Onshore winds push radioactivity towards Tokyo

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:54 PM GMT on March 21, 2011

Share this Blog
4
+

Radioactive plumes emitted from Japan's troubled Fukushima nuclear power plant are headed to the southwest towards Tokyo today, carried by onshore northeasterly winds. An elongated area of low pressure is located off the southeast coast of Japan, and the counter-clockwise flow of air around this low may bring several periods of onshore northeasterly winds through Tuesday to northern Japan. According to the latest trajectory plots from NOAA's HYSPLIT model, air moving towards Tokyo today will be lifted by the ascending air associated with the low pressure system, and the radioactive particles may not make it all the way to Tokyo before getting lifted high enough that they get caught in a strong upper-level flow of air from the southwest and carried out to sea. Latest radar loops from the Japan Meteorological Agency show a wide region of light rain affecting Tokyo and surrounding regions, and this rain will tend to remove the great majority of the radioactive particles from the air in a few hours, so it is uncertain how much radioactivity might make it to Tokyo. High pressure will begin building in on Tuesday over Japan, and wind will gradually shift to blow out the north, which would carry radioactivity offshore just to the east of Tokyo. Offshore winds are expected on Wednesday, but onshore winds could re-develop late in the week as a new weak low pressure system affects the region. Radiation at the levels being reported coming from the troubled plant are not high enough to be of concern to human heath outside of Japan, so I will not be posting further plots showing the long-range path of the radioactivity unless there is a major explosion resulting in a significant release of radioactive emissions.


Figure 1. One-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 100 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Monday, March 21, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The plumes get blown by northeasterly winds close to Tokyo, before getting lifted high enough to get caught in a strong flow of air from the southwest that carries the radioactive air out to sea. Image created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.


Figure 2. One-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 100 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Tuesday, March 22, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. Northerly winds are predicted to carry radioactivity just to the east of Tokyo. A modest wind shift could bring the radioactivity to the city. Image created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.

Resources
Seven-day weather forecast for Sendai near the Fukushima nuclear plant

The Austrian Weather Service is running trajectory models for Japan.

Current radar loops from the Japan Meteorological Agency

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 98 - 48

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6Blog Index

Quoting Skyepony:



If you add your Personal Weather Station to the WeatherUndergound Network you get free website membership, free data hosting, great graphs of your data & I can show you the weather in my North Garden in a sylish little constantly updating sticker (or a number of variation of)..


WeatherUnderground~ Our weather stations are in your backyard...

That bestcast that's discussed in that article~ A forecast for your weather station (or that one right down the street), an awesome feature you can't get anywhere else~ had alot to do with the new site design. Well that & making it faster. Considering how much WU has changed over the years, I was surprised by some of the backlash. I think people didn't realize it had a set release day & their input has been used since (& this continues) to improve & finish it.
ONe of the things I noticed right away with the city pages is that local forecast. Considering that there's a lot less feedback from local sources here, the quality of the forecast is usually pretty darn good. I agree that the changes I've seen since 2005 have been almost completely for the better. One thing we don't give much credit for is the self-monitoring system WU uses in its blogs. I think it's better than what a lot of other sites use.
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Quoting Grothar:


Figures Brute would be a friend of yours. LOL


I never said Brute was a friend. He said this to me in passing. He said he was in hurry to an important meeting. Who knew?
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4745
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:



Queen, I suggest that you are not old. Have you met the blog's archaeological find, Grothar? He was writing history before anyone else thought about doing so. You may have seen some of his artwork in the "Modern Caves" stone tablets from the year 10,000 BC? They are now enshrined in The Museum of Ancient History? You would be hard pressed to find a better person, from any millennium he took part in.

Uh, no, Grothar. I did not start that rumor. Well, OK. Maybe I did but, Brute, of Caesar fame, gave me the suggestion. ........ wait for it


Figures Brute would be a friend of yours. LOL
Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26521
Simply to boast the ECMWF's seasonal forecast accuracy, lets look at the ECMWF 6-month lead forecast for the Nino 3.4 region from last August projected to February first. The blue line represents the observed conditions while red lines are the individual ensemble members. As you can see what was actually observed matched very closely to the mean of the ensembles members if we were to draw a trendline based on the individual members:




Now, I looked at the ECMWF seasonal forecast from the past 3 months up until now and it seems to be trying to warm things up a little faster than what we are observing so if we look at the latest ECMWF seasonal forecast and take the right hand side (cooler side) of the ensemble members and take the mean then that could very well be what we would be looking at for this upcoming hurricane season.

