Caribbean disturbance slow to develop; 5 EF-5 tornadoes this year confirmed

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:33 PM GMT on June 03, 2011

Share this Blog
8
+

The tropical disturbance (Invest 93L) that crossed over Florida on Wednesday, bringing welcome rains of 1 - 3 inches, is now a naked swirl of low clouds over the central Gulf of Mexico. The disturbance is embedded in a large area of dry air associated with an upper level low pressure system, and this dry air is discouraging development. 93L is also moving into a region of moderate wind shear of 10 - 20 knots, and NHC is giving 93L a 0% chance of developing into a tropical depression before the storm makes landfall in Mexico south of Brownsville on Saturday. There are a few heavy thunderstorms trying to fire up near the center of 93L's fairly well-formed circulation, but I don't think this storm is going to bring more than 1 - 2 inches of rain to the coast on Saturday.


Figure 1. Morning satellite image of the Central Caribbean disturbance.

Central Caribbean disturbance 94L
Disorganized heavy thunderstorm activity continues in the region between Central America and Jamaica. Wind shear has fallen to the moderate range, 10 - 20 knots, and is predicted to continue to fall over the next two days. This should allow the disturbance, dubbed Invest 94L by NHC on Friday afternoon, to increase in organization, though it will take many days for it to approach tropical depression status, since it is so large and poorly organized. The last two runs of the NOGAPS model have developed the disturbance into a tropical depression or storm by early next week, with the system moving northwards into Jamaica, the Cayman Islands, and eastern Cuba. The other major models do not show the disturbance developing during the coming week. NHC is giving the disturbance a 10% of developing into a tropical depression by Sunday. A surge of moisture accompanying a tropical wave may aid development when the wave arrives in the Western Caribbean on Sunday. Water temperatures in the Central Caribbean are about 1°C above average, 29°C, which is plenty warm enough to support development of a tropical storm. Residents of Jamaica, eastern Cuba, the Cayman Islands, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic should anticipate the possibility that heavy rains of 2 - 4 inches may affect them today through Sunday.

Five EF-5 tornadoes confirmed in 2011
The National Weather Service in Oklahoma City announced Wednesday that the violent tornado that hit Binger, El Reno, Peidmont, and Guthrie, Oklahoma on May 24, killing nine people, was an EF-5 with winds greater than 210 mph. The rating was given based on measurements made by a University of Oklahoma portable "Doppler on wheels" radar. The long track, large wedge tornado caused extensive damage, with well built houses cleanly swept from their foundation and trees debarked. This tornado brings the total number of EF-5 tornadoes this year to five, tying 2011 with 1953 for 2nd place for greatest number of these top-end tornadoes in one year. Only 1974 (six) had more. The EF-5 tornadoes of 2011:

1) The April 27, 2011 Neshoba/Kemper/Winston/Noxubee Counties, Mississippi tornado (3 killed, 29 mile path length.)

2) The April 27, 2011 Smithville, Mississippi tornado (22 killed, 15 mile path length.)

3) The April 27, 2011 Hackleburg, Alabama tornado (71 killed, 25 mile path length.)

4) The May 22, 2011 Joplin Missouri tornado (138 killed, 14 mile path length.)

5) The May 24, 2011 Binger-El Reno-Peidmont-Guthrie, Oklahoma tornado. (9 killed, 75 mile path length.)


Figure 2. Aerial view of damage from the May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado. Image credit: Wikipedia.

A few other remarkable statistics on the tornado season of 2011, compiled from NOAA's official press release and Wikipedia's excellent tornado pages:

- The April 25 - 28 tornado outbreak, with 330 tornadoes, was the largest tornado outbreak of three days or less duration on record. The previous record was 148 tornadoes, set during the April 3 - 4, 1974 Super Outbreak.

- For April 27, 186 tornadoes have been confirmed. This is the largest 1-day tornado total on record, beating the 148 recorded in 24 hours on April 3 - 4, 1974.

- The April 14 - 16 tornado outbreak, with 162 confirmed tornadoes, ranks as the fourth largest tornado outbreak of three days or less duration on record.

- The May 21 - 26 tornado outbreak, with 158 confirmed tornadoes, ranks as the 5th largest 6-day or shorter tornado outbreak on record. A May 2003 6-day outbreak had 289 tornadoes, and a May 2004 6-day outbreak had 229 tornadoes. The year 2011 now has three of the top five tornado outbreaks on record.

