Trace radioactivity from Japan likely over the Western U.S. today

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:11 PM GMT on March 18, 2011

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Traces of radioactive substances emitted by Japan's damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant will likely arrive over the Western U.S. today, carried by the prevailing west to east winds that have blown over the Pacific Ocean during the past week. Rainfall is expected over California this weekend, and it is likely that the rain will wash radioactive particles out of the air to the surface in quantities that will be detectable at several locations. I want to strongly emphasize that the radioactivity from Japan arriving over the U.S. over the next few days poses absolutely no threat to human health, and is present in only miniscule quantities. The radioactive plumes from Japan have had seven days to dilute over a 5000+ mile journey, and have been subject to deposition to the ocean due to gravity and rainfall along the way. Natural radiation is present in our environment every day, and the extra radiation from the Fukushima nuclear plant will cause much less than a 1% increase this background radiation. Radioactive particles from the Chernobyl disaster in 1986 were detected in North America ten days after that event, and caused no harmful effects. The radiation from Japan over U.S. during the next week should be at levels even lower than the Chernobyl fallout.


Figure 1. Backward trajectories for the air arriving at the surface (red line) and 300 meters altitude (blue line) in San Francisco, California on Saturday, March 19, at 11am PDT. According to the latest run of the GFS model, the air arriving in San Franciso tomorrow will have originated near the surface in northern Japan last Saturday, when radioactive emissions from the Fukushima nuclear plant began. The radioactive particles arriving in California will be in trace quantities, and will have no harmful effects on human health. Images created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.

Radioactive plumes emitted from Japan's troubled Fukushima nuclear power plant continue to move offshore to the east over the Pacific Ocean today, thanks to predominantly west winds blowing at 5 - 15 mph. These winds are being driven by the clockwise flow of air around a surface high pressure system centered just southeast of Tokyo. As this high pressure system moves northeastwards, parallel to the Japanese coast, today through Saturday, winds will gradually shift to the southwest, keeping the radiation from the Fukushima plant blowing out to sea. As the winds shift to southwesterly, the sinking air over Japan will be replaced by rising air, and radioactive emissions will begin being lifted high in the atmosphere. Since there is less friction aloft, and the high speed winds of jet stream increase as the air moves higher in the atmosphere, this radiation will undergo long-range transport. Latest trajectory runs using NOAA's HYSPLIT model (Figures 2 - 4) show that radioactivity emitted today could wind up over Alaska after five days, and radioactive particles emitted on Saturday could make it to California by late next week. I've made trajectory plots for the next three days assuming two possible release altitudes--a surface-based release near 10 meters, which should be the predominant altitude in the current situation, and a higher release altitude of 300 meters, which might occur if there is an explosion and major fire. However, the 5-day trek to Hawaii and California is 4000 - 5000 miles, and a tremendous amount of dispersion and dilution of the radioactive plume will occur. Given the current levels of radiation being emitted, any radioactivity reaching Hawaii or the U.S. may be difficult to detect, and will not be a threat to human health. Keep in mind also that the most dangerous radionuclide to human health in the radioactive plume--Iodine-131--has a half life of eight days, so will be reduced by at least 30% after 5 days of travel time.

Of much greater concern is the possibility of dangerous level of radiation over Japan. The next period of onshore winds that will blow radioactivity inland over Japan may occur beginning on Saturday night (U.S. time), continuing through Sunday, according to the latest run of the GFS model. The latest HYSPLIT trajectories show winds on Sunday may carry radiation from the disaster site southwards over Tokyo. A low pressure system is expected to bring considerable rain to Japan on Sunday, and this rain is likely to remove most of the radioactivity from the air where rain and radioactivity are both present. The winds associated with this low are difficult to predict at this time, since the winds will be light and variable.


Figure 2. Five-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 300 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Friday, March 18, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The plumes get caught in a southwesterly flow of air in advance of an approaching low pressure system. The plume emitted near the surface (red line) stays trapped near the surface for 4 days then lifted to 4 km, but the plume emitted at 300 meters is lifted to 5 km altitude after 2 1/2 days by the rising air associated with the approaching low pressure system. Images created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.


