Caribbean disturbance slow to develop; 5 EF-5 tornadoes this year confirmed

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:33 PM GMT on June 03, 2011

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The tropical disturbance (Invest 93L) that crossed over Florida on Wednesday, bringing welcome rains of 1 - 3 inches, is now a naked swirl of low clouds over the central Gulf of Mexico. The disturbance is embedded in a large area of dry air associated with an upper level low pressure system, and this dry air is discouraging development. 93L is also moving into a region of moderate wind shear of 10 - 20 knots, and NHC is giving 93L a 0% chance of developing into a tropical depression before the storm makes landfall in Mexico south of Brownsville on Saturday. There are a few heavy thunderstorms trying to fire up near the center of 93L's fairly well-formed circulation, but I don't think this storm is going to bring more than 1 - 2 inches of rain to the coast on Saturday.


Figure 1. Morning satellite image of the Central Caribbean disturbance.

Central Caribbean disturbance 94L
Disorganized heavy thunderstorm activity continues in the region between Central America and Jamaica. Wind shear has fallen to the moderate range, 10 - 20 knots, and is predicted to continue to fall over the next two days. This should allow the disturbance, dubbed Invest 94L by NHC on Friday afternoon, to increase in organization, though it will take many days for it to approach tropical depression status, since it is so large and poorly organized. The last two runs of the NOGAPS model have developed the disturbance into a tropical depression or storm by early next week, with the system moving northwards into Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, and eastern Cuba. The other major models do not show the disturbance developing during the coming week. NHC is giving the disturbance a 10% of developing into a tropical depression by Sunday. A surge of moisture accompanying a tropical wave may aid development when the wave arrives in the Western Caribbean on Sunday. Water temperatures in the Central Caribbean are about 1°C above average, 29°C, which is plenty warm enough to support development of a tropical storm. Residents of Jamaica, eastern Cuba, the Cayman Islands, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic should anticipate the possibility that heavy rains of 2 - 4 inches may affect them today through Sunday.

Five EF-5 tornadoes confirmed in 2011
The National Weather Service in Oklahoma City announced Wednesday that the violent tornado that hit Binger, El Reno, Peidmont, and Guthrie, Oklahoma on May 24, killing nine people, was an EF-5 with winds greater than 210 mph. The rating was given based on measurements made by a University of Oklahoma portable "Doppler on wheels" radar. The long track, large wedge tornado caused extensive damage, with well built houses cleanly swept from their foundation and trees debarked. This tornado brings the total number of EF-5 tornadoes this year to five, tying 2011 with 1953 for 2nd place for greatest number of these top-end tornadoes in one year. Only 1974 (six) had more. The EF-5 tornadoes of 2011:

1) The April 27, 2011 Neshoba/Kemper/Winston/Noxubee Counties, Mississippi tornado (3 killed, 29 mile path length.)

2) The April 27, 2011 Smithville, Mississippi tornado (22 killed, 15 mile path length.)

3) The April 27, 2011 Hackleburg, Alabama tornado (71 killed, 25 mile path length.)

4) The May 22, 2011 Joplin Missouri tornado (138 killed, 14 mile path length.)

5) The May 24, 2011 Binger-El Reno-Peidmont-Guthrie, Oklahoma tornado. (9 killed, 75 mile path length.)


Figure 2. Aerial view of damage from the May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado. Image credit: Wikipedia.

A few other remarkable statistics on the tornado season of 2011, compiled from NOAA's official press release and Wikipedia's excellent tornado pages:

- The April 25 - 28 tornado outbreak, with 330 tornadoes, was the largest tornado outbreak of three days or less duration on record. The previous record was 148 tornadoes, set during the April 3 - 4, 1974 Super Outbreak.

- For April 27, 186 tornadoes have been confirmed. This is the largest 1-day tornado total on record, beating the 148 recorded in 24 hours on April 3 - 4, 1974.

- The April 14 - 16 tornado outbreak, with 162 confirmed tornadoes, ranks as the fourth largest tornado outbreak of three days or less duration on record.

- The May 21 - 26 tornado outbreak, with 158 confirmed tornadoes, ranks as the 5th largest 6-day or shorter tornado outbreak on record. A May 2003 6-day outbreak had 289 tornadoes, and a May 2004 6-day outbreak had 229 tornadoes. The year 2011 now has three of the top five tornado outbreaks on record.

- April confirmed tornado total was 683, making it the busiest tornado month on record. The previous record was 542 tornadoes, set in May 2003. The previous April record was 267 tornadoes, which occurred in April 1974. The 30-year average for April tornadoes is 135.

