CSU predicts a very active hurricane season: 16 storms, 9 hurricanes

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:30 PM GMT on June 01, 2011

Share this Blog
6
+

A very active Atlantic hurricane season is on tap for 2011, according to the seasonal hurricane forecast issued June 1 by Dr. Phil Klotzbach and Dr. Bill Gray of Colorado State University (CSU). The CSU team is calling for 16 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and 5 intense hurricanes, and an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) 166% of average. Between 1950 - 2000, the average season had 10 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 intense hurricanes. But since 1995, the beginning of an active hurricane period in the Atlantic, we've averaged 14 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 intense hurricanes per year. The new forecast is identical to their April forecast. The forecast calls for a much above-average chance of a major hurricane hitting the U.S., both along the East Coast (48% chance, 31% chance is average) and the Gulf Coast (47% chance, 30% chance is average). The risk of a major hurricane in the Caribbean is also high, at 61% (42% is average.)

The forecasters cited four main reasons for an active season:

1) Neutral to weak La Niña conditions are expected during the most active portion of this year's hurricane season (August-October). This should lead to average to below average levels of vertical wind shear.

2) Above average May sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic.

3) Below average surface pressures during May in the tropical Atlantic.

4) We are in the midst of a multi-decadal era of major hurricane activity, which began in 1995. Major hurricanes cause 80-85 percent of normalized hurricane damage.

Analogue years
The CSU team picked five previous years when atmospheric and oceanic conditions were similar to what we are seeing this year: neutral to weak La Niña conditions in the equatorial Eastern Pacific, and above-average tropical Atlantic and far north Atlantic SSTs during April - May. Those five years were 2008, which featured Hurricane Ike and Hurricane Gustav; 1996, which had two hurricanes that hit North Carolina, Fran and Bertha; 1989, which featured Category 5 Hurricane Hugo; 1981, a very average year with 12 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 intense hurricanes; and 1951, a year that featured 6 major hurricanes. The mean activity for these five years was 12 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 intense hurricanes.

How accurate are the June forecasts?
The June forecasts by the CSU team between 1998 and 2009 had a skill 19% - 30% higher than a "no-skill" climatology forecast for number of named storms, number of hurricanes, and the ACE index (Figure 1). This is a decent amount of skill for a seasonal forecast, and these June forecasts can be useful to businesses such as the insurance industry and oil and gas industry that need to make bets on how active the coming hurricane season will be. Unfortunately, the CSU June 1 forecasts do poorly at forecasting the number of major hurricanes (only 3% skill), and major hurricanes cause 80% - 85% of all hurricane damage (normalized to current population and wealth levels.) This year's June forecast uses a brand new formula never tried before, so there is no way to evaluate its performance. An Excel spreadsheet of their forecast skill (expressed as a mathematical correlation coefficient) show values from 0.41 to 0.62 for their June forecasts made between 1984 and 2010, which is respectable.


Figure 1. Comparison of the percent improvement over climatology for May and August seasonal hurricane forecasts for the Atlantic from NOAA, CSU and TSR from 1999-2009 (May) and 1998-2009 (August), using the Mean Squared Error. Image credit: Verification of 12 years of NOAA seasonal hurricane forecasts, National Hurricane Center.


Figure 2. Comparison of the percent improvement in mean square error over climatology for seasonal hurricane forecasts for the Atlantic from NOAA, CSU and TSR from 2001-2010, using the Mean Square Skill Score (MSSS). The figure shows the results using two different climatologies: a fixed 50-year (1950 - 1999) climatology, and a 2001 - 2010 climatology. Skill is poor for forecasts issued in December and April, moderate for June forecasts, and good for August forecasts. Image credit: Tropical Storm Risk, Inc.

TSR predicts 25% more activity than normal
Expect the Atlantic hurricane season to be about 25% more active than usual, the British private forecasting firm Tropical Storm Risk, Inc. (TSR) said in their pre-season forecast issued on May 24. TSR calls for 14.2 named storms, 7.6 hurricanes, 3.6 intense hurricanes, and an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) of 124, which is 22% above average. Their May 24 forecast numbers are very close to their previous forecast issued in April. TSR predicts a moderate 55% chance that activity will rank in the top 1/3 of years historically, and a 59% chance that U.S. landfalling activity will be above average. TSR rates their skill level as 16-25% higher than a "no-skill" forecast made using climatology, though an independent assessment by the National Hurricane Center (Figure 1) gives them somewhat lower skill numbers.

