CSU predicts a very active hurricane season: 16 storms, 9 hurricanes

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:30 PM GMT on June 01, 2011

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A very active Atlantic hurricane season is on tap for 2011, according to the seasonal hurricane forecast issued June 1 by Dr. Phil Klotzbach and Dr. Bill Gray of Colorado State University (CSU). The CSU team is calling for 16 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and 5 intense hurricanes, and an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) 166% of average. Between 1950 - 2000, the average season had 10 named storms, 6 hurricanes, and 2 intense hurricanes. But since 1995, the beginning of an active hurricane period in the Atlantic, we've averaged 14 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 intense hurricanes per year. The new forecast is identical to their April forecast. The forecast calls for a much above-average chance of a major hurricane hitting the U.S., both along the East Coast (48% chance, 31% chance is average) and the Gulf Coast (47% chance, 30% chance is average). The risk of a major hurricane in the Caribbean is also high, at 61% (42% is average.)

The forecasters cited four main reasons for an active season:

1) Neutral to weak La Niña conditions are expected during the most active portion of this year's hurricane season (August-October). This should lead to average to below average levels of vertical wind shear.

2) Above average May sea surface temperatures in the tropical Atlantic.

3) Below average surface pressures during May in the tropical Atlantic.

4) We are in the midst of a multi-decadal era of major hurricane activity, which began in 1995. Major hurricanes cause 80-85 percent of normalized hurricane damage.

Analogue years
The CSU team picked five previous years when atmospheric and oceanic conditions were similar to what we are seeing this year: neutral to weak La Niña conditions in the equatorial Eastern Pacific, and above-average tropical Atlantic and far north Atlantic SSTs during April - May. Those five years were 2008, which featured Hurricane Ike and Hurricane Gustav; 1996, which had two hurricanes that hit North Carolina, Fran and Bertha; 1989, which featured Category 5 Hurricane Hugo; 1981, a very average year with 12 named storms, 7 hurricanes, and 3 intense hurricanes; and 1951, a year that featured 6 major hurricanes. The mean activity for these five years was 12 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 intense hurricanes.

How accurate are the June forecasts?
The June forecasts by the CSU team between 1998 and 2009 had a skill 19% - 30% higher than a "no-skill" climatology forecast for number of named storms, number of hurricanes, and the ACE index (Figure 1). This is a decent amount of skill for a seasonal forecast, and these June forecasts can be useful to businesses such as the insurance industry and oil and gas industry that need to make bets on how active the coming hurricane season will be. Unfortunately, the CSU June 1 forecasts do poorly at forecasting the number of major hurricanes (only 3% skill), and major hurricanes cause 80% - 85% of all hurricane damage (normalized to current population and wealth levels.) This year's June forecast uses a brand new formula never tried before, so there is no way to evaluate its performance. An Excel spreadsheet of their forecast skill (expressed as a mathematical correlation coefficient) show values from 0.41 to 0.62 for their June forecasts made between 1984 and 2010, which is respectable.


Figure 1. Comparison of the percent improvement over climatology for May and August seasonal hurricane forecasts for the Atlantic from NOAA, CSU and TSR from 1999-2009 (May) and 1998-2009 (August), using the Mean Squared Error. Image credit: Verification of 12 years of NOAA seasonal hurricane forecasts, National Hurricane Center.


Figure 2. Comparison of the percent improvement in mean square error over climatology for seasonal hurricane forecasts for the Atlantic from NOAA, CSU and TSR from 2001-2010, using the Mean Square Skill Score (MSSS). The figure shows the results using two different climatologies: a fixed 50-year (1950 - 1999) climatology, and a 2001 - 2010 climatology. Skill is poor for forecasts issued in December and April, moderate for June forecasts, and good for August forecasts. Image credit: Tropical Storm Risk, Inc.