- If the three deaths in Massachusetts from Wednesday's tornadoes are confirmed, this year's tornado death toll will be 522, beating 1953 as the deadliest tornado year since modern tornado records began. That year, 519 people died, and three heavily populated cities received direct hits by violent tornadoes. Waco, Texas (114 killed), Flint, Michigan (115 killed), and Worcester, Massachusetts (90 killed) all were hit by violent F-4 or F-5 tornadoes. A similar bad tornado year occurred in 1936, when violent tornadoes hit Tupelo Mississippi (216 killed), and Gainesville, Georgia (203 killed.) During that time period, the tornado death rate per million people was 60 - 70 times as great as in the year 2000 (Figure 4), implying that this year's tornadoes would have killed many thousands of people had we not had our modern tornado modern warning system.

- The May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado killed 138 people and injured 1150, making it the deadliest U.S. tornado since 1947, and 8th deadliest in history. The $1 - $3 billion estimate of insured damage makes it the most expensive tornado in history.

- Damage from the April 25 - 28 super tornado outbreak was estimated at $3.5 - $6 billion, making it the most expensive tornado outbreak of all-time.

- The tornado that hit Springfield, Massachusetts on June 1 was at least an EF-3 with 136 - 165 mph winds. It was only the 9th EF-3 or stronger tornado to hit Massachusetts since 1950, and the third deadliest, with three deaths.

- The year 2011 now ranks in 3rd place behind 1974 and 1965 for highest number of strong to violent EF-3, EF-4, and EF-5 tornadoes (Figure 3.)


Figure 3. Number of strong to violent EF-3, EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes from 1950 to 2011. The year 2011 now ranks in 3rd place behind 1974 and 1965. There is not a decades-long increasing trend in the numbers of these most dangerous of tornadoes. Image credit: NOAA/National Climatic Data Center (updated using stats for 2008 - 2011 from Wikipedia.)


Figure 4. Death rate per million people per year in U.S., 1875-2000. Thin line with dots is raw rate, curved thick line is death rate, filtered by 3-point median and 5-point running mean filter, and straight solid lines are least squares fit to filtered death rate for 1875-1925 and 1925-2000. Dashed lines are estimates of 10th and 90th percentile death rates from 1925-2000. The death rate fell from 8 per million to .12 per million between 1940 and 2000. Image credit: A Brief History of Deaths from Tornadoes in the United States, Harold Brooks and Charles Doswell III.

Joplin tornado the 7th U.S. billion-dollar weather disaster of 2011
The Joplin tornado is the 7th U.S. weather disaster of 2011 costing more than a billion dollars. With a major flooding disaster coming on the Missouri River, and hurricane season still to come, 2011 has an excellent chance of beating 2008's record of nine billion-dollar weather disasters. The billion dollar weather disasters of 2011 so far:

1) 2011 Groundhog Day's blizzard ($1- $4 billion)
2) April 3 -5 Southeast U.S. severe weather outbreak ($2 billion)
3) April 8 - 11 severe weather outbreak ($2.25 billion)
4) April 25 - 28 super tornado outbreak ($3.5 - $6 billion)
5) Mississippi River flood of 2011 ($9 billion)
6) Texas drought ($1.2 billion)
7) Joplin tornado ($1 - $3 billion)


Figure 5. River flood outlook for the U.S. Image credit: NOAA.

The next U.S. billion-dollar weather disaster: a Missouri River flood?
A great 100-year flood has arrived along the Missouri River and its tributaries from Montana to Nebraska. Record spring rains, combined with snow melt from record or near-record winter and spring snows, brought the Missouri River at Williston, North Dakota to 27.9' yesterday, just an inch short of the highest crest on record (28.0' on 4/01/1912.) Tributaries to the Missouri, such as the Souris River in North Dakota and the North Platte River in Nebraska, are already flooding at all-time record heights. With warm summer temperatures and additional rainfall expected over much of the area during the coming week, snow melt and rain runoff will swell area rivers even further, creating a damaging 100-year flood. Wunderground weather historian Christopher C. Burt has the details in his latest post, and I will be writing more on this latest epic flood next week.

I'll have a new post on Monday, or earlier if the Caribbean disturbance shows significant development.

Jeff Masters

Joplin Tornado Damage (thebige)
Joplin Tornado Damage
And Bigger.... (weatherfanatic2010)
Here it is turning into a monster.
And Bigger....

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Quoting jeffs713:
lol.

One of these days, Grothar is going to snap. Half of us will be stunned senseless, and the other half will be his targets.

(that said, Grothar, I am VERY thankful you have a good sense of humor)


LOL. No worry jeffs.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 68 Comments: 25090
Quoting Grothar:


Thanks, Lily.


he's from the time before the rocks were hard...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hello folks...
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Quoting DestinJeff:
Grothar was here when the blog was chiseled in stone. For real.