Figure 3. Five-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 300 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Saturday, March 19, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The plumes get caught in a southwesterly flow of air in advance of an approaching low pressure system and lifted to 4 - 5 km altitude. The plumes are predicted to move over California and Mexico at high altitude. Images created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.


Figure 4. One-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 100 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Sunday, March 20, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The plumes get caught northerly winds, and the two lower altitude plumes move over Tokyo by 6 UTC on Monday, March 21. This is a low confidence forecast, as winds are expected to be light and somewhat variable on Sunday over Japan. Images created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.

Resources
Seven-day weather forecast for Sendai near the Fukushima nuclear plant

The Austrian Weather Service is running trajectory models for Japan.

Current radar loops from the Japan Meteorological Agency

Jeff Masters

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can some one please tell me how to change my avatar?
the orginal one got lost and replaced by a picture that is not.

thanks in advance...
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I did not find a good ref for this, my old and very out of date nuke classes make me think it is true though, take with grain of salt.....

This is worrying- Prof Chris Busby, a British scientist who specialises in the health effects of radiation, tells the BBC that he fears authorities are playing down the scale of the disaster: This is already a radiological catastrophe. Particularly when talking about the plutonium reactor. Plutonium can't be detected by the Geiger counter.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Christopher_Busby
Link
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183. Skyepony (Mod)
Thanks Flood..I resist steering ya'll down roads like phonetically sounding out some of the names of these Japanese places of disaster (well most of the time)..

ILwthrfan~ I don't know if there is a timelime. Looks like some shallow, hard quakes happened on Fujiyama. Not finding alot about it yet, nothing from an agency. The spins remind me of the storm surge of fire scenario with the oil spill. In a few days when the wind is right...blowing huge amounts of radiation toward the volcano.. It blows it sky high in a massive volcano explosion.. quickly across the earth. Burning ash covering Tokyo, Fukushima & other reactors..doom(of the moon).
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(Daily Mail Reporter) The boss of the company behind the devastated Japanese nuclear reactor today broke down in tears – as his country finally acknowledged the radiation spewing from the over-heating reactors and fuel rods was enough to kill some citizens






After Tokyo Electric Power Company Managing Director Akio Komiri cried as he left a conference to brief journalists on the situation at Fukushima, a senior Japanese minister also admitted that the country was overwhelmed by the scale of the tsunami and nuclear crisis.

He said officials should have admitted earlier how serious the radiation leaks were.

Chief Cabinet Secretary Yukio Edano said: ‘The unprecedented scale of the earthquake and tsunami that struck Japan, frankly speaking, were among many things that happened that had not been anticipated under our disaster management contingency plans.

‘In hindsight, we could have moved a little quicker in assessing the situation and coordinating all that information and provided it faster.’

Nuclear experts have been saying for days that Japan was underplaying the crisis’ severity.
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Quoting auburn:
Not sure how reliable this link is...

Nuclear Plant Chief Weeps as Japanese Finally Admit People Will Die From Radiation

March 18, 2011 %uFFFD 0 comments


Ugh... the image for that article is heart-breaking. The man's grief looks genuine. Let's just hope the mistakes he and the others at the top have made will serve as lessons to future nuclear regulators and plant administrators.
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4.30am Interesting article from Reuters about why scientists don't just use the "Chernobyl solution" and cover the reactor in concrete.

"It's just not that easy," Murray Jennex, a professor at San Diego State University in California. "They (reactors) are kind of like a coffee maker. If you leave it on the heat, they boil dry and then they crack."

"Putting concrete on that wouldn't help keep your coffee maker safe. But eventually, yes, you could build a concrete shield and be done with it."