TSR projects that 4.4 named storms will hit the U.S., with 1.9 of these being hurricanes. The averages from the 1950-2010 climatology are 3.1 named storms and 1.5 hurricanes. They rate their skill at making these June forecasts for U.S. landfalls at 7 - 11% higher than a "no-skill" forecast made using climatology. In the Lesser Antilles Islands of the Caribbean, TSR projects 1.3 named storms, 0.6 of these being hurricanes. Climatology is 1.1 named storms and 0.5 hurricanes.

TSR cites two main factors for their forecast of an active season:

1) Their model predicts that sea surface temperatures will be 0.11°C warmer than average in August and September over the Main Development Region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes. They define this as the area between 10°N and 20°N, between the coast of Africa and Lesser Antilles Islands (20°W and 60°W). It is called the Main Development Region because virtually all African waves originate in this region. These African waves account for 85% of all Atlantic major hurricanes and 60% of all named storms. When SSTs in the MDR are much above average during hurricane season, a very active season typically results (if there is no El Niño event present.)

2) Their model predicts slower than normal trade winds in August and September over the Main Development Region (MDR). Trade winds are forecast to be 0.19 meters per second (about 0.4 mph) slower than average. This would create more spin for developing storms, and allow the oceans to warm up, due to reduced mixing of cold water from the depths and lower evaporational cooling.

FSU predicts a very active hurricane season: 17 named storms
The Florida State University (FSU) Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) issued their third annual Atlantic hurricane season forecast today. This year's forecast calls for a 70% probability of 14-20 named storms and 8-10 hurricanes. The mean forecast is for 17 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) of 163. They cite warm tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, a weakening of La Niña conditions, and the ongoing positive phase of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation as the major factors influencing their forecast.

Other seasonal forecasts
The UK Met Office's Glosea4 model is predicting a moderately more active season than normal, with 13 named storms and a ACE index of 151. The Cuba Institute of Meteorology is calling for 13 named storms and 7 hurricanes. NOAA predicts 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4.5 intense hurricanes. Pennsylvania State University predicts 16 named storms.

A surprise tropical disturbance for Florida
The Atlantic hurricane season is officially underway, and Mother Nature appears to be taking her cue from the calendar, as we have a surprise storm off the coast of Florida that is a threat to develop into a tropical depression later this week, after it crosses Florida into the Gulf of Mexico. An cluster of thunderstorms called a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) pushed across southern New England early yesterday, emerged over the ocean, and rotated clockwise towards Florida, steered by a large high pressure system centered over Kentucky. The center of the disturbance stayed over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, a region of low pressure developed, and intense thunderstorms began to build yesterday afternoon. Early this morning, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated the disturbance Invest 93L, and gave it a 10% chance of developing into a tropical depression. At 8am EDT, they upped those chances to 30%. Invest 93L is becoming increasingly organized, with Melbourne, Florida radar showing the beginnings of some rotation, with a solid band of heavy rain on the southwest side of the disturbance. The pressure and winds have leveled out at Buoy 41012, 40 nm ENE of St. Augustine, Florida. Winds peaked at 19 mph, gusting to 22 mph, at 10:50am EDT. Satellite imagery shows a small but intensifying region of thunderstorms. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are about 26°C (79°F) off the east coast of Florida, which is just warm enough to support formation of a tropical depression, and about 0.5°C above average. Wind shear is a low 5 - 10 knots, and it is likely that 93L will continue intensifying until it makes landfall over Central Florida this afternoon. A 50-mile wide swath of Florida from Daytona Beach to just north of Tampa can expect 1 - 3 inches of rain from 93L as it tracks over the state this afternoon and tonight. A Windsat pass this morning did not show a closed circulation, and I doubt 93L has enough time to develop into a tropical depression before landfall in Florida. The coast between Daytona Beach and Cocoa Beach could see wind gusts of 25 - 35 mph this afternoon, though.


Figure 3. Afternoon radar image of 93L from the Melbourne, Florida radar.