- April confirmed tornado total was 683, making it the busiest tornado month on record. The previous record was 542 tornadoes, set in May 2003. The previous April record was 267 tornadoes, which occurred in April 1974. The 30-year average for April tornadoes is 135.

- If the three deaths in Massachusetts from Wednesday's tornadoes are confirmed, this year's tornado death toll will be 522, beating 1953 as the deadliest tornado year since modern tornado records began. That year, 519 people died, and three heavily populated cities received direct hits by violent tornadoes. Waco, Texas (114 killed), Flint, Michigan (115 killed), and Worcester, Massachusetts (90 killed) all were hit by violent F-4 or F-5 tornadoes. A similar bad tornado year occurred in 1936, when violent tornadoes hit Tupelo Mississippi (216 killed), and Gainesville, Georgia (203 killed.) During that time period, the tornado death rate per million people was 60 - 70 times as great as in the year 2000 (Figure 4), implying that this year's tornadoes would have killed many thousands of people had we not had our modern tornado modern warning system.

- The May 22, 2011 Joplin, Missouri tornado killed 138 people and injured 1150, making it the deadliest U.S. tornado since 1947, and 8th deadliest in history. The $1 - $3 billion estimate of insured damage makes it the most expensive tornado in history.

- Damage from the April 25 - 28 super tornado outbreak was estimated at $3.5 - $6 billion, making it the most expensive tornado outbreak of all-time.

- The tornado that hit Springfield, Massachusetts on June 1 was at least an EF-3 with 136 - 165 mph winds. It was only the 9th EF-3 or stronger tornado to hit Massachusetts since 1950, and the third deadliest, with three deaths.

- The year 2011 now ranks in 3rd place behind 1974 and 1965 for highest number of strong to violent EF-3, EF-4, and EF-5 tornadoes (Figure 3.)


Figure 3. Number of strong to violent EF-3, EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes from 1950 to 2011. The year 2011 now ranks in 3rd place behind 1974 and 1965. There is not a decades-long increasing trend in the numbers of these most dangerous of tornadoes. Image credit: NOAA/National Climatic Data Center (updated using stats for 2008 - 2011 from Wikipedia.)


Figure 4. Death rate per million people per year in U.S., 1875-2000. Thin line with dots is raw rate, curved thick line is death rate, filtered by 3-point median and 5-point running mean filter, and straight solid lines are least squares fit to filtered death rate for 1875-1925 and 1925-2000. Dashed lines are estimates of 10th and 90th percentile death rates from 1925-2000. The death rate fell from 8 per million to .12 per million between 1940 and 2000. Image credit: A Brief History of Deaths from Tornadoes in the United States, Harold Brooks and Charles Doswell III.

Joplin tornado the 7th U.S. billion-dollar weather disaster of 2011
The Joplin tornado is the 7th U.S. weather disaster of 2011 costing more than a billion dollars. With a major flooding disaster coming on the Missouri River, and hurricane season still to come, 2011 has an excellent chance of beating 2008's record of nine billion-dollar weather disasters. The billion dollar weather disasters of 2011 so far:

1) 2011 Groundhog Day's blizzard ($1- $4 billion)
2) April 3 -5 Southeast U.S. severe weather outbreak ($2 billion)
3) April 8 - 11 severe weather outbreak ($2.25 billion)
4) April 25 - 28 super tornado outbreak ($3.5 - $6 billion)
5) Mississippi River flood of 2011 ($9 billion)
6) Texas drought ($1.2 billion)
7) Joplin tornado ($1 - $3 billion)


Figure 5. River flood outlook for the U.S. Image credit: NOAA.

The next U.S. billion-dollar weather disaster: a Missouri River flood?
A great 100-year flood has arrived along the Missouri River and its tributaries from Montana to Nebraska. Record spring rains, combined with snow melt from record or near-record winter and spring snows, brought the Missouri River at Williston, North Dakota to 27.9' yesterday, just an inch short of the highest crest on record (28.0' on 4/01/1912.) Tributaries to the Missouri, such as the Souris River in North Dakota and the North Platte River in Nebraska, are already flooding at all-time record heights. With warm summer temperatures and additional rainfall expected over much of the area during the coming week, snow melt and rain runoff will swell area rivers even further, creating a damaging 100-year flood. Wunderground weather historian Christopher C. Burt has the details in his latest post, and I will be writing more on this latest epic flood next week.