"Chernobyl solution" may be last resort for Japan reactors
Link
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Plus you can't even compare organic poison to radioactive poison. It's difficult enough to compare different kinds of radiation as-is. But just to give you an idea of how toxic alpha radiation is:

"For comparison, tobacco contains polonium-210 due to the calcium phosphate used in the soil to “enhance flavor”; these atoms undergo a single alpha emission, and are in trace amounts. For an upper limit on the amount of polonium in a cigarette, the maximum allowable body burden for ingested polonium-210 is about 6.8 picograms. The maximum permissible workplace concentration of airborne polonium-210 is about 110 times less."

pico is 10^(-12)
Member Since: July 5, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1347
Quoting sunlinepr:


In this blog, I've seen bloggers call wetbacks, roaches to Latin’s.
I've seen bloggers classified themselves as American citizens "From the north", suggesting that American citizens from the islands are inferior.... I've seen comments like a black is not supposed to give orders to a white American...
And now your prejudiced comment against religious groups including Jehovah’s Witnesses..

I agree with you, THIS IS NOT the blog to talk about religion...


I have black, white, American, Latin, Witnesses, Catholic, Buddhist, Pentecostal, Baptist, communist, atheists, skinny, fat friends and family; And I really don't judge them or make jokes about their beliefs...

I personally are againt and do no approve Racism and religious prejudice.... And I hope the Administrator does the same....


You are right, I apologize and retract.
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176. auburn (Mod)
Not sure how reliable this link is...

Nuclear Plant Chief Weeps as Japanese Finally Admit People Will Die From Radiation

March 18, 2011 · 0 comments
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http://www.wipp.energy.gov/fctshts/plutonium.pdf
Link

IT is all goood….
Plutonium has often been called the most toxic element known to man. However, in the normal meaning of “toxic” -- that is, a poison with a fairly fast, often fatal, effect -- scientists do not consider plutonium as very toxic at all. It is not comparable, for instance, to botulism, poison mushrooms, or certain chemicals, where very small amounts will cause immediate death. In referring to small amounts of radioactive materials, such as plutonium, the words “toxic” and “toxicity” are used to describe their relative abilities to damage biological material rather than to kill rapidly. The effects of low-level exposures to plutonium, as well as other radioactive material, may not be detected for many years, if at all.

WELL maybe not….. ( I added the italics and bold)
The risk of plutonium, particularly that which is maintained in temporary above ground storage facilities around the country, is that it and other transuranic isotopes have the potential to be inadvertently released to the biosphere. Without proper control and permanent disposal, plutonium can be of great risk if it were accidently released and dispersed with subsequent exposure to nearby populations.
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Quoting Grothar:


Skypony is, and always will be a class act. Nice of you to point it out on the blog.


I agree...She's a very balanced blogger.. A model to follow on how to behave here...
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Quoting guygee:
An inhaled speck can and will kill you by causing radiation-induced cancer within a few years, unless you die of something else first.

Inhale a speck, and your adjacent tissues are bombarded by 2200 alpha particles per second.

There is a lot of corporate propaganda out there that people can quote, but just the fact that you have to compare Pu-239 to cyanide should be cluing you in that you are being gamed.


The difference between ingestion of Pu-239 and cyanide? You can survive ingestion of a 3 micron grain of cyanide (lethal dosage for cyanide is 50-300mg, depending on form).

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U.S. Navy Chief Naval Air Crewman Steven Sinclair, left, assigned to Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron (HS) 4,

currently embarked aboard the aircraft carrier USS Ronald Reagan (CVN 76), hugs a Japanese citizen March 15, 2011, after delivering humanitarian aid supplies to a coastal Japanese city affected by the tsunami caused by a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in northern Japan. Ships and aircraft from the Ronald Reagan Strike Group were conducting search and rescue operations and resupply missions throughout northern Japan’s affected areas in support of Operation Tomodachi. (DoD photo by Mass Communication Specialist 3rd Class Kevin B. Gray, U.S. Navy /Released)
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Quoting Floodman:


Oh, jitter, we have to talk...there is only one non-suicidal answer to that question:

"Of course not! Why would you think such a thing?"


