

While the record low sea ice year of 2007 was marked by a very unusual 1-in-20 year combination of weather conditions that favored ice loss (including clearer skies, favorable wind patterns, and warm temperatures), 2011's weather patterns were much closer to average. The fact we pretty much tied the record for most sea ice loss this year despite this rather ordinary weather is a result of the fact that large amounts of thicker, multi-year ice has melted or been flushed out of the Arctic since 2007. As a result of the loss of this old, thick ice, both 2010 and now 2011 set new records for the lowest volume of sea ice in the Arctic, according the University of Washington PIOMAS model. Given the very thin ice now covering most of the Arctic, we can expect truly dramatic sea ice loss the next time 1-in-10 year or 1-in-20 year warmth and sunshine invades the Arctic. We are definitely on pace to see the Arctic virtually sea ice-free in summer by 2030, as predicted by several leading Arctic sea ice scientists. I expect we'll see more than half of the Arctic ice gone and the North Pole liquid instead of solid by the summer of 2020, and probably sooner.


Figure 1. Arctic sea ice extent in 2011 (blue line) compared to the record low year of 2007 (dashed green line) and average (thick grey line.) Image credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center .

When was the last time the Arctic was this ice-free?
We can be sure the Northwest Passage was never open for ice-free navigation--particularly ice-free navigation for multiple years in a row--between 1900 and 2000, as we have detailed ice edge records from ships (Walsh and Chapman, 2001). It is very unlikely the Passage was open between 1497 and 1900, since this spanned a cold period in the northern latitudes known as "The Little Ice Age". Ships periodically attempted the Passage and were foiled during this period, and the native Inuit people have no historical tales of the Passage being navigable at any time in the past.

The Northwest passage may have been open multiple years in a row for ice-free navigation at some period during the Medieval Warm Period, between 1000 and 1300 AD. A better candidate was the period 6,000 - 8,500 years ago, when the Earth's orbital variations brought more sunlight to the Arctic in summer than at present. Funder and Kjaer (2007) found extensive systems of wave generated beach ridges along the North Greenland coast that suggested the Arctic Ocean was ice-free in the summer for over 1,000 years during that period. Prior to that, the next likely time was during the last inter-glacial period, 120,000 years ago. Arctic temperatures then were 2 - 3°C higher than present-day temperatures, and sea levels were 4-6 meters higher.

However, it is possible that the recent summer low-ice conditions in the Arctic are unprecedented for the past 800,000 years, according to a 2011 press release by Project CLAMER, a European group dedicated to climate change and European marine ecosystem research. They found that a tiny species of plankton called Neodenticula seminae that went extinct in the North Atlantic 800,000 years ago has become a resident of the Atlantic again, having drifted from the Pacific through the Arctic Ocean thanks to dramatically reduced polar ice. The 1999 discovery represents "the first evidence of a trans-Arctic migration in modern times" related to plankton, according to the UK-based Sir Alister Hardy Foundation for Ocean Science, whose researchers warn that "such a geographical shift could transform the biodiversity and functioning of the Arctic and North Atlantic marine ecosystems."

It is possible we'll have a better idea of historical ice-free conditions in the Arctic in the next few years. A new technique that examines organic compounds left behind in Arctic sediments by diatoms that live in sea ice give hope that a detailed record of sea ice extent extending back to the end of the Ice Age 12,000 years ago may be possible (Belt et al., 2007). The researchers are studying sediments along the Northwest Passage in hopes of being able to determine when the Passage was open during the past 12,000 years.

References
Belt, S.T., G. Masse, S.J. Rowland, M. Poulin, C. Michel, and B. LeBlanc, "A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25", Organic Geochemistry, Volume 38, Issue 1, January 2007, Pages 16-27.

Funder, S. and K.H. Kjaer, 2007, "A sea-ice free Arctic Ocean?", Geophys. Res. Abstr. 9 (2007), p. 07815.

Walsh, J.E and W.L.Chapman, 2001, "Twentieth-century sea ice variations from observational data", Annals of Glaciology, 33, Number 1, January 2001 , pp. 444-448.