Fate of 93L once in the Gulf of Mexico
Since 93L is expected to continue its rapid west-southwest motion at 15 - 20 mph through Thursday, it will cross the Florida Peninsula in about 12 hours and emerge over the Gulf of Mexico early Thursday morning. It is possible that the passage over Florida will greatly disrupt 93L, since it is such a small system. I give a 40% chance that the storm will see its peak strength this afternoon, and not significantly regenerate over the Gulf of Mexico. However, the latest SHIPS model forecast predicts that wind shear will remain low to moderate, 5 - 15 knots, as 93L moves westwards over the Gulf of Mexico Thursday and Friday. SSTs in the Gulf are about 27°C (81°F), 0.5 - 1.0°C above average, and it is possible that 93L could gain enough strength to become Tropical Depression One as it crosses the Gulf. Since 93L will be moving parallel to the coast a short distance offshore, it is difficult to predict where the storm might make a second landfall, since a slight change in heading will make a large difference in landfall location. I don't expect widespread heavy rains from 93L along the Gulf Coast, since the storm is so small, but some locations close to the coast could receive 2 - 4 inches as 93L brushes by. Heavier rains are possible at the eventual landfall location. Since 93L is so small, the computer models are having trouble seeing the system, and are not very helpful forecasting the behavior of the storm over the Gulf of Mexico. The Hurricane Hunters are on call to fly into 93L Thursday afternoon at 2pm EDT, if necessary.

Central Caribbean disturbance
Moisture and heavy thunderstorm activity continues to slowly increase in the region between Central America and Jamaica, and wind shear is falling. With wind shear now 20 - 30 knots, we can expect this disturbance to show increased organization today, and recent satellite images show the beginnings of a surface circulation trying to get going about 100 miles off the coast of Northeast Nicaragua. All of the computer models predict that an area of low pressure will form in this region by Thursday, and this low will have the potential to develop into a tropical depression late this week or early next week. A surge of moisture accompanying a tropical wave currently south of Hispaniola may aid development when the wave arrives in the Western Caribbean on Thursday. Water temperatures in the Central Caribbean are about 1°C above average, 29°C, which is plenty warm enough to support development of a tropical storm. Residents of Jamaica, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua should anticipate the possibility that heavy rains of 2 - 4 inches may affect them Thursday through Saturday this week.


Figure 4. Satellite image of the Central Caribbean disturbance.

Catch my intro to the 2011 hurricane season on Internet radio
I'll be discussing the coming hurricane season on our Internet radio show, the Daily Downpour, tomorrow (Thursday) at 4:30pm EDT. Fellow wunderground meteorologists Shaun Tanner and Tim Roche will be hosting the show. We'll talk about the latest model runs, hurricane research, modeling accuracy, and hurricane climatology, and answer any questions listeners email in or call in. The email address to ask questions is broadcast@wunderground.com. Welcome to the hurricane season of 2011!

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 1644 - 1594

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35Blog Index

1643. cg2916
Quoting cat5hurricane:

Pot, I've been waiting for a good AGW discussion for a while now.


AGW?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1642. pottery
Quoting cat5hurricane:

Pot, I've been waiting for a good AGW discussion for a while now.

Yeah, this weather-watching is getting boring already.
What has it been, 2 DAYS of this???
Give me a break!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1641. cg2916
AL, 93, 2011060200, , BEST, 0, 285N, 845W, 25, 1014, LO, 34, NEQ, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1016, 60, 45, 0, 0, L, 0, , 0, 0, INVEST, S,

If anyone knows how to decode this, please do.

I think it says at 00Z, it was at 28.5 N, 84.5 W, 25 knots, 1014mb, a low pressure system, and beyond there it's gibberish.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1640. IKE
~the chart~

181 days....
17 hours....
34 minutes.....and it's over....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1637. IKE
SYNOPSIS FOR CARIBBEAN SEA AND TROPICAL N ATLC FROM 07N TO 22N
BETWEEN 55W AND 65W
530 AM EDT THU JUN 02 2011

.SYNOPSIS...1008 MB LOW PRES IN THE SW CARIBBEAN NEAR 14N82W
ALONG A TROUGH EXTENDING TOWARD JAMAICA WILL REMAIN NEARLY
STATIONARY BETWEEN NE NICARAGUA AND JAMAICA THROUGH MON.
A
TROPICAL WAVE WILL MOVE INTO THE WINDWARD ISLANDS AND FRI AND
INTO THE SE CARIBBEAN SAT. THE WAVE WILL INTERACT WITH A
DEVELOPING WEAK LOW PRES SUN IN THE S CENTRAL CARIBBEAN...THAT
WILL MOVE NE THROUGH THE LEEWARD ISLANDS MON.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1636. cg2916
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:


Speed shear, where it is traveling to fast and it sheared because of it.


Makes sense, it looks like there might have been some shear.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1635. pottery
Good Morning all.
I see that we still have 2 blobs which are getting everyone's attention.
Looking forward to them both poofing, so we can get back to discussing AGW around here.
:):))
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting cg2916:


Speed? How can speed kill it?


Speed shear, where it is traveling to fast and it sheared because of it.