I would roll on the floor, but I wouldn't be able to get up. I will have to delete this post soon.
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Quoting Floodman:
I would like to take a moment and compliment skyepony's ability to ignore all the ridiculous "material" that gets flung around in here...always steady, skyepony's posts are informative, well thought out and the depth of web based information displays incredible patience and tenacity in researching nearly anything...


Absolutely! Skye is a class act!
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Quoting Floodman:
I would like to take a moment and compliment skyepony's ability to ignore all the ridiculous "material" that gets flung around in here...always steady, skyepony's posts are informative, well thought out and the depth of web based information displays incredible patience and tenacity in researching nearly anything...


Skypony is, and always will be a class act. Nice of you to point it out on the blog.
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Quoting jitterboy:

Right! "Does this dress make my butt look big?" "Ummm...stutter stutter... 'motor boat sounds' what are the SST's in the GOM"


Oh, jitter, we have to talk...there is only one non-suicidal answer to that question:

"Of course not! Why would you think such a thing?"
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Guygee, Ah, you caught the "gaming" part. :)

I put the link at the top because you should, and because, the source is important for perspective.

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Walked down to the beach this morning on Ft. Lauderdale. Water was really warm.

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Quoting Grothar:


Like I said before, while the two of us have to salute each other, only one of us really means it.

Anyone have updates on the reactor situation. Even the news is just repeating the same info. Nothing new.


Oh, my brother, when we salute one another, it's simply a social nicety...neither of us means it!

LOL

As for the situation in Japan, like everyone else, we're waiting for the other shoe to drop...I'm afraid we may see another upgrade to the level of the event
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Quoting jitterboy:

Right! "Does this dress make my butt look big?" "Ummm...stutter stutter... 'motor boat sounds' what are the SST's in the GOM"


This is a first. Someone asking me a weather question. Here you go jitter:

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I would like to take a moment and compliment skyepony's ability to ignore all the ridiculous "material" that gets flung around in here...always steady, skyepony's posts are informative, well thought out and the depth of web based information displays incredible patience and tenacity in researching nearly anything...
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Like I said before, while the two of us have to salute each other, only one of us really means it.

that depends upon the type of salute....

;)
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Quoting 1911maker:
http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/inf15.html
Link

The main isotopes of plutonium are:
[...]
Pu-239, fissile (half-life 24,000 years, alpha decay)
[...]
The most common isotope formed in a typical nuclear reactor is the fissile Pu-239 isotope, formed by neutron capture from U-238 (followed by beta decay), and which yields much the same energy as the fission of U-235. Well over half of the plutonium created in the reactor core is 'burned' in situ and is responsible for about one third of the total heat output of a light water reactor (LWR). Of the rest, about one sixth through neutron capture becomes Pu-240 (and Pu-241). The approximately 1.15% of plutonium in the spent fuel removed from a commercial LWR power reactor (burn-up of 42 GWd/t) consists of about 53% Pu-239, 25% Pu-240, 15% Pu-241, 5% Pu-242 and 2% of Pu-238, which is the main source of heat and radioactivity
.......
Toxicity and health effects
Despite being toxic both chemically and because of its ionising radiation, plutonium is far from being "the most toxic substance on Earth" or so hazardous that "a speck can kill".
Inhalation....

An inhaled speck can and will kill you by causing radiation-induced cancer within a few years, unless you die of something else first.

Inhale a microgram-size speck, and your adjacent tissues are bombarded by 2200 alpha particles per second.

There is a lot of corporate propaganda out there that people can quote, but just the fact that you have to compare Pu-239 to cyanide should be cluing you in that you are being gamed.
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Quoting Floodman:


I thought we settled THAT when Alexander promoted me in front of you...I did end up with garrison duty in Afghanistan though


Like I said before, while the two of us have to salute each other, only one of us really means it.

Anyone have updates on the reactor situation. Even the news is just repeating the same info. Nothing new.
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Quoting Grothar:


Yes, Socrates always told me to use humor as much as possible, especially if you are forced to drink hemlock.



