Joplin tornado toll at 116; dangerous tornado outbreak expected today

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:50 PM GMT on May 24, 2011

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Severe weather is expected again today in storm-torn Joplin, Missouri, as rescuers sift through the rubble of their town that was devastated by the deadliest U.S. tornado since at least 1947. A violent high-end EF-4 tornado with winds of 190 – 198 mph carved a 7-mile long, ¾ to one mile-wide path of near-total destruction through Joplin beginning at 5:41pm CDT Sunday evening. In nine terrifying minutes, the tornado killed at least 116 people, injured 500 more, and obliterated huge sections of the town. Damage from the tornado is so severe that pavement was ripped from the ground, and the level of damage is so extreme that this is likely to surpass last month's Tuscaloosa-Birmingham tornado as the costliest tornado of all-time.


Figure 1. Radar reflectivity image of the supercell thunderstorm that spawned the Joplin, Missouri tornado, one minute before the tornado touched down at 5:41pm CDT. There is a hook echo apparent, though not a classic well-defined one.


Figure 2. Radar-estimated rainfall for the period May 22 – 24 over the region surrounding Joplin. Rains of 1.83" fell on the city yesterday, a record for the date.

The Joplin tornado's place in history
According to our weather historian, Christopher C. Burt in his post, The World's Deadliest Tornadoes, the death toll of 116 from the Joplin tornado ranks as the deadliest U.S. tornado since at least 1947, when a violent F-5 tornado hit Woodward, Oklahoma, killing 181. However, it is now thought that the Woodward tornado was actually one of a series of tornadoes, and the tornado that hit Woodward killed 107 people. If that is true, we have to back all the way to 1936 to find the last U.S. tornado that killed more people than 2011's Joplin tornado. In 1936, violent tornadoes a day apart hit Tupelo Mississippi (216 killed), and Gainesville, Georgia (203 killed.) NOAA's Storm Prediction Center (SPC) rates this year's Joplin tornado as the 9th deadliest U.S. tornado of all-time.

This year's tornado death toll now stands at 482, making it the deadliest year for tornadoes in the U.S. since 1953, when 519 people died. That year, three heavily populated cities received direct hits by violent tornadoes. Waco, Texas (114 killed), Flint, Michigan (115 killed), and Worcester, Massachusetts (89 – 94 killed) all were hit by violent F-4 or F-5 tornadoes. A similar bad tornado year occurred in 1936, when violent tornadoes hit Tupelo Mississippi (216 killed), and Gainesville, Georgia (203 killed.)


Video 1. The last year with more tornado deaths than 2011 was 1953, when three great tornadoes killed more than 90 people each. This old newsreel video shows destruction from the first of these deadly 1953 tornadoes, the May 11, 1953 F-5 tornado that hit downtown Waco Texas, killing 114 people. The wunderground youtube channel has almost 300 old newsreel videos of historically significant weather events.

What's going on?
It's been an incredibly dangerous and deadly year for tornadoes. On April 14 - 16, we had the largest tornado outbreak in world history, with 162 tornadoes hitting the Southeast U.S. That record lasted just two weeks, when the unbelievable April 25 – 28 Super Outbreak hit. Unofficially, that outbreak had 327 tornadoes, more than double the previous record. The legendary April 3 – 4 1974 Super Outbreak has now fallen to third place, with 148 tornadoes. Damage from the April 25 – 28, 2011 outbreak was estimated to be as high as $5 billion, making it the most expensive tornado outbreak in history; the Tuscaloosa-Birmingham tornado of April 27 may end up being the most expensive tornado of all-time—until the damage from Sunday's Joplin tornado is tabulated. Officially, 875 tornadoes hit the U.S. In April 2011, making it the busiest tornado month in history. The previous record was 542 tornadoes, set in May 2003. The previous April tornado record was 267, set in 1974, and April has averaged just 161 tornadoes over the past decade.