ECMWF latest seasonal prediction forecast for the Nino 3.4 region:
Member Since: October 28, 2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 30565
Quoting Skyepony:



If you add your Personal Weather Station to the WeatherUndergound Network you get free website membership, free data hosting, great graphs of your data & I can show you the weather in my North Garden in a sylish little constantly updating sticker (or a number of variation of)..


WeatherUnderground~ Our weather stations are in your backyard...

That bestcast that's discussed in that article~ A forecast for your weather station (or that one right down the street), an awesome feature you can't get anywhere else~ had alot to do with the new site design. Well that & making it faster. Considering how much WU has changed over the years, I was surprised by some of the backlash. I think people didn't realize it had a set release day & their input has been used since (& this continues) to improve & finish it.


What? All this time I thought you were from Australia. I never realized that Florida captured the city. When did this happen?
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4745
Quoting QuiltingQueen:


Yes, so true. I am old but still find myself getting into trouble sometimes.



Queen, I suggest that you are not old. Have you met the blog's archaeological find, Grothar? He was writing history before anyone else thought about doing so. You may have seen some of his artwork in the "Modern Caves" stone tablets from the year 10,000 BC? They are now enshrined in The Museum of Ancient History? You would be hard pressed to find a better person, from any millennium he took part in.

Uh, no, Grothar. I did not start that rumor. Well, OK. Maybe I did but, Brute, of Caesar fame, gave me the suggestion. ........ wait for it
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4745
I think a lot of us are on sensory overload. With everything going on in the world, and the very slow drip, drip, drip of new updates, the talking heads are stretching for news to report. Glad I have a DVR.
Member Since: September 10, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 11279
sorry pushed the wrong button
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
90. Skyepony (Mod)
Another bonus was with an IPod or such you don't have to get up to look at your weather station display..
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 175 Comments: 38201
Quoting RitaEvac:
I see how Japan has become 2nd hand news to the Gadafhi (whatver spelling)now. Pretty sad. I could care less about the damn middle east. Got radiation floating around on the globe and the sheep media wants to talk about meaningless crap about a bunch of yo yos that can't figure out what religion they are.


Its all about "Now" and though Japan was last week, Libya is "Now" news, as sad as that sounds. People start to change the channel if they get tired of the same ole same old news. I cant even watch it anymore, its like overload in my brain!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
88. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting BahaHurican:
“The thing you need to ask yourself when you see stations for a network is, how are these stations situated?” Mr. Robinson said. “There’s a lot of potential useful data being gathered, but buyer beware.”

This leads me to wonder, does Wunderground provide tutorials, maybe a blogging experience just for pple with weather stations?

[from that same article]



If you add your Personal Weather Station to the WeatherUndergound Network you get free website membership, free data hosting, great graphs of your data & I can show you the weather in my North Garden in a sylish little constantly updating sticker (or a number of variation of)..


WeatherUnderground~ Our weather stations are in your backyard...

That bestcast that's discussed in that article~ A forecast for your weather station (or that one right down the street), an awesome feature you can't get anywhere else~ had alot to do with the new site design. Well that & making it faster. Considering how much WU has changed over the years, I was surprised by some of the backlash. I think people didn't realize it had a set release day & their input has been used since (& this continues) to improve & finish it.
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 175 Comments: 38201
87. Skyepony (Mod)
Euro~Thanks.. Some translation was lost in the cut & paste. Had to resort to Babelfish. Had I just walked away without checking it you would have subdued undue panic.


Grother~ Sometimes I'm just too impatient, or like the other day~ your not around. Don't know why but I can 1/2 read of several languages. Many times just enough to know it's something really pertains or good stuff.

Those animated plume tracker/models come from ZAMG. There's links embed if you click on the maps posted earlier. You could translate & post the other info they put out today about WMO Day. I think there is some ZAMG history in there too I'd like to see translated.
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 175 Comments: 38201
I see how Japan has become 2nd hand news to the Gadafhi (whatver spelling)now. Pretty sad. I could care less about the damn middle east. Got radiation floating around on the globe and the sheep media wants to talk about meaningless crap about a bunch of yo yos that can't figure out what religion they are.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Floodman:


Glad to have you, Queen! While you're here, remember this definition:

Stress: The confusion created when one's mind overrides the body's basic desire to choke the living daylights out of some jerk who desperately deserves it.

There are some very deserving individuals here...


......and Flood is one of them. LOL
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hcubed:


If I really have a choice, I'll go for weather.gov before I hit weather.com (no ads on the .gov site)
Yup, and read the discussion to get a clue if they are just guessing.;^)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BahaHurican:
@QuiltingQueen

Unfortunately, there are a few here who are old enough to do better, but don't.....