Yes, Socrates did drink one too many. The last time I saw him he was trying to get the king's crown to float in a bathtub. He never did get it float but, he sure got the floor all wet.
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Quoting RecordSeason:


You know, a significant portion of what is known to make a nuclear reactor is actually common knowledge, quite literally found in appropriate text books and encyclopedias.


As for theology, every Christian, and indeed every person, had better be a theologian, because I can assure you, not many others really care about your eternal destination or your relationship to God.

Just observe the absurdities on this thread, whereby this little spat started with the absurd notion that an atheist could "rest in peace". And we typically get responses of "who cares" and "this isn't the time/place".

The point is, you better be a "theologian". You better come to know God for yourself, otherwise, you're either deceiving yourself, or you're at the mercy of relying on someone else to tell you what to believe.


If there is any topic worth discussing, it is the topics of and related to God, morality, and eternity, and yet there is always some excuse for the listener or a potential participant in said discussion to not care and not want to be bothered.



And oh yes, floodman, not that I call myself any sort of title, but who says a Christian or even an ordained minister cannot be a scientist too? Ironically, Isaac Newton, the father of all modern science and mathematics, was an ultra-conservative, fundamentalist Christian who believed in Bible Prophecy and wrote extensively on interpretation of Biblical prophecy.



One other thing:

Purgatory is a non-biblical catholic doctrine which has no basis in anything taught by Jesus or the apostles.

in the parables there are exactly TWO destinations: heaven and hell.

There is the wheat and the tares, no middle ground.

There are sheep adn goats, again no middle ground.

There is the narrow gate to salvation, and there is the wide gate to hell. There is no middle gate for undecideds and false converts.
You should not post material like this. If you want exchange religious information with someone specific here, thats one thing, but when you post on the main page about religious issues, you are breaking the rules of the road. Most of the boggers here are mature individuals and do not need someone to tell them whether or not they will be able to rest in peace, or that they better be a theologian, or that we might be deceiving ourselves. It is also wrong trying to assure us how many people care about what happens to us after we die, or what becomes of our souls or spirits. There are a lot "souls" that believe it is not necessary to commit oneself to some kind of "divine Aid or God" to reach heaven or to attain spiritual salvation. You probably mean well, but if you continue, you might get banned.
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Quoting Grothar:


It's OK jitter! Don't know if you are fortunate enough to be married, but there are always misunderstandings. Like when Mrs. Grothar asks me why her new dress doesn't fit. I sometimes forget to say, "They must have mismarked the size" It happens to all of us.

Right! "Does this dress make my butt look big?" "Ummm...stutter stutter... 'motor boat sounds' what are the SST's in the GOM"
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Quoting Grothar:


Don't have to worry about that one. My jumping days are over. I think my last jump was back in the 1970's. But thanks for the advice.


Do one more for the record LOL
Member Since: October 8, 2008 Posts: 14 Comments: 4553
Quoting jitterboy:

I come here for science and science related discussions.

If you want to talk religion, I am sure there are plenty of blogs out there.


In this blog, I've seen bloggers call wetbacks, roaches to Latins.
I've seen bloggers classified themselves as American citizens "From the north", suggesting that American citizens from the islands are inferior.... I've seen comments like a black is not supposed to give orders to a white American...

And now your prejudiced comment against religious groups including Jehovahs Witnesses..

I agree with you, THIS IS NOT the blog to talk about religion...


I have black, white, American, Latin, Witnesses, Catholic, Buddhist, Pentecostal, Baptist, communist, atheists, skinny, fat friends and family; And I really don't judge them or make jokes about their beliefs or the way they look and think...

I personally are against and do no approve Racism and religious prejudice and coments like the one that started this.... And I hope the Administrator does the same....