I'll have a new post on Monday, or earlier if the Caribbean disturbance shows significant development.

Jeff Masters

Joplin Tornado Damage (thebige)
Joplin Tornado Damage
And Bigger.... (weatherfanatic2010)
Here it is turning into a monster.
And Bigger....

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 2874 - 2824

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75Blog Index

Quoting tropicfreak:


Not again....

Impressive Low...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Vincent4989:

i was posting raw footage of monstrous joplin tornado
That would have been acceptable to admin.
Don't look to me for instructions though. Some times I can get it to work, sometimes I clog up the blog mostly I just get frustrated. Why I mostly stick to links.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting sunlinepr:
Seems like the next round of twisters is on the way....



Not again....
Member Since: September 2, 2006 Posts: 110 Comments: 6877
Quoting clwstmchasr:


Agreed. I never had confidence that it would develop. I wouldn't be surprised to see it open up into a trough of low pressure.


It's Dmin that is inhibiting it, hasn't shown signs of it dying, just weakening.
Member Since: September 2, 2006 Posts: 110 Comments: 6877
Quoting wunderkidcayman:
looks like we may get a COC reforming near 16.5N 77.0W


Agreed, we can kiss the old COC goodbye.
Member Since: September 2, 2006 Posts: 110 Comments: 6877
Quoting IceCoast:


Really? What irony! You basically say "don't get trolled" and then instantly reply, doing the exact opposite of what you just previously stated.


It was a joke, because he made a good call earlier on saying it would weaken.
Member Since: September 2, 2006 Posts: 110 Comments: 6877
Quoting Levi32:
Looking ahead, conditions may be more conducive for monsoonal-type development in the western Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico by the last couple weeks of June. During this time of year, the TUTT still hasn't formed over the central Atlantic. In fact, during the last 30 days, the only persistent upper trough over the Atlantic has been over the Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Caribbean, keeping things dry there.

As we march through June, climatologically the TUTT starts developing in the central Atlantic during this month. Its signature in the 200mb height field is quite distinguished on average during the June 10-30th period. The latest runs of the GFS ensembles are also showing what appears to be a TUTT developing in the western Atlantic and reaching down into the eastern Caribbean. (see first two images below)

With the above-average amount of heat in the western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and SW Atlantic Basin, these regions are prone to upper ridging developing aloft, west of the TUTT. Such ridges can provide very favorable conditions for monsoonal tropical development, provided that central America doesn't get in the way. We saw this with Hurricane Alex in June of 2010. The same pattern is observable during the typhoon season in the western and central Pacific (see the last image below). An upper ridge develops west of the TUTT over the western Pacific warm pool. This sets up a strong equatorward outflow channel from northeast to southwest, a signature characteristic of monsoonal depressions. The same setup can occur in the Atlantic over the west hemisphere warm pool, allowing the monsoon trough to spawn the same type of systems in the western Caribbean or the Gulf of Mexico. Again, Hurricane Alex last year was the text-book example of this.

Atlantic June 10-30 Climatological Average 200mb Heights:



GFS Ensemble Average 250mb Winds Day 15:



Pacific June-September Climatological Average 200mb Heights:


thanks Levi, but I got a few questions.

Why is this set up so favorable for monsoonal lows? What does this mean for tropical waves coming off of Africa? Does this mean anything for the Azores high or NAO? What exactly causes this set up? And finally, what does this set up look like on a satellite image?

Sorry for so many questions, please understand I am only curious and wishing to learn
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Seems like the next round of twisters is on the way....

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
mule live webcast just started one of my favorite live rock bands the party has just begun it dry but the evenings are nice here on the beaches of e cen fl.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:
Looking ahead, conditions may be more conducive for monsoonal-type development in the western Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico by the last couple weeks of June. During this time of year, the TUTT still hasn't formed over the central Atlantic. In fact, during the last 30 days, the only persistent upper trough over the Atlantic has been over the Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Caribbean, keeping things dry there.