Yes, so true. I am old but still find myself getting into trouble sometimes.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
@Baha:
Yep...present!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BahaHurican:
Afternoon all.



Wow... playing with the big boys....

"In the last six months, Weather Underground has averaged about 14 million unique visitors a month in the United States, while Weather.com attracted about 42 million, according to Quantcast, an online metrics company."

Thanks 4 the link, Guysgal. And welcome to the posting side....



If I really have a choice, I'll go for weather.gov before I hit weather.com (no ads on the .gov site)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
@QuiltingQueen

Unfortunately, there are a few here who are old enough to do better, but don't.....
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Quoting Floodman:


Glad to have you, Queen! While you're here, remember this definition:

Stress: The confusion created when one's mind overrides the body's basic desire to choke the living daylights out of some jerk who desperately deserves it.

There are some very deserving individuals here...


I just have to remind myself that I am too old to get excited about most things. It is not worth my time.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting QuiltingQueen:


I found the blog days before Hurricane Katrina hit. My sister lived on the gulf coast and to this day I credit this blog for saving my sister's life. She did not intend to evacuate because her home survived Camille. Due to information found here, I convinced her to go.

I mostly checked in during hurricane season due to my location on the gulf coast of Florida, and my sister's location in Mississippi. I would also read the blog during extreme weather events such as the snow storms and tornado outbreaks. As soon as I heard about the Japanese earthquake I came here because I knew the analysis and up-to-date information would be far better than what I get at CNN.

I will try my best to stay out of the drama that goes on. I have seen my fair share in the past several years but now that I have the ability to comment and combat it I will have to try hard to keep my lips shut.


Glad to have you, Queen! While you're here, remember this definition:

Stress: The confusion created when one's mind overrides the body's basic desire to choke the living daylights out of some jerk who desperately deserves it.

There are some very deserving individuals here...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BahaHurican:
Welcome to the blog.... if u've been lurking, u know the bloodletting on here can get pretty.... well.... aggressive... lol. Nevertheless, I've not found a site where the combination of available wx information of different types, different blogging experiences, and personal data management is so well combined. Once the season starts, I rarely go through a 24-hr period without checking in; given my location in the Bahamas, the information in the tropical blog almost always has some direct or indirect impact on my life.

But yeah, u have to be careful not to get sucked into the various dramas going on.... lol


I found the blog days before Hurricane Katrina hit. My sister lived on the gulf coast and to this day I credit this blog for saving my sister's life. She did not intend to evacuate because her home survived Camille. Due to information found here, I convinced her to go.

I mostly checked in during hurricane season due to my location on the gulf coast of Florida, and my sister's location in Mississippi. I would also read the blog during extreme weather events such as the snow storms and tornado outbreaks. As soon as I heard about the Japanese earthquake I came here because I knew the analysis and up-to-date information would be far better than what I get at CNN.

I will try my best to stay out of the drama that goes on. I have seen my fair share in the past several years but now that I have the ability to comment and combat it I will have to try hard to keep my lips shut.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting QuiltingQueen:


I have noticed expanded advertising lately too. This morning as I was reading my news a banner across the bottom of the page was directing me to WU. I lurked on the site for years before deciding to become a member. To be honest, the horrible things that Record Season said prompted me to sign up. I was going to let him have it but thought it better to just let it go.
Welcome to the blog.... if u've been lurking, u know the bloodletting on here can get pretty.... well.... aggressive... lol. Nevertheless, I've not found a site where the combination of available wx information of different types, different blogging experiences, and personal data management is so well combined. Once the season starts, I rarely go through a 24-hr period without checking in; given my location in the Bahamas, the information in the tropical blog almost always has some direct or indirect impact on my life.

But yeah, u have to be careful not to get sucked into the various dramas going on.... lol
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Another issue is that owners like Mr. Bleier must buy their own stations, which cost from about $110 to over $1,400, and use spare time to maintain them, without pay.

Toby Skinner, Weather Underground’s marketing director, believes users are compensated for the expense.

“They get a lot of archiving, they get map graphing and charts,” Mr. Skinner said. “A lot of these people may have their own local Web sites, community Web sites, and we provide the link to them so we’re providing some exposure.”

But for the weather fans with stations, participation is often its own reward.


So true.... lol

Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Quoting BahaHurican:
Afternoon all.



Wow... playing with the big boys....

"In the last six months, Weather Underground has averaged about 14 million unique visitors a month in the United States, while Weather.com attracted about 42 million, according to Quantcast, an online metrics company."