So what's going on? Why are there so many tornadoes, and so many people getting killed? Well, the high death toll this year is partly just bad luck. Violent EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes usually miss heavily populated areas, and we've had the misfortune of having two such tornadoes track over cities with more than 50,000 people (the Joplin tornado, and the Tuscaloosa-Birmingham EF-4 tornado in Alabama, which killed 61 people on April 27.) This sort of bad luck occurred in both 1953, when F-5 tornadoes hit Flint, Worcester, and Waco, and in 1936, when F-5s hit Tupelo and Gainesville. However, this year's death toll is more remarkable than the 1953 or 1936 death tolls, since in 2011 we have Doppler radar and a modern tornado warning system that is very good at providing an average of twelve minutes of warning time. The warning time for the Joplin tornado was 24 minutes. The first tornado warning wasn't issued until 1948, and virtually all tornadoes from the 1950s and earlier hit with no warning. On average, tornado deaths in the United States decreased from 8 per 1 million people in 1925 to 0.12 per 1 million people in 2000. Had this year's tornadoes occurred 50 years ago, I expect the death toll would have exceeded three thousand.


Figure 3. Number of strong to violent EF-3, EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes from 1950 to 2011. There are no obvious trends in the numbers of these most dangerous of tornadoes. Image credit: NOAA/National Climatic Data Center (updated using stats for 2008 – 2011 from Wikipedia.)

Tornadoes require two main ingredients for formation—instability and wind shear. Instability is at a maximum when there is record warm air with plenty of moisture at low levels, and cold dry air aloft. April 2011 sea surface temperature in the Gulf of Mexico were at their third highest levels of the past 100 years, so there was plenty of warm, moist air available to create high instability, whenever approaching storm systems pulled the Gulf air northwards into Tornado Alley, and brought cold, dry air south from Canada. The La Niña event in the Eastern Pacific, in part, caused this spring's jet stream to have very strong winds that changed speed and direction with height. This sort of shearing force (wind shear) was ideal for putting a twist on thunderstorm updrafts, allowing more numerous and more intense tornadoes than usual to occur. Was this year's heightened wind shear and instability the result of climate change? We don't know. Over the past 30 years, there have not been any noticeable trends wind shear and instability over the Lower Mississippi Valley, according to the NOAA Climate Scene Investigations team. Furthermore, there have been no upward trend in the number of violent EF-4 and EF-5 tornadoes over the past 60 years, or in the number of EF-3 and stronger tornadoes (Figure 3.) However, this year's remarkable violent tornado activity—17 such tornadoes, with tornado season a little more than half over—brings our two-year total for the decade of 2010 – 2019 to 30. At this rate, we'll have more than 150 violent tornadoes by decade's end, beating the record of 108 set in the 1950s. In summary, this year's incredibly violent tornado season is not part of a trend. It is either a fluke, the start of a new trend, or an early warning symptom that the climate is growing unstable and is transitioning to a new, higher energy state with the potential to create unprecedented weather and climate events. All are reasonable explanations, but we don't have a long enough history of good tornado data to judge which is most likely to be correct.

More severe weather today
Yesterday, survivors of the tornado endured a 12-hour period with two severe thunderstorm warnings, a record 1.83” of rain, hail, and lightning that struck two police officers. NOAA's Storm Prediction Center (SPC) recorded 11 preliminary reports of tornadoes yesterday, along with 315 reports of damaging winds and 182 reports of hail up to 3.5” in diameter. The severe weather threat is much higher today, and SPC has placed a large section of eastern Kansas and eastern Oklahoma in their "High Risk" region for severe weather potential, and warn of the potential for long-lived strong tornadoes. This is their third "High Risk" forecast for the year, and the first since the terrible April 27, 2011 tornado outbreak. That day was the busiest tornado day in world history, with 198 tornadoes occurring in a 24-hour period. Over 300 people died. The other "High Risk" forecast by SPC came during the final day of the April 14 – 16 outbreak over the Southeast U.S. Fifty-two tornadoes hit that day, and 26 people died in North Carolina and Virginia. The severe weather threat will continue into Wednesday, when additional tornadoes are likely along a swath from Arkansas to Indiana.