That's what happened to Colin of last year when it first developed.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Is it just me or does 93L coc tightened?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1632. cg2916
Quoting TropicalAnalystwx13:


Speed and dry air.


Speed? How can speed kill it?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1631. cg2916
Quoting blsealevel:
forgot to post this




New convection burst.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting cg2916:


Ok.

BTW, what happened with 93L? Dry air?


Speed and dry air.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
93L's speed and combination of Dry Air has basically killed it...bummer. If it would have held together some and strengthened, maybe it could have helped the drought in Texas. I don't usually say it...but its time....RIP 93L.



Our Caribbean disturbance is back to being the main area of concern, and this may end up entering the GOMEX eventually. The longer is sits in the Caribbean, the more the chances go up of it making it NW towards the Yucatan channel and eventually the Gulf. The low pressure is around 82W 13N, and pressures in that vicinity are as low as 1005 millibars. I don't think we'll get a TD or TS out of this until later on this coming week.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
The surface low is east of the Nicaraguan coast.

Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 13926
forgot to post this


Member Since: August 23, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1918
Quoting islander101010:
i think they are suppose to be mid level spins taking off to the ne the all star is right low level disturbance is stationary offshore nica.


I know it is, that's why I said 'yes'.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1625. beell
Looks grim.

Overall pattern for the US continues with an Omega block over the central part of the country. Low pressure systems off each coast and ridging in the middle. We may see a few more of these 93L types systems as small disturbances downstream of the ridge ripple out into the Atlantic. Most of them would probably turn to the NE around the low progged to remain in the NW ATL. Always a chance one would take a track similar to 93L and move southwest around the persistent ridging.

Along the gulf coast, under and along the central/eastern ridge, subsidence. The aforementioned wiggles in the NW flow down the ridge will try to pull weak boundaries across the SE-some hope for precip there.

We usually expect to see a couple of rain-making systems form at the end of a cold front in the BOC or in the GOM in the early part of the tropical season. We may not see much of that for at least a couple of weeks-if at all.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Dang, their it goes my last chance for rain till next week then only 20% chance better then none i guess.
Member Since: August 23, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 1918
1623. Bitmap7
Quoting Gearsts:
CMC takes this as a cat 7 towards Cuba then East out to Sea ^^


Actually the cmc only brings it to 988 mb and thats not unrealistic at all.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1622. cg2916
Quoting IKE:

Don't know. It's always had issues on intensity. Does better on tracks.


Ok.

BTW, what happened with 93L? Dry air?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting NICycloneChaser:


Yes, but some models are taking the convection to the east, associated with a tropical wave, north-eastwards and developing it a little.
i think they are suppose to be mid level spins taking off to the ne the all star is right low level disturbance is stationary offshore nica.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1620. IKE

Quoting cg2916:


Yup
Don't know. It's always had issues on intensity. Does better on tracks.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1619. cg2916
Quoting IKE:

CMC?


Yup
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1618. IKE

Quoting cg2916:


How did it get so out of whack in the first place?
CMC?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1617. cg2916
Quoting IKE:

That model needs some adjusting.

Latest NOGAPS takes it to the NE Yucatan peninsula.

Flip a coin on this.


How did it get so out of whack in the first place?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1616. IKE

Quoting Gearsts:
CMC takes this as a cat 7 towards Cuba then East out to Sea ^^
That model needs some adjusting.

Latest NOGAPS takes it to the NE Yucatan peninsula.

Flip a coin on this.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1615. IKE

Quoting Chicklit:
I hear ya Ike. Over here on the east coast of Central Florida we averaged less than 1/2 inch of rain from 93L yesterday and that was the best we've done in a long time.
Since April 6th I've had 1.41 inches of rain.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1614. cg2916
Wow, down to 0%. Did the dry air get to it? However, there is a small convection burs as of late.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1613. IKE
And there goes what's left of 93L...


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1612. Gearsts
Quoting IKE:

You may wind up being correct. I said invest my Monday night or Tuesday....wrong.

0-0-0.

................................................. .................................................. .........
Looks headed east of north. I doubt this is ever a GOM threater.....



CMC takes this as a cat 7 towards Cuba then East out to Sea ^^
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1611. IKE

Quoting clwstmchasr:


Yesterday the NHC said that conditions would become more favorable on Thursday. Now today they are saying that conditions will become more favorable after 48 hours. I said it on Monday and I still believe it today, this system is not going to develop. We see it too often with early systems trying to get organized. Atmospheric conditions just won't allow it to happen.
You may wind up being correct. I said invest my Monday night or Tuesday....wrong.