Thanks 4 the link, Guysgal. And welcome to the posting side....



I have noticed expanded advertising lately too. This morning as I was reading my news a banner across the bottom of the page was directing me to WU. I lurked on the site for years before deciding to become a member. To be honest, the horrible things that Record Season said prompted me to sign up. I was going to let him have it but thought it better to just let it go.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
TOKYO (Reuters)- When the massive tsunami smacked into Fukushima Daiichi, the nuclear power plant was stacked high with more uranium than it was originally designed to hold and had repeatedly missed mandatory safety checks over the past decade.

The Fukushima plant that has spun into partial meltdown and spewed out plumes of radiation had become a growing depot for spent fuel in a way the American engineers who designed the reactors 50 years earlier had never envisioned, according to company documents and outside experts Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
“The thing you need to ask yourself when you see stations for a network is, how are these stations situated?” Mr. Robinson said. “There’s a lot of potential useful data being gathered, but buyer beware.”

This leads me to wonder, does Wunderground provide tutorials, maybe a blogging experience just for pple with weather stations?

[from that same article]
Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Afternoon all.

Quoting Guysgal:
Great article on WU in the NYT this am Link

I hope this ia a live link!


Wow... playing with the big boys....

"In the last six months, Weather Underground has averaged about 14 million unique visitors a month in the United States, while Weather.com attracted about 42 million, according to Quantcast, an online metrics company."

Thanks 4 the link, Guysgal. And welcome to the posting side....

Member Since: October 25, 2005 Posts: 19 Comments: 22322
Mauritius Meteorological Services
Tropical Disturbance Advisory #27
DEPRESSION TROPICALE, FORMER CHERONO (07-20102011)
22:00 PM RET March 21 2011
==========================================

At 18:00 PM UTC, Tropical Depression, Former Cherono (997 hPa) located at 24.3S 57.9E has 10 minute sustained winds of 30 knots with gusts of 45 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving south southeast at 14 knots.

Gale Force Winds
================
Only in the southern semi circle between 60-130 NM from the center

Near Gale Force Winds
=======================
50 NM from the center extending up to 220 NM in southern semi-circle

Dvorak Intensity: T2.5/2.5/S0.0/24 HRS

Forecast and Intensity
======================
12 HRS: 25.2S 58.2E - 35 knots (Depression SubTropicale)
24 HRS: 26.5S 58.3E - 30 knots (Depression SubTropicale)
48 HRS: 28.9S 61.0E - 25 knots (Depression Extratropical)
72 HRS: 28.8S 64.8E - 30 knots (Depression Extratropical)

Additional Information
=====================

Convection remains fluctuating and mainly confined in the southern part of the system that is still undergoing a north to northwesterly wind shear generated by an upper level trough existing very close in the west of the system. Low level circulation center is more or less visible related to blow up of convection ASCAT swath 0523z confirms the very asymmetric winds structure with stronger winds in the southern semi-circle due to gradient effect with the subtropical high pressures. Mentioned speed is computed over the last 3 hours intervals. After a regular west southwestward motion, the system has began recurving southeastward and is expected to track eastward at lead time 24-36 hours. Within the next hours, the system should be phased with the approaching upper level trough. Ex-Cherono should therefore evolve to a subtropical hybrid structure. Refer to GFS phasis diagram.

Surface winds will remain strong due to gradient effect in the southern part of the system until Tuesday evening. On an after Wednesday, system should begin an extratropical transition and progressively fill in the westerly mid-latitude circulation.

The next tropical cyclone advisory from Mauritius Meteorological Services will be issued at 0:30 AM UTC..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
So, the USCG did apparently test something completely different from the oil.

USCG: Sediment_ LA oil two different incidents

The U.S. Coast Guard says a large patch of brown mystery substance spotted on the Gulf of Mexico off Louisiana this weekend was river sediment. The Coast Guard is also investigating what it says is an unrelated incident, in which oil washed up on some parts of the coast.

A cutter was dispatched to collect samples of the mysterious brown patch Saturday, and Chief Petty Officer John Edwards of the U.S. Coast Guard says tests didn't find anything ominous.

"Basically, sediment which we believe to be from dredging operations and high water in the Mississippi River," said Edwards.

That was Saturday. a day later, an oily substance washed up on Grand Isle, Elmer's Island and Fourchon Beach.

"It looks like oil, it smells like oil, we're treating like oil," Chief Edwards said.

Chief Edwards said one thing the Coast Guard is certain about is that the two incidents aren't related.