August 2011: Earth's 4th - 8th warmest on record
August 2011 was the globe's 8th warmest August on record, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies rated August the 4th warmest on record. Land temperatures during August were the 2nd warmest on record, and ocean temperatures were the 12th warmest on record. Ocean temperatures in the Atlantic Ocean's Main Development Region (MDR) for hurricanes, from the coast of Africa to the coast of Central America between 10°N and 20°N latitude, were 0.8°C above average, the 4rd warmest August on record. Global satellite-measured temperatures for the lowest 8 km of the atmosphere were the 6th or 3rd warmest in the 34-year record, according to Remote Sensing Systems and the University of Alabama Huntsville (UAH). For more details on global extremes during August, see the details from weather historian Christopher C. Burt.


Figure 2. Departure of temperature from average for August 2011. Image credit: National Climatic Data Center (NCDC).

Maria hits Newfoundland
Hurricane Maria hit Newfoundland, Canada yesterday afternoon near 3:30 pm local time as a Category 1 hurricane with 75 mph winds. However, the hurricane's strongest winds were over water, and the storm brought very little in the way of strong winds or heavy rain to the island. Cape Race at the southeast tip of Newfoundland saw sustained winds of 41 mph, gusting to 54 mph at 3:30 pm Friday as the center of the storm passed. Winds in the capital of St. John's peaked at 37 mph, gusting to 46 mph, at 10:30 am local time. Maria's strike makes this Newfoundland's second consecutive year with a hurricane strike, something that has never occurred since hurricane record keeping began in 1851. Last year, Hurricane Igor killed one person on Newfoundland, and damage exceeded $100 million, making Igor the most damaging tropical cyclone in Newfoundland history.


Figure 3. Satellite image of Hurricane Maria taken at 12:15 pm EDT September 16, 2011. At the time, Maria was a Category 1 hurricane with 75 mph winds. Image credit: NOAA Environmental Visualization Lab.

Invest 97L
For the first day since August 18, we don't have a named storm in the Atlantic. However, we have a new area to watch. A tropical wave that moved off the coast of Africa Friday and is now 300 miles south of the Cape Verde Islands is moving west at 10 - 15 mph. The wave has developed a modest amount of heavy thunderstorm activity and spin, and has been designated Invest 97L by NHC. Wind shear as diagnosed by the SHIPS model is light, 5 - 10 knots, and is predicted to stay light to moderate through Tuesday morning. Ocean temperatures are 27.5°C, one degree above the threshold typically needed for a tropical storm to spin up. Water vapor satellite images show 97L is embedded in a moist environment.

Most of the models develop 97L into a tropical depression by Tuesday; NHC gave the disturbance a 20% chance of developing into a tropical depression by Monday in their 2 pm Tropical Weather Outlook. 97L should head west or west-northwest towards the Lesser Antilles over the next six days, and could arrive in the islands as early as Friday--though most of the models predict a later arrival. It is likely 97L will encounter the usual troubles storms this year have had with wind shear and dry air on the long trek across the Atlantic.

I'll have a new post on Monday, when I'll discuss the long-range hurricane outlook for the rest of September.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting TomTaylor:
egad?


Yes, egad.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
What is that near the Bahamas?
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:


No...you aren't going for a run. You're going to watch your brother (how old?).
I don't have to watch him yet, he's at a soccer game right now. I have to watch him tonight. So in the meantime I can go for a run :p

and he's 11
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Quoting JLPR2:


Usually there is a response lag between the ENSO change and when the Atmosphere feels it.
yeah, usually that's the case.

Since we never went into an El Nino and just kind of meandered around neutral, the atmosphere has done the same. I guess what you said earlier isn't really wrong, the atmosphere is around neutral right now, but it's more of a La Nina bias than El Nino.
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Quoting Tazmanian:
wind shear looks more like late OCT or NOV


yes very hostile for any development...
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372. JLPR2
Quoting beell:
326. ProgressivePulse 11:52 PM GMT on September 17, 2011
Quoting JLPR2:
2005's Hurricane Philippe formed today, six years ago.


Hard to imagine we are only one storm behind 2005 ATM.