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Quoting kwgirl:

Check the top of your head, then the bridge of your nose. You know, one time I jumped off a boat into the ocean with my glasses on because I forgot I had them on. :)


Don't have to worry about that one. My jumping days are over. I think my last jump was back in the 1970's. But thanks for the advice.
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Quoting ILwthrfan:


Whats the general rule of thumb with a time line of when a volcano might become active after a earthquake swarm? A few weeks to months?


I don't honestly think there is a rule of thumb; St Helens had a number of distinct swarms starting a few YEARS (1977 I think?) before the last eruption and had one just a few hours prior to the big eruption.

What's happening in Japan isn't strictly a swarm; it's the aftershocks from a large seimic event. The thing a lot of people aren;t getting is that the larger the seismic event, the larger the potential aftershocks (and the greater the number of them)
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:



That, sir, is one of the many reasons I like. You have an uncanny ability to find your way through the darkness. Even without your glasses! An ancient art?


Yes, Socrates always told me to use humor as much as possible, especially if you are forced to drink hemlock.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
If theirs any place going through hell right now it's Japan.And oh yeah by the way I don't know about ya'll MF's but I want to go to heaven.Anywho insted of wasting your time b**ching and arguing with each other why don't you all just take a step away from the computer and go outside?.Take advantage of the nice weather.Especially if you live up north or in the mid-atlantic(like me).I'm going to the water front today.So you all stop the fighting and play nice.Have a good day.

Nicely put, wash.
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Quoting PrivateIdaho:


Photobucket">


I will NOT comment on that image other than to say "Wow, what a great sign!"

ROFLMAO
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Quoting Grothar:


Hey, Flood, leave my friend Rookie alone or I'll make you drop and do 20. LOL


I thought we settled THAT when Alexander promoted me in front of you...I did end up with garrison duty in Afghanistan though
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If theirs any place going through hell right now it's Japan.And oh yeah by the way I don't know about ya'll MF's but I want to go to heaven.Anywho insted of wasting your time b**ching and arguing with each other why don't you all just take a step away from the computer and go outside?.Take advantage of the nice weather.Especially if you live up north or in the mid-atlantic(like me).I'm going to the water front today.So you all stop the fighting and play nice.Have a good day.
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Public Health Risks of Substituting Mixed-Oxide For Uranium Fuel in Pressurized-Water Reactors: Link

Pu-240 (LEU: 0.01516 MCi) MOX: 0.1049 MCi
Pu-241 (LEU: 4.664 MCi) MOX: 18.43 MCi
Am-241 (LEU: 0.00365 MCi) MOX: 0.07942 MCi
Cm-242 (LEU: 0.6998 MCi) MOX: 8.807 MCi
Cm-244 (LEU: 0.03244 MCi) MOX: 0.09869 MCi
Member Since: July 5, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1347
Wow, I come on the blog to find tropical storm or update in Japan and I am met with Fire and Brimstone.
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Quoting Grothar:


It's OK jitter! Don't know if you are fortunate enough to be married, but there are always misunderstandings. Like when Mrs. Grother asks me why her new dress doesn't fit. I sometimes forget to say, "They must have mismarked the size" It happens to all of us.



That, sir, is one of the many reasons I like. You have an uncanny ability to find your way through the darkness. Even without your glasses! An ancient art?
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Quoting Grothar:


I know Rookie. He DEFINITELY is not a troll. Sorry, there was a misunderstanding there Rookie. And I found my keys, but now I can't find my glasses. Hope everyone is fine. The Doc had a nice blog today.

Check the top of your head, then the bridge of your nose. You know, one time I jumped off a boat into the ocean with my glasses on because I forgot I had them on. :)
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Quoting jitterboy:

I stand corrected


It's OK jitter! Don't know if you are fortunate enough to be married, but there are always misunderstandings. Like when Mrs. Grothar asks me why her new dress doesn't fit. I sometimes forget to say, "They must have mismarked the size" It happens to all of us.
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138. srada
Quoting RecordSeason:


You know, a significant portion of what is known to make a nuclear reactor is actually common knowledge, quite literally found in appropriate text books and encyclopedias.