As we march through June, climatologically the TUTT starts developing in the central Atlantic during this month. Its signature in the 200mb height field is quite distinguished on average during the June 10-30th period. The latest runs of the GFS ensembles are also showing what appears to be a TUTT developing in the western Atlantic and reaching down into the eastern Caribbean. (see first two images below)

With the above-average amount of heat in the western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and SW Atlantic Basin, these regions are prone to upper ridging developing aloft, west of the TUTT. Such ridges can provide very favorable conditions for monsoonal tropical development, provided that central America doesn't get in the way. We saw this with Hurricane Alex in June of 2010. The same pattern is observable during the typhoon season in the western and central Pacific (see the last image below). An upper ridge develops west of the TUTT over the western Pacific warm pool. This sets up a strong equatorward outflow channel from northeast to southwest, a signature characteristic of monsoonal depressions. The same setup can occur in the Atlantic over the west hemisphere warm pool, allowing the monsoon trough to spawn the same type of systems in the western Caribbean or the Gulf of Mexico. Again, Hurricane Alex last year was the text-book example of this.

Atlantic June 10-30 Climatological Average 200mb Heights:



GFS Ensemble Average 250mb Winds Day 15:



Pacific June-September Climatological Average 200mb Heights:




Kinda like an old tractor, can be hard to get started but once you get it running it'll run forever.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Big low in EPac.... W Conus


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
i think we have seen all we are going too see with 94L
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
looks like we may get a COC reforming near 16.5N 77.0W
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2860. Levi32
Looking ahead, conditions may be more conducive for monsoonal-type development in the western Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico by the last couple weeks of June. During this time of year, the TUTT still hasn't formed over the central Atlantic. In fact, during the last 30 days, the only persistent upper trough over the Atlantic has been over the Gulf of Mexico and northwestern Caribbean, keeping things dry there.

As we march through June, climatologically the TUTT starts developing in the central Atlantic during this month. Its signature in the 200mb height field is quite distinguished on average during the June 10-30th period. The latest runs of the GFS ensembles are also showing what appears to be a TUTT developing in the western Atlantic and reaching down into the eastern Caribbean. (see first two images below)

With the above-average amount of heat in the western Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and SW Atlantic Basin, these regions are prone to upper ridging developing aloft, west of the TUTT. Such ridges can provide very favorable conditions for monsoonal tropical development, provided that central America doesn't get in the way. We saw this with Hurricane Alex in June of 2010. The same pattern is observable during the typhoon season in the western and central Pacific (see the last image below). An upper ridge develops west of the TUTT over the western Pacific warm pool. This sets up a strong equatorward outflow channel from northeast to southwest, a signature characteristic of monsoonal depressions. The same setup can occur in the Atlantic over the west hemisphere warm pool, allowing the monsoon trough to spawn the same type of systems in the western Caribbean or the Gulf of Mexico. Again, Hurricane Alex last year was the text-book example of this.

Atlantic June 10-30 Climatological Average 200mb Heights:



GFS Ensemble Average 250mb Winds Day 15:



Pacific June-September Climatological Average 200mb Heights:


Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26647
2859. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
next
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2858. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
bam

empty space created
thats enough of that
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting shadoclown45:
did anyone else hear of Westboro protesting outside of joplin because the tornado was because gad is angry... what morons.
those are what you call real life trolls. What they do is really messed up
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Yes it is a broad system,I dont see very much chance of this kicking off anytime soon either to much going on at the moment looks like it anyway
But mother nature has way's of making man look foolish
"Sneaky she can be"

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
NGP, GFS, CMC split 94L into 2 lows one going NE... Again?


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ShenValleyFlyFish:
Don't unless they are 100% weather related, clogs up blog and gets you banned. Post links.

i was posting raw footage of monstrous joplin tornado
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting ShenValleyFlyFish:
Makes no difference. Just a number. Same amount of server/storage space used by one 3,000 post blog or three 1,000 post blogs.
yeah, I just like having a new blog
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
did anyone else hear of Westboro protesting outside of joplin because the tornado was because god is angry foi us accepting "people" into society.... what morons.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomTaylor:

Better hope 94L shows significant development by tomorrow because this blog is 2,800 comments too many
Makes no difference. Just a number. Same amount of server/storage space used by one 3,000 post blog or three 1,000 post blogs.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2850. pottery
Hello, Shen.
Look at the Big Picture that includes South America.
The area that is producing 94L is just the NorthWestern portion of a vast area of nasty weather.
Have not seen so much cloud down this general area for a LONG time.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Vincent4989:
how can i post videos
Don't unless they are 100% weather related, clogs up blog and gets you banned. Post links.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2848. ncstorm
the GFS is still predicting the development of a storm off the NC/VA coast..I still say we may see development in that area before 94L..
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15288
Quoting blsealevel:
Very broad. Atmosphere needs to moisten up, in my opinion, before any organization into a tropical cyclone occurs, and that could take a while.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21193
EYES ON EARTH 3D

Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting DamagingWinds:
Sigh, if only we could fast-forward the hands of time to about early September already, =). That'd be WONDERFUL!