16(Phillipe)-14(Nate)=2
: - )


Ha!
I can't believe I didn't notice thatXD.
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8698
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:


not too much action going on there... that's why


But even in the downtimes we had humor and lots of learning going on... Oh well...
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Quoting TomTaylor:
same here.

have to watch my brother all night while my parents go to a party, so I got nothing to do. blog is slow too.

Think I might go for a run


No...you aren't going for a run. You're going to watch your brother (how old?).
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
Quoting druseljic:


What has happened to be the blog lately. Just doesn't seem the same. Used to be fun and informative...

Well, the constant bickering and mass trolling has greatly degraded the quality of the blog. A lot of good members barely post anymore.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomTaylor:
same here.

have to watch my brother all night while my parents go to a party, so I got nothing to do. blog is slow too.

Think I might go for a run
How can you go for a run when you are watching your brother? Treadmill?
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 602
367. JLPR2
Quoting TomTaylor:
What makes you say that (the bold part)?



Usually there is a response lag between the ENSO change and when the Atmosphere feels it.
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8698
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
EGAD:

http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/gtwo/two_epac.gif
egad?
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Quoting druseljic:


What has happened to be the blog lately. Just doesn't seem the same. Used to be fun and informative...


not too much action going on there... that's why
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Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

XD No. But I'm seriously bored. lol


What has happened to be the blog lately. Just doesn't seem the same. Used to be fun and informative...
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EGAD:



Additionally, the models are hinting at tropical development in the EPAC over the next few days...not from that, but the area of thunderstorms farther west. The EPAC may be able to squeeze out one more named storm.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

XD No. But I'm seriously bored. lol
same here.

have to watch my brother all night while my parents go to a party, so I got nothing to do. blog is slow too.

Think I might go for a run
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:


You're not really rolling on the floor laughing, are you? You'll get dirty....

XD No. But I'm seriously bored. lol
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360. beell
326. ProgressivePulse 11:52 PM GMT on September 17, 2011
Quoting JLPR2:
2005's Hurricane Philippe formed today, six years ago.


Hard to imagine we are only one storm behind 2005 ATM.

16(Phillipe)-14(Nate)=2
: - )
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JUSTPLAINWRONG:
just watch how they change the forcast and track of 97 every hour or 2 up to 30% down to 10% up to 60% down to 20% then its going this way then going that way then falling apart then regenerating then heading towards florida then falling apart then heading towards bermuda then stalling for 1 week they have no idea whats gonna happen but i know it will be nothing or a fish if it even develops and thats a huge if no matter what the models say they have been wrong all year with every storm intensity and track so why rack your brains for the next 10 days


I know I am responding to a troll, but maybe this needs to be said (again?)...

Models, any kind of models (weather-related or not), are most accurate for the short term and least accurate for the long term.

Everyone knows this.

Even in software engineering, models/processes are not very good at predicting quantitative results near the end of the project, but do a pretty good job in short term estimates.

There are just too many variables that can completely change the outlook down the road.

So anyone that bashes the tropical models for their accuracy over the long term is just being silly or ignorant :)


(from a long time lurker)
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Looks like the yellow crayon is getting some use today, 2 blobs to watch now
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hmmm odd i was thinking it went too 1009mb at one point
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115128
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:


y?
lol.

It's what I do when I don't want to waste my post at the bottom of a blog page. People rarely read the last few posts on the bottom of the page.

I put something in there now, so it doesn't look like spam though lol
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Wow Maria...


The most beautiful sound I ever heard
All the beautiful sounds of the world in a single word
Maria
I just met a girl named Maria
And suddenly that name
Will never be the same
To me
Maria
I just kissed a girl named Maria
And suddenly I found
How wonderful a sound
Can be
Maria
Say it loud and there's music playing
Say it soft and it's almost like praying
Maria
I'll never stop saying
Maria
Maria, Maria...
Maria
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Quoting JLPR2:
The atmosphere must still be acting as if we were in a Cold Neutral ENSO, but it should switch to a la Niña pattern later. And usually when we have a La Niña the season ends later than usual.