TSR predicts 25% more activity than normal
Expect the Atlantic hurricane season to be about 25% more active than usual, the British private forecasting firm Tropical Storm Risk, Inc. (TSR) said in their pre-season forecast issued on May 24. TSR calls for 14.2 named storms, 7.6 hurricanes, 3.6 intense hurricanes, and an Accumulated Cyclone Energy (ACE) of 124, which is 22% above average. Their May 24 forecast numbers are very close to their previous forecast issued in April. TSR predicts a moderate 55% chance that activity will rank in the top 1/3 of years historically, and a 59% chance that U.S. landfalling activity will be above average. TSR rates their skill level as 16-25% higher than a "no-skill" forecast made using climatology, though an independent assessment by the National Hurricane Center (Figure 1) gives them somewhat lower skill numbers.

TSR projects that 4.4 named storms will hit the U.S., with 1.9 of these being hurricanes. The averages from the 1950-2010 climatology are 3.1 named storms and 1.5 hurricanes. They rate their skill at making these June forecasts for U.S. landfalls at 7 - 11% higher than a "no-skill" forecast made using climatology. In the Lesser Antilles Islands of the Caribbean, TSR projects 1.3 named storms, 0.6 of these being hurricanes. Climatology is 1.1 named storms and 0.5 hurricanes.

TSR cites two main factors for their forecast of an active season:

1) Their model predicts that sea surface temperatures will be 0.11°C warmer than average in August and September over the Main Development Region (MDR) for Atlantic hurricanes. They define this as the area between 10°N and 20°N, between the coast of Africa and Lesser Antilles Islands (20°W and 60°W). It is called the Main Development Region because virtually all African waves originate in this region. These African waves account for 85% of all Atlantic major hurricanes and 60% of all named storms. When SSTs in the MDR are much above average during hurricane season, a very active season typically results (if there is no El Niño event present.)

2) Their model predicts slower than normal trade winds in August and September over the Main Development Region (MDR). Trade winds are forecast to be 0.19 meters per second (about 0.4 mph) slower than average. This would create more spin for developing storms, and allow the oceans to warm up, due to reduced mixing of cold water from the depths and lower evaporational cooling.

FSU predicts a very active hurricane season: 17 named storms
The Florida State University (FSU) Center for Ocean-Atmospheric Prediction Studies (COAPS) issued their third annual Atlantic hurricane season forecast today. This year's forecast calls for a 70% probability of 14-20 named storms and 8-10 hurricanes. The mean forecast is for 17 named storms, 9 hurricanes, and an accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) of 163. They cite warm tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures, a weakening of La Niña conditions, and the ongoing positive phase of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation as the major factors influencing their forecast.

Other seasonal forecasts
The UK Met Office's Glosea4 model is predicting a moderately more active season than normal, with 13 named storms and a ACE index of 151. The Cuba Institute of Meteorology is calling for 13 named storms and 7 hurricanes. NOAA predicts 15 named storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4.5 intense hurricanes. Pennsylvania State University predicts 16 named storms.

A surprise tropical disturbance for Florida
The Atlantic hurricane season is officially underway, and Mother Nature appears to be taking her cue from the calendar, as we have a surprise storm off the coast of Florida that is a threat to develop into a tropical depression later this week, after it crosses Florida into the Gulf of Mexico. An cluster of thunderstorms called a Mesoscale Convective System (MCS) pushed across southern New England early yesterday, emerged over the ocean, and rotated clockwise towards Florida, steered by a large high pressure system centered over Kentucky. The center of the disturbance stayed over the warm waters of the Gulf Stream, a region of low pressure developed, and intense thunderstorms began to build yesterday afternoon. Early this morning, the National Hurricane Center (NHC) designated the disturbance Invest 93L, and gave it a 10% chance of developing into a tropical depression. At 8am EDT, they upped those chances to 30%. Invest 93L is becoming increasingly organized, with Melbourne, Florida radar showing the beginnings of some rotation, with a solid band of heavy rain on the southwest side of the disturbance. The pressure and winds have leveled out at Buoy 41012, 40 nm ENE of St. Augustine, Florida. Winds peaked at 19 mph, gusting to 22 mph, at 10:50am EDT. Satellite imagery shows a small but intensifying region of thunderstorms. Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are about 26°C (79°F) off the east coast of Florida, which is just warm enough to support formation of a tropical depression, and about 0.5°C above average. Wind shear is a low 5 - 10 knots, and it is likely that 93L will continue intensifying until it makes landfall over Central Florida this afternoon. A 50-mile wide swath of Florida from Daytona Beach to just north of Tampa can expect 1 - 3 inches of rain from 93L as it tracks over the state this afternoon and tonight. A Windsat pass this morning did not show a closed circulation, and I doubt 93L has enough time to develop into a tropical depression before landfall in Florida. The coast between Daytona Beach and Cocoa Beach could see wind gusts of 25 - 35 mph this afternoon, though.