Figure 4. Severe weather threat for Tuesday, May 23, 2011.

Links
The most remarkable audio I've ever heard of people surviving a direct hit by a violent tornado was posted to Youtube by someone who took shelter in the walk-in storage refrigerator at a gas station during the Joplin tornado. There isn't much video.


Video 2. Video of the Joplin, Missouri tornado of May 22, 2011, entering the southwest side of town. Filmed by TornadoVideos.net Basehunters team Colt Forney, Isaac Pato, Kevin Rolfs, and Scott Peake.

Helping out tornado victims
For those who want to lend a helping hand to those impacted by the widespread destruction this month's severe weather has brought, stop by the Red Cross website, or portlight.org blog. Portlight has been very active bringing aid to the victims of this year's tornadoes. Below is the damage survey from the Joplin tornado:

PUBLIC INFORMATION STATEMENT
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SPRINGFIELD MO
938 PM CDT MON MAY 23 2011

...JOPLIN TORNADO GIVEN A PRELIMINARY HIGH END EF-4 RATING...

* DATE...22 MAY 2011
* BEGIN LOCATION...APPROXIMATELY 3 MILES SOUTHWEST OF JOPLIN
* END LOCATION...1 MILE SOUTHEAST OF DUQUESNE
* ESTIMATED BEGIN TIME...541 PM
* ESTIMATED END TIME...550 PM
* MAXIMUM EF-SCALE RATING...EF-4
* ESTIMATED MAXIMUM WIND SPEED...190-198 MPH
* ESTIMATED PATH WIDTH...3/4 OF A MILE
* PATH LENGTH...7 MILES
* FATALITIES...116 REPORTED AS OF 3 PM MONDAY
* INJURIES...400 REPORTED AS OF 3 PM MONDAY
* BEGIN LAT/LON...37.06 N / 94.57 W
* END LAT/LON...37.06 N / 94.39 W

NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SURVEY TEAMS RATED THE TORNADO THAT KILLED OVER 100 PEOPLE IN AND AROUND JOPLIN AS A HIGH END EF-4 TORNADO.

BASED UPON SURVEYS COMPLETED TODAY...MAXIMUM WINDS WERE ESTIMATED BETWEEN 190 AND 198 MPH. THE TORNADO HAD A MAXIMUM WIDTH OF 3/4 TO ONE MILE.

THE TORNADO INITIALLY TOUCHED DOWN AROUND 541 PM NEAR THE INTERSECTION OF COUNTRY CLUB AND 32ND STREET. ADDITIONAL SURVEYS ARE EXPECTED TO BE CONDUCTED TO FURTHER DEFINE THE STARTING POINT AND INTENSITY AT THIS LOCATION.

DAMAGE BECAME MORE WIDESPREAD AS THE TORNADO CROSSED MAIDEN LANE...CAUSING SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE TO NEARLY ALL WINDOWS ON THREE SIDES OF ST JOHNS HOSPITAL AS WELL AS TO THE ROOF. THE TORNADO FURTHER INTENSIFIED AS IT DESTROYED NUMEROUS HOMES AND BUSINESSES TO THE EAST AND NORTH OF THE HOSPITAL. THE HIGHEST RATED DAMAGE IN THIS AREA WAS TO A CHURCH SCHOOL THAT HAD ALL BUT A PORTION OF ITS EXTERIOR WALLS DESTROYED AS WELL AS TO A NURSING HOME. WINDS IN THAT AREA WERE ESTIMATED AT 160 TO 180 MPH.

THE TORNADO CONTINUED TO DESTROY OVER 100 HOMES BETWEEN 32ND AND 20TH STREETS. THREE STORY APARTMENT COMPLEXES HAD THE TOP TWO FLOORS REMOVED...OTHER TWO STORY COMPLEXES WERE PARTIALLY LEVELED.

A BANK WAS TOTALLY DESTROYED WITH THE EXCEPTION OF THE VAULT.