I'm thinking we could see a late season boom, like last year.
What makes you say that (the bold part)?

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Quoting TomTaylor:
x


y?
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
Quoting SyriboTigereyes:
What is that thing in the mid-atlantic? The big swirl? Sorry for the horrible terminology. I'm sure it's something normal, but it just sticks out with every map or satellite or radar that I look at!


upper low
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What is that thing in the mid-atlantic? The big swirl? Sorry for the horrible terminology. I'm sure it's something normal, but it just sticks out with every map or satellite or radar that I look at!
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Quoting Tazmanian:





the mb did go up one from 1009mb to 1010mb


Its been 1010 mb. since it was declared as an invest.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
Wow Maria...

massive wind field
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Most of the models develop 97L into a tropical depression by Tuesday; NHC gave the disturbance a 20% chance of developing into a tropical depression by Monday in their 2 pm Tropical Weather Outlook. 97L should head west or west-northwest towards the Lesser Antilles over the next six days, and could arrive in the islands as early as Friday--though most of the models predict a later arrival. It is likely 97L will encounter the usual troubles storms this year have had with wind shear and dry air on the long trek across the Atlantic.
-- Jeff Masters
Member Since: July 11, 2006 Posts: 14 Comments: 11328
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:
No change in 97L:

AL, 97, 2011091800, , BEST, 0, 115N, 235W, 20, 1010, LO, 34, NEQ, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1012, 200, 75, 0, 0, L, 0, , 0, 0, INVEST, S,





the mb did go up one from 1009mb to 1010mb
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115128
Quoting BDADUDE:
He could not type it if he was rolling on the floor laughing.


lol
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Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:


You're not really rolling on the floor laughing, are you? You'll get dirty....
He could not type it if he was rolling on the floor laughing.
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 602
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 171 Comments: 53841
Quoting JLPR2:
The atmosphere must still be acting as if we were in a Cold Neutral ENSO, but it should switch to a la Niña pattern later. And usually when we have a La Niña the season ends later than usual.

I'm thinking we could see a late season boom, like last year.
Anything is possible, but I think those of us on the Northern GC are probably safe now from a major hit.

Something is bound to stir up sooner or later in the Caribbean. Just hope it remains weak also.
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Wow Maria...

Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

ROFL!


You're not really rolling on the floor laughing, are you? You'll get dirty....
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
No change in 97L:

AL, 97, 2011091800, , BEST, 0, 115N, 235W, 20, 1010, LO, 34, NEQ, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1012, 200, 75, 0, 0, L, 0, , 0, 0, INVEST, S,
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
800 PM EDT SAT SEP 17 2011

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

1. AN ELONGATED AREA OF LOW PRESSURE LOCATED A FEW HUNDRED MILES SOUTH AND OF THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (?what?) IS PRODUCING LIMITED SHOWER ACTIVITY.
HOWEVER...SOME SLOW DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SYSTEM IS POSSIBLE DURING
THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS AS IT MOVES WESTWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS
SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...20 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL
CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

2. A BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE HAS DEVELOPED OVER THE CENTRAL TROPICAL
ATLANTIC ABOUT MIDWAY BETWEEN THE LESSER ANTILLES AND AFRICA.
THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY IS DISORGANIZED AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT...IF
ANY...OF THIS LARGE DISTURBANCE SHOULD BE SLOW TO OCCUR AS IT MOVES
WESTWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...10
PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS
.

ROFL!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JLPR2:


LOL! Looks like Steward had a little problem doing some copy/paste. XD


right? lol
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
800 PM EDT SAT SEP 17 2011

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

1. AN ELONGATED AREA OF LOW PRESSURE LOCATED A FEW HUNDRED MILES SOUTH AND OF THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (?what?) IS PRODUCING LIMITED SHOWER ACTIVITY.
HOWEVER...SOME SLOW DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SYSTEM IS POSSIBLE DURING
THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS AS IT MOVES WESTWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS
SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...20 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL
CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

2. A BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE HAS DEVELOPED OVER THE CENTRAL TROPICAL
ATLANTIC ABOUT MIDWAY BETWEEN THE LESSER ANTILLES AND AFRICA.
THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY IS DISORGANIZED AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT...IF
ANY...OF THIS LARGE DISTURBANCE SHOULD BE SLOW TO OCCUR AS IT MOVES
WESTWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...10
PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS
.