0-0-0.

................................................. .................................................. .........
Looks headed east of north. I doubt this is ever a GOM threater.....



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1609. aquak9
Ike's brain is gonna melt.

work-warp - -
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I hear ya Ike. Over here on the east coast of Central Florida we averaged less than 1/2 inch of rain from 93L yesterday and that was the best we've done in a long time.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AllStar17:
The main focus point of the disturbance is just off the coast of Nicaragua.


Yes, but some models are taking the convection to the east, associated with a tropical wave, north-eastwards and developing it a little.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good morning. As Levi said earlier, the Caribbean mess will take time to start to consolidate,but before that occurs ,if it does, plenty of rain will continue to fall in the area and the flooding concerns increase. As our friend Ike posts the numbers, is still 0/0/0.
Member Since: April 29, 2009 Posts: 75 Comments: 13926
Good morning,

Lower Convergence

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1604. IKE
Today: Sunny and hot, with a high near 99. Calm wind becoming south southeast between 5 and 10 mph.

Ah yes....another scorching early June day.

Friday: Mostly sunny and hot, with a high near 99. North northwest wind between 5 and 10 mph.

And another.

Saturday: A 20 percent chance of showers and thunderstorms.
Partly sunny and hot, with a high near 98. Calm wind becoming south
southwest around 5 mph.

A 20%'er!!!! Yeehaw!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
The main focus point of the disturbance is just off the coast of Nicaragua.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1602. Gearsts
Models show the blob south of haiti moving towards the E then later on ENE towards the west tip of PR and just north of PR they develop it in to a weak TS
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1601. MahFL
Smokey here in downtown JAX.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1600. aquak9
Quoting islander101010:
femas almost broke

Red Cross stretched pretty thin, too.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
femas almost broke
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Patience is something we all need for this storm.

Storms in June and July are slow to develop overall. We need to wait till all the right conditions are ready to make a storm out of the low pressure that's trying to develop itself already.

It's going to be another Alex type scenario most likely. We will have to wait and see.

Also, don't be disheartened by the NHC's 10% because that only means that the storm has only 10% chance of developing within the next 48 hours.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
AREA FORECAST DISCUSSION
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE MIAMI FL
334 AM EDT THU JUN 2 2011

.DISCUSSION...THE DRY WX PATTERN WILL REMAIN ACROSS S FL THROUGH
EARLY NEXT WEEK. A DEEP LAYER RIDGE WILL CONTINUE OVER THE
SOUTHEAST U.S. AND THEN SHIFT TO S FL BY MONDAY AS A LARGE SCALE
TROUGH DEVELOPS OVER THE N ATLANTIC. THIS PROCESS WILL SHIFT THE
MID TO UPPER LEVEL WINDS TO A NORTHWEST TO NORTH DIRECTION AND
THIS IS NOT CONDUCIVE FOR ADVECTING DEEP LAYER TROPICAL MOISTURE
INTO THE REGION AS TYPICALLY OCCURS BY EARLY JUNE. THE 00Z MFL
SOUNDING SHOWED PWAT AT JUST OVER ONE INCH WHICH IS FAR BELOW THE
EARLY JUNE NORMAL OF AROUND 1.6 INCHES AND FCST SOUNDINGS HAVE THE
PWAT REMAINING AT JUST OVER AN INCH THROUGH MONDAY. BY TUESDAY,
BOTH THE GFS AND ECMWF SHOW A LITTLE INCREASE OF MOISTURE BUT THIS
IS ONLY DUE TO A WEAK SFC BOUNDARY MOVING ACROSS THE PENINSULA
ASSOCIATED WITH THE LARGE ATLANTIC TROUGH WHILE THE MID LEVEL
RIDGE CONTINUES ACROSS S FLORIDA. SO IT STILL DOES NOT LOOK TOO
IMPRESSIVE FOR ANY SIGNIFICANT RAINFALL FOR THE NEXT SEVEN DAYS.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1595. aquak9
good morning all, another cloudless sunrise here in NE Fla.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
1594. ackee
Quoting NICycloneChaser:


Why not? Environmental conditions will be favorable and all of the models have been developing it for almost a week now. Shouldn't be a very strong storm, but it has a fairly good chance of becoming one.
I know but looking outside of model suport dont see much sign of tropical devlopment I have seen invest before with model suport and good envormental condtion that has not devlop ,before that what I think will happen here just my view on things
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 1644 - 1594

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Mostly Cloudy
75 °F
Mostly Cloudy