Boy, I wake up from my nap and this is what I get. Insults and fighting as to who was here first. Does it really matter? All I know is Dr. Masters was the cutest baby I ever saw.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 68 Comments: 25090
Quoting Floodman:


Yes, young fella, it does...LOL


Why Paw Paw? :-)
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Quoting NRAamy:
ha! we woke Grandpa up!

;)
lol.

One of these days, Grothar is going to snap. Half of us will be stunned senseless, and the other half will be his targets.

(that said, Grothar, I am VERY thankful you have a good sense of humor)
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I had almost forgotten about that. Thanks Amy.

;)

de nada....
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Quoting Floodman:


Yes, young fella, it does...LOL
It means EVERYTHING. Flood knows...
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ha! we woke Grandpa up!

;)
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Quoting HimacaneBrees:
Does it matter who was here first?


Yes, young fella, it does...LOL
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Quoting NRAamy:
Aqueducts is one thing. Moving tens of thousands of cubic feet of water per second across a thousand miles is another. To put it in perspective, moving 50,000 cfs of water is the equivalent of moving half of Niagara Falls... every second. That is a HUGE amount of water. And if just moving it is rough, think of the distribution network that would be needed.

sounds like a job for Tunnel Man!!!!!

:)
OMG YES.

The tunnels! They work! Let me show you my PVC-scale model that shows that I am capable of moving a bit of dye a foot or two with my tunnels! That proves my tunnels will work without fail, and everyone else is stupid and insane for not agreeing with me! *rolls eyes*

I had almost forgotten about that. Thanks Amy.
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109. HimacaneBrees 5:10 PM GMT on June 03, 2011
Does it matter who was here first?


the chicken or the egg....

or, the weather weenie or the troll?

;)
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Quoting NRAamy:
Love Grothar, he's like everybody's favorite wise grandpa!

yeah, Grandpa Munster....

;)


Thanks, Lily.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 68 Comments: 25090
Aqueducts is one thing. Moving tens of thousands of cubic feet of water per second across a thousand miles is another. To put it in perspective, moving 50,000 cfs of water is the equivalent of moving half of Niagara Falls... every second. That is a HUGE amount of water. And if just moving it is rough, think of the distribution network that would be needed.

sounds like a job for Tunnel Man!!!!!

:)
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Does it matter who was here first?
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weather underground/facebook
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 419 Comments: 127377
Quoting wildheron:


I'm in central Illinois--would gladly give you some rain or send some water down south. Our ground is so saturated that even a light 20 min. rain leaves standing water. If they can build the big canals in california, why not pipelines for water from the midwest? Would save a lot of flooding and heartache for those in the Mississippi's flood basin.

Been lurking/observing the blog for a few years now, don't post often. gotta keep track of the 'canes-my other 1/2 is from galveston area, still has most of his family there.

Love Grothar, he's like everybody's favorite wise grandpa!

Aqueducts is one thing. Moving tens of thousands of cubic feet of water per second across a thousand miles is another. To put it in perspective, moving 50,000 cfs of water is the equivalent of moving half of Niagara Falls... every second. That is a HUGE amount of water. And if just moving it is rough, think of the distribution network that would be needed. To add to the logistical nightmare... what about when the river is low? And what about the economic and ecological impact of shunting that much water?

(as reference, the California Aqueduct system has a capacity of approx 13,000 cfs)
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106. BA
I used to subscribe to accuweather pro every hurricane season because I liked JB's humor and blog, I really liked some of the models on pro like tropical ecwmf...however, now that JB left I'm not going to do it, the place he moved to wants like $17/month just for his blog heheh...not gonna happen

Anyone, have any good links to ecwmf models for atlantic tropical or other good links.

...not including wunderground of course...already a paid member :)
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..we are weather underground

Weather Underground
Listen to the podcast of Dr. Masters and Angela Fritz discuss the 2011 hurricane season. Don't miss it!

Daily Downpour
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 419 Comments: 127377
103. IKE
93L picking out a landfall location for early AM Saturday....


Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
Love Grothar, he's like everybody's favorite wise grandpa!

yeah, Grandpa Munster....

;)
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I remember StormTop... It was interesting, and I don't really remember him being too disrespectful like some other infamous people...

He just said the NHC got every storm wrong and it was going to hit NOLA as a monster.

I think he used this map:

Troll Hurricane Forecast Map

Keeping one eye on the Caribbean... though not as well as DestinJeff I suspect.
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Out here in the west the wind just wont stop blowing and we've got fires everywhere.
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Quoting zoomiami:
Someone is not wishcasting enough for rain -- not one of those models has even a little green dot over Miami.

I wondered why my plants didn't like me this year -- didn't realize it is as dry as it is. Trying to landscape in Miami is similar to trying to grow rice in the desert.