LOL...they forgot west XD
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
336. JLPR2
Quoting trHUrrIXC5MMX:
TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
800 PM EDT SAT SEP 17 2011

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

1. AN ELONGATED AREA OF LOW PRESSURE LOCATED A FEW HUNDRED MILES SOUTH AND OF THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (?what?) IS PRODUCING LIMITED SHOWER ACTIVITY.
HOWEVER...SOME SLOW DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SYSTEM IS POSSIBLE DURING
THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS AS IT MOVES WESTWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS
SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...20 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL
CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.



LOL! Looks like Stewart had a little problem doing some copy/paste. XD
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8698
Quoting JLPR2:
The atmosphere must still be acting as if we were in a Cold Neutral ENSO, but it should switch to a la Niña pattern later. And usually when we have a La Niña the season ends later than usual.

I'm thinking we could see a late season boom, like last year.


Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
TROPICAL WEATHER OUTLOOK
NWS NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL
800 PM EDT SAT SEP 17 2011

FOR THE NORTH ATLANTIC...CARIBBEAN SEA AND THE GULF OF MEXICO...

1. AN ELONGATED AREA OF LOW PRESSURE LOCATED A FEW HUNDRED MILES SOUTH AND OF THE CAPE VERDE ISLANDS (?what?) IS PRODUCING LIMITED SHOWER ACTIVITY.
HOWEVER...SOME SLOW DEVELOPMENT OF THIS SYSTEM IS POSSIBLE DURING
THE NEXT COUPLE OF DAYS AS IT MOVES WESTWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS
SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...20 PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL
CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS.

2. A BROAD AREA OF LOW PRESSURE HAS DEVELOPED OVER THE CENTRAL TROPICAL
ATLANTIC ABOUT MIDWAY BETWEEN THE LESSER ANTILLES AND AFRICA.
THUNDERSTORM ACTIVITY IS DISORGANIZED AND FURTHER DEVELOPMENT...IF
ANY...OF THIS LARGE DISTURBANCE SHOULD BE SLOW TO OCCUR AS IT MOVES
WESTWARD AT 10 TO 15 MPH. THIS SYSTEM HAS A LOW CHANCE...10
PERCENT...OF BECOMING A TROPICAL CYCLONE DURING THE NEXT 48 HOURS
.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
333. JLPR2
The atmosphere must still be acting as if we were in a Cold Neutral ENSO, but it should switch to a la Niña pattern later. And usually when we have a La Niña the season ends later than usual.

I'm thinking we could see a late season boom, like last year.
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8698
If Philippe forms before September 27, it will be the second earliest formation of the sixteenth named storm, behind Philippe from 2005, which was just pointed out.

I think we'll see Philippe by the 27th.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
lol...

Philippe (2005) weakened because of an ULL to its west, similar to where the ULL is now.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32072
330. JLPR2
Quoting BDADUDE:
Only time will tell.


That I agree with.
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8698
Quoting Landfall2004:


I love Chrome. At first I thought it was my older computer and I upgraded my RAM, then I was on the phone w/ Comcast, blaming the for my miserable download speed and they checked my line, said it was fine and told me to check my browser. I was using IE and changed to Chrome. Wow, super fast, what a difference........ and saved me from buying a new computer.


Yeah, I started using it a few months after it came out and have preferred it every since. Firefox is good too but I just find that after it has been up for a while with a few tabs open it leaks like crazy. I have had a Firefox browser session consuming over 1gb of RAM within 12 hours of being opened.

Chrome is also nice in that it shows a chrome.exe process for each tab which means better memory management.
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Quoting ProgressivePulse:


Hard to imagine we are only one storm behind 2005 ATM.


Might end up one storm ahead/even soon at this rate.
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Quoting JLPR2:


In no way that shows a Katia, similar track to Maria, yes, Katia, no.

Only time will tell.
Member Since: September 3, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 602

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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