As for theology, every Christian, and indeed every person, had better be a theologian, because I can assure you, not many others really care about your eternal destination or your relationship to God.

Just observe the absurdities on this thread, whereby this little spat started with the absurd notion that an atheist could "rest in peace". And we typically get responses of "who cares" and "this isn't the time/place".

The point is, you better be a "theologian". You better come to know God for yourself, otherwise, you're either deceiving yourself, or you're at the mercy of relying on someone else to tell you what to believe.


If there is any topic worth discussing, it is the topics of and related to God, morality, and eternity, and yet there is always some excuse for the listener or a potential participant in said discussion to not care and not want to be bothered.



And oh yes, floodman, not that I call myself any sort of title, but who says a Christian or even an ordained minister cannot be a scientist too? Ironically, Isaac Newton, the father of all modern science and mathematics, was an ultra-conservative, fundamentalist Christian who believed in Bible Prophecy and wrote extensively on interpretation of Biblical prophecy.



One other thing:

Purgatory is a non-biblical catholic doctrine which has no basis in anything taught by Jesus or the apostles.

in the parables there are exactly TWO destinations: heaven and hell.

There is the wheat and the tares, no middle ground.

There are sheep adn goats, again no middle ground.

There is the narrow gate to salvation, and there is the wide gate to hell. There is no middle gate for undecideds and false converts.


+eternity in heaven!
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137. Skyepony (Mod)
A strong sandstorm blasted the Qaidam Basin in the western region of China's Qinghai Province on March 17. The maximum wind speed in Golmud reached a record high for the past 30 years. Zhang Jinong, leading forecaster of the Qinghai Meteorological Station, said Golmud, located in the Qaidam Basin, was hit by a strong sandstorm as a result of strong cold air from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region at 1:33 a.m. on March 17. The strong sandstorm lasted nearly one hour. The minimum visibility in Golmud was only 10 meters and the maximum wind speed reached 26.3 meters per second, a historic high over the past 30 years. Afterwards, the Nomhon area in the south of the Qaidam Basin and Touraine in the southeastern Qaidam Basin were also hit by the strong sandstorm. A sandstorm with a maximum wind speed of 20 meters per second began at 3:32 a.m. in the Nomhon area and lasted nearly three hours, and the minimum visibility there was 700 meters. A sandstorm with a maximum wind speed of 20.5 meters per second hit Touraine at 5:27 a.m. and lasted 12 minutes. The total area of the high-altitude and dry Qaidam Basin is more than 200,000 square kilometers. It is the area with the most vulnerable eco-forestry, the most desertification area and the most difficulties in governance in Qinghai Province, and it has a very important ecological status.
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Quoting Skyepony:
Japan that has not managed to recover after the first blow of natural disasters ( earthquakes and tsunamis) is risking to be overtaken by a new misery resulting from these disasters. Japanese Seismic Service has reported of a threat of its symbol, Fujiyama volcano’s eruption. The reasons for these assessments are recent 5-6 magnitude earthquakes on the volcano. The last time the volcano erupted was in 1707 when a new crater appeared on it and Tokyo streets ( named do at the time) were covered with 15 sm ash. Eruption of the national symbol will completely " smash" Japan which has just 2 days to stave off nuclear explosion at APS Fukushima affected by tsunami. So far Japanese Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) has increased the danger degree at wrecking Automatic power station Fukushima -1 till the 5th level out of 7 possible ones. International Atomic Energy Agency(IAEA) already considers wreckage at Japanese APS Fukushima-Daiichi the most serious one since Chernobyl catastrophe of 1986. Japanese government has already asked the USA for technical assistance to push aside wreckage on APS built under General Electric technology. At present it has been officially affirmed that another 6.200 people have become victims of Japanese earthquake on 11 March. Nearly 10.200 people are considered missing.


Whats the general rule of thumb with a time line of when a volcano might become active after a earthquake swarm? A few weeks to months?
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Quoting PrivateIdaho:


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I don't care what your political beliefs are. THAT is funny!
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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