Be very careful what you wish for man.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BenBIogger:


Agree.

Should be interesting how the Tropical Wave currently entering the eastern Caribbean will interact with 94L.


The first tropical wave just entering the Caribbean region should enter the picture for Invest 94L sometime Sunday night or Monday morning.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Officially,it's the end for 93L.

NHC_ATCF
invest_DEACTIVATE_al932011.ren
FSTDA
R
U
040
010
0000
201106050039
NONE
NOTIFY=ATRP
END
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2840. xcool



Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15670
The Springfield MA tornado was rated an EF-3 with maximum winds of 160 mph. Maximum width was 1/2 mile, with a track length of 39 miles!
Here is the full storm summary from NWS Taunton MA.
Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


I'll have a new post on Monday, or earlier if the Caribbean disturbance shows significant development.

Jeff Masters

Better hope 94L shows significant development by tomorrow because this blog is 2,800 comments too many
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting cchsweatherman:


Probably won't see appreciable development until early week at the earliest with Invest 94L.

In regards to drought-stricken Florida, particularly South Florida, the weaker the system stays the better the chances for some good rains for Florida going into late week. If it develops further and does become a tropical storm, then it has a better chance of curving northeast and out to sea, leaving Florida on the dry side of things.


Agree.

Should be interesting how the Tropical Wave currently entering the eastern Caribbean will interact with 94L.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:

post 2825
That area of heavy convection just around the Gulf of Maracaibo will team up with 94L during DMax.
Keep an eye out!


Eyes on it :]
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2835. pottery
Quoting galvestonhurricane:


Completely summarizes the atmosphere on this blog...

Exactly the same way that weather systems wax and wane, the Moon too.
That's perfectly normal and understandable, on a weather blog I believe.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting kmanislander:
Oh dear, the mood of the blog waxes and wanes with the percentage rise and fall of an Invest. Dmin, Dmax, all the ebb and flow of early stage system formation. Some do and some don't. That's why we watch and wait LOL

The heat of the day combined with shear and dry air has sapped the strength of fledgling 94L. Tonight it will likely perk up again.


Completely summarizes the atmosphere on this blog...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2832. xcool
pottery ;)
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15670
2831. pottery
Quoting xcool:

post 2825
That area of heavy convection just around the Gulf of Maracaibo will team up with 94L during DMax.
Keep an eye out!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting tropicfreak:
Ignore frank, that's all I have to say.
Quoting tropicfreak:


Technically they aren't quiet. We have one invest out there in the Atlantic.


Really? What irony! You basically say "don't get trolled" and then instantly reply, doing the exact opposite of what you just previously stated.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2828. barbamz
Quoting Grothar:


die Vergasung.


Thanks, Grothar. But it might be a bit more complicated?
But this reminds me of your acquaintance (gosh, difficult word) of Socrates in the blog some days ago.
You know this Philosopher's world cup by Monty Python?
If not, enjoy!!
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=92vV3QGagck&featur e=related
But now I'm quiet about stuff, and back to 94L ...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting cchsweatherman:


Probably won't see appreciable development until early week at the earliest with Invest 94L.

In regards to drought-stricken Florida, particularly South Florida, the weaker the system stays the better the chances for some good rains for Florida going into late week. If it develops further and does become a tropical storm, then it has a better chance of curving northeast and out to sea, leaving Florida on the dry side of things.
thanks again cchs, lets wait and see looking at satelite images convection developing again with 94L
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Link
RAW footage of Joplin Tornado
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
2825. xcool
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15670
Quoting Seflhurricane:
when do you think that 94L will start getting its act together, and does it look like florida may get some good rains from it in the foreseable future


Probably won't see appreciable development until early week at the earliest with Invest 94L.

In regards to drought-stricken Florida, particularly South Florida, the weaker the system stays the better the chances for some good rains for Florida going into late week. If it develops further and does become a tropical storm, then it has a better chance of curving northeast and out to sea, leaving Florida on the dry side of things.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 2874 - 2824

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Scattered Clouds
67 °F
Scattered Clouds