A DILLONS GROCERY STORE ALSO HAD SIGNIFICANT ROOF AND EXTERIOR WALL DAMAGE. LASTLY...THE EXTERIOR AND INTERIOR WALLS OF A TECHNICAL SCHOOL...A MORTAR AND REBAR REINFORCED CINDER BLOCK BUILDING...FAILED.

THE TORNADO CROSSED RANGELINE ROAD NEAR 20TH STREET. THE MOST INTENSE DAMAGE WAS NOTED JUST EAST OF THIS INTERSECTION WHERE A HOME DEPOT WAS DESTROYED BY AN ESTIMATED 190 TO NEARLY 200 MPH WINDS.
IN ADDITION...THE CUMMINS BUILDING...A CONCRETE BLOCK AND HEAVY STEEL BUILDING...HAD ITS STEEL ROOF BEAMS COLLAPSE. SPORTS ACADEMY AND THE WALMART ALSO SUFFERED SIGNIFICANT DAMAGE.

THE TORNADO CONTINUED TO MOVE EASTWARD ALONG AND SOUTH OF 20TH STREET DESTROYING NUMEROUS WAREHOUSE STYLE FACILITIES AND RESIDENCES THROUGH DUQUESNE ROAD. WINDS IN THIS AREA MAY ALSO APPROACH 200 MPH.

THE TORNADO CONTINUED TO DESTROYING NUMEROUS HOMES BEFORE WEAKENING AS IT TURNED SOUTHEAST TOWARD INTERSTATE 44.

SUBSEQUENT DAMAGE SURVEYS WILL BE REQUIRED TO DETERMINE THE SCOPE OF ADDITIONAL REPORTS ALONG AND SOUTHEAST OF THE INTERSECTION OF HIGHWAY 71 AND INTERSTATE 44.

FOR REFERENCE...THE ENHANCED FUJITA SCALE CLASSIFIES TORNADOES INTO THE FOLLOWING CATEGORIES:

EF0...WIND SPEEDS 65 TO 85 MPH.
EF1...WIND SPEEDS 86 TO 110 MPH.
EF2...WIND SPEEDS 111 TO 135 MPH.
EF3...WIND SPEEDS 136 TO 165 MPH.
EF4...WIND SPEEDS 166 TO 200 MPH.
EF5...WIND SPEEDS GREATER THAN 200 MPH.

Jeff Masters

May 22, 2011 (WisconsinCowboy)
Hailstones in Westfield, WI
May 22, 2011
Wall cloud (weatherfanatic2010)
wall cloud with scud clouds rising up into it that looked like a funnel but were actually not ratating with the wall cloud.
Wall cloud
Tornado? (thomasanthony)
This is a shot looking west toward Topeka Kansas, about 5 miles away, as the wall cloud came closer to my position.
Tornado?
Wall Cloud (thomasanthony)
Rotating wall cloud coming through Perry Kansas. That speck towards the top is a helicopter.
Wall Cloud
Cleora, OK Tornado (okeedoky)
Very active tornado day 5/22 was. About the same time as Joplin, MO was getting hit, we had this one come right over the Grand Lake RV park and put down some EF-3 damage on the other side of the hay field you see.
Cleora, OK Tornado

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switch over night mode infared

Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54423
"Six tornadoes on the ground currently."
I don't usually listen to TV but at my Mom's.
"One after the other..."
I don't have my usual links, but they're forecasting "another four hours of this" on CNN.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Where do you get the news about new tornadoes touching down? And how many tornadoes have we had approx so far today and how many F4 or higher ones?
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Quoting KrippleCreekFerry:
Good news for a change. Recent research indicates that the severe spring outbreak of tornadoes IS MODIFYING the tropics. It is depleating the tropics of heat and energy and thus should result in a less intense hurricane season. The research is ongoing and I will keep you updated.


And what "research" is this?
Member Since: May 27, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 4438
Quoting KrippleCreekFerry:
Good news for a change. Recent research indicates that the severe spring outbreak of tornadoes IS MODIFYING the tropics. It is depleating the tropics of heat and energy and thus should result in a less intense hurricane season. The research is ongoing and I will keep you updated.