Figure 3. Afternoon radar image of 93L from the Melbourne, Florida radar.

Fate of 93L once in the Gulf of Mexico
Since 93L is expected to continue its rapid west-southwest motion at 15 - 20 mph through Thursday, it will cross the Florida Peninsula in about 12 hours and emerge over the Gulf of Mexico early Thursday morning. It is possible that the passage over Florida will greatly disrupt 93L, since it is such a small system. I give a 40% chance that the storm will see its peak strength this afternoon, and not significantly regenerate over the Gulf of Mexico. However, the latest SHIPS model forecast predicts that wind shear will remain low to moderate, 5 - 15 knots, as 93L moves westwards over the Gulf of Mexico Thursday and Friday. SSTs in the Gulf are about 27°C (81°F), 0.5 - 1.0°C above average, and it is possible that 93L could gain enough strength to become Tropical Depression One as it crosses the Gulf. Since 93L will be moving parallel to the coast a short distance offshore, it is difficult to predict where the storm might make a second landfall, since a slight change in heading will make a large difference in landfall location. I don't expect widespread heavy rains from 93L along the Gulf Coast, since the storm is so small, but some locations close to the coast could receive 2 - 4 inches as 93L brushes by. Heavier rains are possible at the eventual landfall location. Since 93L is so small, the computer models are having trouble seeing the system, and are not very helpful forecasting the behavior of the storm over the Gulf of Mexico. The Hurricane Hunters are on call to fly into 93L Thursday afternoon at 2pm EDT, if necessary.

Central Caribbean disturbance
Moisture and heavy thunderstorm activity continues to slowly increase in the region between Central America and Jamaica, and wind shear is falling. With wind shear now 20 - 30 knots, we can expect this disturbance to show increased organization today, and recent satellite images show the beginnings of a surface circulation trying to get going about 100 miles off the coast of Northeast Nicaragua. All of the computer models predict that an area of low pressure will form in this region by Thursday, and this low will have the potential to develop into a tropical depression late this week or early next week. A surge of moisture accompanying a tropical wave currently south of Hispaniola may aid development when the wave arrives in the Western Caribbean on Thursday. Water temperatures in the Central Caribbean are about 1°C above average, 29°C, which is plenty warm enough to support development of a tropical storm. Residents of Jamaica, Cuba, the Cayman Islands, Haiti, Honduras, and Nicaragua should anticipate the possibility that heavy rains of 2 - 4 inches may affect them Thursday through Saturday this week.


Figure 4. Satellite image of the Central Caribbean disturbance.

Catch my intro to the 2011 hurricane season on Internet radio
I'll be discussing the coming hurricane season on our Internet radio show, the Daily Downpour, tomorrow (Thursday) at 4:30pm EDT. Fellow wunderground meteorologists Shaun Tanner and Tim Roche will be hosting the show. We'll talk about the latest model runs, hurricane research, modeling accuracy, and hurricane climatology, and answer any questions listeners email in or call in. The email address to ask questions is broadcast@wunderground.com. Welcome to the hurricane season of 2011!

Jeff Masters

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Quoting Grothar:


Just can't follow the rules, can you?? tsk tsk. How is the weather by you?


Good. Almost took a nap out on the patio earlier. How is it by you?
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Quoting caneswatch:


Hi Grothar!


Hey Grothar! My banter is never idle.. :)
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Quoting washingtonian115:
WTH!!!???


there's an ad every time I refresh in which the word is said
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1190. Dakster
Starting out rather early in the season I see... Thankfully this looks like a rainmaker more than anything else for Florida. Hopefully it is nothing more for the other side of the GOM, wherever it may go.
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1189. Grothar
Quoting caneswatch:


Hi Grothar!