Or Texas. ;)

Both TX and SE FL (well, most of FL now) are bone-dry. With us heading into summer... lets just say that I am a bit scared for how long this drought will go on (we aren't on water restrictions... yet), and also how it will eventually break (Mother Nature has a way of evening the score when things get out of whack).
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Quoting JNCali:
So with the flood situation on the Missouri... What would it take to create a flood basin along the river (and the Miss.. too) which could attach to aqueducts leading to drought prone areas in the South and TX?
We are spending soooooo much money on god knows what these days... There has to be a way of logically harnessing this tremendously valuable resource (fresh water) before it hits the Gulf of Mexico..
Seeing all that water sitting just sitting around waiting to evaporate is ridiculous.. In a few years when water starts getting expensive we are gonna hate that we let all this go to waste..


I'm in central Illinois--would gladly give you some rain or send some water down south. Our ground is so saturated that even a light 20 min. rain leaves standing water. If they can build the big canals in california, why not pipelines for water from the midwest? Would save a lot of flooding and heartache for those in the Mississippi's flood basin.

Been lurking/observing the blog for a few years now, don't post often. gotta keep track of the 'canes-my other 1/2 is from galveston area, still has most of his family there.

Love Grothar, he's like everybody's favorite wise grandpa!
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Quoting DestinJeff:


you know what they say: Great minds think like me.

Either that, or insanity knows no bounds. (for the record, I actually typed out "and Grothar was here when the blog was chiseled onto stone tablets", but didn't post it b/c my boss asked me to work on an urgent e-mail)
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Someone is not wishcasting enough for rain -- not one of those models has even a little green dot over Miami.

I wondered why my plants didn't like me this year -- didn't realize it is as dry as it is. Trying to landscape in Miami is similar to trying to grow rice in the desert.
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I started reading in May of '05, became a member shortly thereafter.

Ohhhh, back in the day. I sure miss Leftyy and StormTop.
Member Since: August 13, 2005 Posts: 163 Comments: 25704
Quoting aquak9:
No, he wasn't banned. Never was. But the email and password for the original StormTop, are gone forever.

Ok thank you. Sounds like he just decided to take some time off? I've been lurking a few years but don't recall a StormTop. I remember StormW
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Hey, hey I've been reading this blog for quite some time. I just don't post often. I think I've been following this blog on a daily basis since summer of 2008 ? Yep.
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it's dump on Grothar Friday....

;)
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Quoting DestinJeff:
I was here when the blog was displayed on overhead transparancies.


I think Grothar was here before that?
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86. IKE
Latest NOGAPS is hanging on to it...... try this link>>> https://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/wxmap_cgi/index.html
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
No, he wasn't banned. Never was. But the email and password for the original StormTop, are gone forever.
Member Since: August 13, 2005 Posts: 163 Comments: 25704
Destin, you are too fast for me...

;)

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83. IKE

Quoting DestinJeff:


Oh, it's a biggie alright! I think we can all agree to that.

And it's good too!


Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
77. DestinJeff 4:42 PM GMT on June 03, 2011
I was here when the blog was displayed on overhead transparancies.




hahahahahaha!

:)

Grothar was here when the blog was displayed on the Rosetta Stone....

;)
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Quoting IKE:

If I'm wrong I'm sorry. Just seems like his style. No biggie. I think.


it's ok, Ike. I'm not mad or anything. Time will tell, it always does.
Member Since: August 13, 2005 Posts: 163 Comments: 25704
Quoting NRAamy:
I still miss the guy.....

Was he banned?
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Quoting JNCali:
So with the flood situation on the Missouri... What would it take to create a flood basin along the river (and the Miss.. too) which could attach to aqueducts leading to drought prone areas in the South and TX?
We are spending soooooo much money on god knows what these days... There has to be a way of logically harnessing this tremendously valuable resource (fresh water) before it hits the Gulf of Mexico..
Seeing all that water sitting just sitting around waiting to evaporate is ridiculous.. In a few years when water starts getting expensive we are gonna hate that we let all this go to waste..
im with ya JN im in sooo cal and we had a good wet year this winter and the sierra's got dumped on big time, but we gonna waste alot of it too. some lakes full down here and water running over the dams, sending water out to the ocean
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I still miss the guy.....
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Quoting pressureman:
The tropics are very quiet on the 3rd day of june im happy to report...I dont see anything that could give anyone problems for at least the next 10 days..So everyone can breathe a sigh of relief for the moment...I for one know BOB BRECK is very happy with this...BOB you are doing a find job keep up the good work you and your staff...

The AOI in the Caribbean CLEARLY has a chance for developing.Conditions maybe aren't good for now,but they're improving and I think in next week we'll se TD One somewhere in the Caribbean
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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.