..?
2008 and 2005 both had very, very active tornado seasons. There is no correlation between tornado activity and hurricane activity.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Things have definitely calmed down from earlier...No confirmed tornadoes on the ground in OK at this time, although many storms are still capable of producing one.
Member Since: July 6, 2010 Posts: 113 Comments: 32277
Listening to CNN "EF4 Damage in Goldsby."
Critical injuries in Four Corners.
Serious storm near Seminole.
"Meeker storm has definitely recycled."
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Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54423

Listening to this on KFOR, bloody chilling. I've only been listening for ten minutes though, but I'm hoping from what they're saying that the tornadoes are hitting the unpopulated spaces between the towns, threading the gaps - am I right? Hope so. I don't like the sound of those debris balls. Hoping I wake up to anti-climatic news.

Ardmore don't sound good right now. :(

The impression I get is that they're dropping out of the sky all over the place in Oklahoma. Is that true? Hope not.
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its fixed on my end.
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TSR's May 24th pre-season hurricane forecast is not posted on the site yet. It's listed on the site however, it's a blank link.
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Quoting Patrap:
If you "minus" the post,the page will auto re-size in FireFox


I wasn't able to minus the post as the check boxes were off the page however, simply ignoring the user worked just fine. I am using Firefox. Post 601 for those still having issues. Minus if you can or ignore user.
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608 its time for you to disappear
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54423
Quoting Tazmanian:
guys too fix the mass up page this put him | Ignore and its all fixs


he fixed it
Member Since: August 7, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1937
NEW Tornado Damage Images from Oklahoma
Member Since: May 27, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 4438
I sure hope his mommy or daddy turns off his computer real soon.
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McClain County Damage

Member Since: May 27, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 4438
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128668
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guys too fix the mass up page this put him | Ignore and its all fixs
Member Since: May 21, 2006 Posts: 5091 Comments: 115243
It's been hours since WFO Norman issued any local storm reports...

Link
Member Since: May 27, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 4438
Great... the page is messed up.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
601 can you delete your post and resize it. It has stretched the blog.
Member Since: August 7, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1937
Possible tornado is heading for Lone Grove. Lone Grove was hit by an EF4 tornado on February 2008.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
602. ljk
dang, this is starting to look bad, hope the oklahoma people are using their experience in dealing with tornados to ensure their safety.
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sorry
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Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54423
Quoting MrstormX:
Those pictures are convincing, but I am still a little cautious to say what rating any of these tornadoes are.

Yeah, it is very early to say, but you have to admit it is violent tornado damage.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
598. mbjjm
kfor live on air right now large dangerous tornado

">
Member Since: August 23, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 310
Quoting KeysieLife:
Tornado live on TWC...and they go to a commercial!? What the hell!?


They need to make money, they might play like they care and I truly believe many of them do but ultimately NBC needs revenue.
Member Since: May 27, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 4438
Watch out Shawnee Mall area. Large Tornado on the ground Elephant truck
Member Since: August 7, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1937
Tornado live on TWC...and they go to a commercial!? What the hell!?
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Those pictures are convincing, but I am still a little cautious to say what rating any of these tornadoes are.
Member Since: May 27, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 4438
Near El Reno.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
This weather man on KFOR reminds me of a air traffic control worker. Crazing hearing him guide the different crews into the tornadoes
Member Since: August 7, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1937
NBC video from KFOR
DOES NOT require Flash player

showing snapping power poles

http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/21134540/vp/43159589# 43159589
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Quoting MrstormX:


And what source do you have to prove that, I would be hesitant to make such a statement yet at this point.


the storm chasers and TWC are saying it..and the damage from the coverage they are showing proves to be likely..ripping houses from the foundation is def a F4
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 15683
Link

evidence of EF5 damage
Member Since: August 1, 2006 Posts: 28 Comments: 3716
Quoting MrstormX:


And what source do you have to prove that, I would be hesitant to make such a statement yet at this point.