Just can't follow the rules, can you?? tsk tsk. How is the weather by you?
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26426
1187. Bitmap7
Quoting Grothar:
The fanning out of the clouds on the Caribbean feature is usually a sign that a system is trying to organize. Haven't seen any significant pressure drops in the region yet. It may take a few days.



The new atmospheric analysis shows that there is some amount o stacking going on in the region as well.
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1186. aquak9
Hi Sammy! I was worried, too. Luckily I was on the 8th floor, at work. The winds were fierce, waves plummeted the first two stories, but... I WAS SAFE!!

Now about these rules...well it really depends on what's going on. If we need some stress relief, like after tuscaloosa and joplin, we can usually swing a little humor. Respectable humor of course, just to try to lighten each other's sadness.

Like today, I could post Recoon, and not get banned. But if NHC is putting out updates every three hours, and we got hunters in the air? Then it's all business, and Admin doesn't mess around.

I REALLY think we need a fulltime moderator on the blog, though.
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1185. bappit
Quoting ElConando:
I can hear Wunderground radio but I havn't activated it?

hide post 1136
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1184. Grothar
Quoting ElConando:
I can hear Wunderground radio but I havn't activated it?


Annoying isn't it.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26426
Hello Cane!
Member Since: May 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 1193
Quoting ElConando:
I can hear Wunderground radio but I havn't activated it?
Post 1136.
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1180. bappit
oooooooooooooooo ........ Teen Wolf ads every time I refresh the screen!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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Quoting hurricane23:


Odds are pretty high in my opinion that atleast 1 major hurricane will impact the U.S.in 2011. Regardless of seasonal predictions if you live in a hurricane prone area should have plan come june 1.


I do have one. It's called "In case of major hurricane, drive north to your family 5 days before the storm arrives."
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1178. Grothar
The fanning out of the clouds on the Caribbean feature is usually a sign that a system is trying to organize. Haven't seen any significant pressure drops in the region yet. It may take a few days.

Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26426
Quoting hurricane23:


Odds are pretty high in my opinion that atleast 1 major hurricane will impact the U.S.in 2011. Regardless of seasonal predictions if you live in a hurricane prone area should have plan come june 1.
We've never gone a 6 year break without a major hurricane in recorded history.So if history is telling us a story that's bad news for this year.And I'm not talking about any kind of majors.These monster made landfall with winds of 120+mph.We don't need something like that this year....
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Quoting ElConando:
I can hear Wunderground radio but I havn't activated it?


I think it's because AussieStorm posted it. That's rather odd though, considering that was on the last page.
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Quoting FrankZapper:
There have been many movies that have been hyped and then turned out to be a bust.


Yeah, Thor was one of them. :P
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Quoting ElConando:
I can hear Wunderground radio but I havn't activated it?


that's not WU radio...it's barometer Bob....Aussie posted it so that it plays regardless
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Quoting Grothar:


We have to keep the idle banter down during the busy season. All of that nonsense should be reserved for the WU mail.


Hi Grothar!
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Usually when the southeast is this dry you all usually "pay the price" from tropical cyclones to get your rain.


Unfortunately, I think that's the only way we'll be able to bust this pesky drought, unless El Nino develops over the summer and the atmospheric/oceanic lag time breaks by the time winter arrives. I don't see that happening, though.
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I can hear Wunderground radio but I havn't activated it?
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1170. Grothar
The waves are getting higher and stronger, but I think it is still a little to early to look this far out for development.

Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26426
1169. Patrap
GOM Sea Height Anomaly

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128630
There have been many movies that have been hyped and then turned out to be a bust. I PREDICT that this season will be that sort of a BUST!
Member Since: May 26, 2011 Posts: 0 Comments: 1193
Quoting aquak9:


Hi Grothar!!


Hi Aqua!
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Quoting Grothar:


We have to keep the idle banter down during the busy season. All of that nonsense should be reserved for the WU mail.


Grothar!!!
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Quoting washingtonian115:
That's okay my computer srews up to.Good insight their.So with that being said maybe forecasters saying the U.S could be at risk this year won't(but hopefully) be to far off.....(Glitches teeth).