"We did take samples to make sure," he said. "This is two separate entities altogether."
http://www.wwl.com/USCG--Sediment--LA-oil-two-dif ferent-incidents/9442771
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
The Atlantic is a little more warmer than in past weeks as this update of the anomalies shows.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
going to be a big problem in the upcoming decades (if we make it that far) what to do we all this spent nuclear fuel.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


Lots of high shear out there although the tendency is below average Shear. Something we need to start watching really close come May 1st!!!!!

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:



Sure, Flood, I am sure everyone knows that. The clerk at the 7-11 explained the degeneration of Cesium and other radioactive materials to me quite well.


A lot of fission by-products are very radioactive and have relatively short half-lives. Cesium is a worry, but strontium is more of a concern as it can act as a calcium replacement (it can stay in the body for decades).

Iodine 131 is only a short term concern as it decays rapidly so after a month almost all of it gone. Cesium 137 and Strontium 90 have half-lives of around 30 years, so they stick around a while. Cesium has a biological half-life of about 70 days, so it does cycle out of the body but if you keep consuming more than you are eliminating you can get problems.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Barefootontherocks:

The EPA has simplified the process for inet viewing of radiation data from fixed monitors on the U.S. West Coast, Hawaii and Alaska


Thanks for this informative link. According to the EPA, these monitors collect particles from the air, and measure the amount of radiation:
RadNet fixed (permanent) air monitors sample continuously at a nominal flow rate of 60 cubic meters per hour (Adults typically breathe at a rate of about 20 cubic meters per day.) The monitors collect any particles in the sample on a filter. Radiation detectors continuously measure the beta and gamma radioactivity from particles on the filter.


As such, they are useful for understanding the amount of particles deposited on any given day. However, I don't breathe air on the west coast, but I eat leafy greens and milk grown there. As such, I am more interested in the cumulative amount of particles deposited.

Is there an analysis of these data that shows cumulative amount of particles? Seems like it would make a good science fair project...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:



I always wondered why the Slurpees had a bit of a glow to them and why radioactive isotopes can be had in strawberry flavor. I just never realized that the machinery was interchangeable. LOL


The cherry's really good...you can read by it
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Patrap:
We tried once in High Schul wit da "cotton candy machine",..but well,itsa Long story


Niiice...radioactive sugar based napalm...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Patrap:
We tried once in High Schul wit da "cotton candy machine",..but well,itsa Long story



Sounds like you may have gotten into a bit of a sticky situation?
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4745
Quoting Floodman:


The guy at our 7-11 and I are building a cyclotron; it's easy using old Slurpee machine parts...



I always wondered why the Slurpees had a bit of a glow to them and why radioactive isotopes can be had in strawberry flavor. I just never realized that the machinery was interchangeable. LOL
Member Since: August 24, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 4745
We tried once in High Schul wit da "cotton candy machine",..but well,itsa Long story
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Floodman:


Not too bad, all things being equal...you?
I am becoming a champion thumb twiddler!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting eyesontheweather:
Just goes to show how the economy is when a nuc phys is working the 7-11... How you been Flood?


Not too bad, all things being equal...you?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:



Sure, Flood, I am sure everyone knows that. The clerk at the 7-11 explained the degeneration of Cesium and other radioactive materials to me quite well.


The guy at our 7-11 and I are building a cyclotron; it's easy using old Slurpee machine parts...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Great article on WU in the NYT this am Link

I hope this ia a live link!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
msnbc.com news services
updated 48 minutes ago 2011-03-21T16:42:40


FUKUSHIMA, Japan — Gray smoke rose from two reactor units Monday, temporarily stalling critical work to reconnect power lines and restore cooling systems to stabilize Japan's radiation-leaking nuclear complex.

Workers are racing to bring the nuclear plant under control, but the process is proceeding in fits and starts, stalled by incidents like the smoke and by the need to work methodically to make sure wiring, pumps and other machinery can be safely switched on.

"Our crisis is still going on. Our crisis is with the nuclear plants. We are doing everything we can to bring this to an end," Gov. Yuhei Sato of Fukushima prefecture, where the plant is located, told the more than 1,000 people moved away from the plant into a gymnasium. "Don't give up. We know you are suffering."

Member Since: July 17, 2009 Posts: 71 Comments: 26521
Uh,oh,.."grocery clerks" again ?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:



Sure, Flood, I am sure everyone knows that. The clerk at the 7-11 explained the degeneration of Cesium and other radioactive materials to me quite well.
Just goes to show how the economy is when a nuc phys is working the 7-11... How you been Flood?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 98 - 48

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.