I saw footage of houses that have been ripped off their foundations from KFOR and TWC.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
587. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Japan Meteorological Agency
Tropical Cyclone Advisory #36
SEVERE TROPICAL STORM SONGDA (T1102)
6:00 AM JST May 25 2011
==================================

SUBJECT: Category Two Typhoon In Sea East Of Philippines

At 21:00 PM UTC, Severe Tropical Storm Songda (975 hPa) located at 12.5N 128.3E has 10 minute sustained winds of 60 knots with gusts of 85 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving west at 7 knots.

Storm Force Winds
==================
50 NM from the center

Gale Force Winds
===============
180 NM from the center in northeastern quadrant
140 NM from the center in southwestern quadrant

Dvorak Intensity:

Forecast And Intensity
=======================
24 HRS: 14.1N 126.3E - 75 knots (CAT 3/Strong Typhoon)
45 HRS: 16.4N 124.3E - 80 knots (CAT 3/Strong Typhoon)
69 HRS: 19.9N 122.6E - 80 knots (CAT 3/Strong Typhoon)
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586. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Philippines Atmospheric Geophysical Astrological Service and Administration
Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #8
TROPICAL STORM CHEDENG (SONGDA)
5:00 AM PhST May 25 2011
====================================

Tropical Storm "CHEDENG" has slowed down and maintained its intensity.

At 4:00 AM PhST, Tropical Storm Chedeng (SONGDA) located at 12.2°N 128.3°E or 365 km east of Catarman, Northern Samar has 10 minute sustained winds of 60 knots with gusts up to 80 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving west northwest at 6 knots.

Warning Signals
=============

Signal #2
------------

Luzon Region
--------------
1. Catanduanes
2. Sorsogon
3. Albay
4. Camarines Sur
5. Camarines Norte

Visayas Region
--------------
1. Samar Provinces

Signal #1
---------

Luzon Region
------------
1. Marinduquer
2. Masbate
3. Burias Island
4. Ticao Island
5. Southern Quezon
6. Polilo Island

Visayas Region
-------------
1. Biliran Island

Additional Information
======================
Residents in low lying and mountainous areas under signals #2 & #1 are alerted against possible flash floods and landslides. Likewise, those living in coastal areas are alerted against big waves or storm surges generated by this tropical cyclone.

TS "Chedeng" is expected to enhance the southwest monsoon and will bring rains over Visayas and Mindanao.

The public and the disaster coordinating councils concerned are advised to take appropriate actions and watch for the next bulletin to be issued at 11 a.m. today.
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Multiple vortex tornado near Pink and Shawnee.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
North Norman, Multiple Vortex on Ground.
Member Since: August 7, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1937
Quoting Ameister12:
It looks like EF4/EF5 damage from both the El Reno tornado and the Washington tornado.


And what source do you have to prove that, I would be hesitant to make such a statement yet at this point.
Member Since: May 27, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 4438
It looks like EF4/EF5 damage from both the El Reno tornado and the Washington tornado.
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
It's up again.
KFOR
Member Since: August 9, 2009 Posts: 10 Comments: 5026
I don't know if OKC is getting hit yet, but my doppler radar shows a signature heading NE right toward the center of the city... ugh.
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Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54423
000
NWUS53 KSGF 242300
LSRSGF

PRELIMINARY LOCAL STORM REPORT...CORRECTED
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE SPRINGFIELD MO
559 PM CDT TUE MAY 24 2011

..TIME... ...EVENT... ...CITY LOCATION... ...LAT.LON...
..DATE... ....MAG.... ..COUNTY LOCATION..ST.. ...SOURCE....
..REMARKS..

0541 PM TORNADO JOPLIN 37.08N 94.51W
05/22/2011 F5 JASPER MO NWS STORM SURVEY

*** 122 FATAL, 750 INJ *** A NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
STORM SURVEY REVEALED THAT AN EF-5 TORNADO IMPACTED A
LARGE PORTION OF THE CITY OF JOPLIN. WIND SPEEDS WERE
ESTIMATED IN EXCESS OF 200 MPH. THE PATH WIDTH WAS
ESTIMATED AT THREE QUARTERS OF A MILE WIDE.



&&

$$

WISE
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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