Odds are pretty high in my opinion that atleast 1 major hurricane will impact the U.S.in 2011. Regardless of seasonal predictions if you live in a hurricane prone area should have plan come june 1.
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1161. aquak9
Quoting Grothar:


We have to keep the idle banter down during the busy season. All of that nonsense should be reserved for the WU mail.


Hi Grothar!!
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Quoting FLdewey:
Hahahahaha... not much... it's kind of comforting to see the regulars returning, and doing whatever it is that they do.


Agreed, and since we're treading lightly, I did see some convection, very far away.
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Alittel early for something like this I think.

Link
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Quoting KoritheMan:


I hear ya about the rain. I was over my cousins watering his crops (I got paid for it) the other day, and within just 15 minutes of watering each row, I literally could not tell that they had been watered.

Don't worry, I'm sure there will be plenty of additional opportunities for beneficial rains from tropical disturbances or cyclones.
Usually when the southeast is this dry you all usually "pay the price" from tropical cyclones to get your rain.
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1157. Grothar
Quoting caneswatch:


Seconded. The second one I can see why, but we can't say "Hi!" I really think that's a bit much too.


We have to keep the idle banter down during the busy season. All of that nonsense should be reserved for the WU mail.
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26426
Quoting kimoskee:


I can attest to being deleted this morning for posting "I'm first" and saying Good morning. Kinda hurt my feelings cause there are other posts saying good morning and some with their post number. But I'm a big girl. I'll do my time in the naughty corner. Rules are rules.

The rain has stopped in my area. Really haven't had any heavy rains so far by me. Let's see what happens later. We're under flash flood watch til tomorrow at 5pm.



That is odd. Sometimes posts get lost in the shuffle, as it were. I wouldn't take it personally. IMO, you were just a victim of happenstance.
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Complete Update






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1154. Bitmap7


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Quoting washingtonian115:
(Smacks forhead with palm of hand)I also got to mention that with all that heat down there along the gulf those warm waters will probally start getting some depth to them.Especialy as the sun gets higher around this time of year...


There hasn't been much wind in the Gulf of Mexico for awhile now, so yes, SSTs can be expected to quickly climb.
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Quoting Joanie38:


Oh lord...That is a HUGE ridge...well I guess we can rest..but dang we need the rain!!! Thank you KoritheMan! :):)


I hear ya about the rain. I was over my cousin's house watering his crops (I got paid for it) the other day, and within just 15 minutes of watering each row, I literally could not tell that they had been watered.

Don't worry, I'm sure there will be plenty of additional opportunities for beneficial rains from tropical disturbances or cyclones.
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(Smacks forhead with palm of hand)I also got to mention that with all that heat down there along the gulf those warm waters will probally start getting some depth to them.Especialy as the sun gets higher around this time of year...
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Quoting FLdewey:


Define "very offensive"

;-)



LMAO. Let's see: obnoxious, rude, intolerant, shouting, assuming others ID's ....

What up, Bro? :)
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Quoting hurricane23:
Wow at wifes moms house crazy pc. Sorry about that.
That's okay my computer srews up to.Good insight their.So with that being said maybe forecasters saying the U.S could be at risk this year won't(but hopefully) be to far off.....(Glitches teeth).
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Quoting KoritheMan:


Joan, I don't think us in Louisiana have to worry about a landfall from this. Take a look at this big ridge: the models don't move it much over the next few days.


Oh lord...That is a HUGE ridge...well I guess we can rest..but dang we need the rain!!! Thank you KoritheMan! :):)
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Quoting Joanie38:
IN THE UPPER LEVELS...AN UPPER LEVEL LOW IS
CENTERED OVER S FLORIDA NEAR 26N80W. SIGNIFICANT UPPER LEVEL
MOISTURE IS OVER THE NE GULF AND N FLORIDA WHILE THE REMAINDER
OF THE GULF HAS STRONG SUBSIDENCE. EXPECT THE LOW TO BE LOCATED
OVER THE W GULF S OF LOUISIANA IN 24 HOURS WITH CONVECTION.

Hmmmmmmmm.....


Joan, I don't think us in Louisiana have to worry about a landfall from this. Take a look at this big ridge: the models don't move it much over the next few days.
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Wow at wifes moms house crazy pc. Sorry about that.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.