Favorable winds over Japan carrying radioactivity out to sea

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:16 PM GMT on March 16, 2011

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If there is going to be a major nuclear disaster with massive release of radioactivity into the atmosphere from Japan's stricken Fukushima nuclear plant, today would be the best day meteorologically for this to occur. The low pressure system that brought rain and several inches of snow to Japan yesterday has moved northeastwards out to sea, and high pressure is building in. The clockwise flow of air around the high pressure system approaching Japan from the southwest is driving strong northwesterly winds of 10 - 20 mph over the region. These winds will continue through Thursday, and will take radiation particles emitted by the stricken reactors immediately out to sea, without lingering over Japan. Since high pressure systems are regions of sinking air, the radiation will stay close to the ocean surface as the air spirals clockwise over the Pacific. The contaminated air will remain over the ocean for at least five days, which is plenty of time for the radiation to settle out to the surface.


Figure 1. Surface weather map for 8am EDT today, taken from the 6-hour forecast from this morning's 6 UTC run of the GFS model. A high pressure system to the southwest of Japan, in combination with a low pressure system to the northeast are driving strong northwesterly surface winds over the country. Image is from our wundermap with the "Model" layer turned on. The lines are sea-level pressure (blue contours, 4 mb interval) and 1000 to 500 mb thickness (yellow contours, 60 m interval). Thickness is a measure of the temperature of the lower atmosphere, and a thickness of 5400 meters is usually close to where the dividing line between rain and snow occurs.

Thursday night and Friday morning (U.S. time), the high pressure system moves over Japan, allowing winds to weaken and potentially grow calm, increasing the danger of radioactivity building up over regions near and to the north of the nuclear plant. On Friday, the high departs and a moist southwesterly flow of air will affect Japan. These southwesterly winds will blow most of the radiation out to sea, away from Tokyo. Southwesterly winds will continue through Sunday, when the next major low pressure system is expected to bring heavy precipitation to the country. Beginning Thursday night, the sinking airmass over Japan will be replaced a large-scale area of rising air, and any radiation emitted late Thursday through Friday will be carried aloft towards Alaska and eastern Russia by this southwesterly flow of rising air.

Ground-level releases of radioactivity are typically not able to be transported long distances in significant quantities, since most of the material settles to the ground a few kilometers from the source. If there is a major explosion with hot gases that shoots radioactivity several hundred meters high, that would increase the chances for long range transport, since now the ground is farther away, and the particles that start settling out will stay in the air longer before encountering the ground. Additionally, winds are stronger away from ground, due to reduced friction and presence of the jet stream aloft. These stronger winds will transport radioactivity greater distances. I've made trajectory plots for the next three days assuming two possible release altitudes--a surface-based release near 10 meters, which should be the predominant altitude in the current situation, and a higher release altitude of 300 meters, which might occur from an explosion and fire from a Chernobyl-style incident. Given that the radioactivity has to travel 3000 miles to reach Anchorage, Alaska, and 5000 miles to reach California, a very large amount of dilution will occur, along with potential loss due to rain-out. Any radiation at current levels of emission that might reach these places may not even be detectable, much less be a threat to human health. A Chernobyl-level disaster in Japan would certainly be able to produce detectable levels of radiation over North America, but I strongly doubt it would be a significant concern for human health. The Chernobyl disaster only caused dangerous human health impacts within a few hundred miles of the disaster site, and the distance from Japan to North America is ten times farther than that.


Figure 2. Five-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 300 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Wednesday, March 16, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The plumes spiral clockwise around the high pressure system to the southwest of Japan and stay near the surface. Images created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.


Figure 3. Five-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 300 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Thursday, March 17, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The plumes initially spiral clockwise around the high pressure system to the southwest of Japan and stay near the surface. By Saturday, though, the plumes get caught in a southwesterly flow of air in advance of an approaching low pressure system. Ascending air lifts the plumes to high altitudes, where winds are stronger and rapid long-range transport occurs. Images created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.


Figure 4. Five-day forecast movement of plumes of radioactive air emitted at 10 meters altitude (red line) and 300 meters (blue line) at 18 UTC (2pm EDT) Friday, March 18, 2011 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant. The plumes get caught in a southwesterly flow of air in advance of an approaching low pressure system. The plume emitted near the surface (red line) stays trapped near the surface, but the plume emitted at 300 meters is lifted to 3.5 km altitude by the rising air associated with the approaching low pressure system. Images created using NOAA's HYSPLIT trajectory model.

Resources
Seven-day weather forecast for Sendai near the Fukushima nuclear plant

The Austrian Weather Service is running trajectory models for Japan.

Current radar loops from the Japan Meteorological Agency

Rare subtropical cyclone forms near Brazil
An unusual low pressure system that came close to becoming a tropical storm is in the South Atlantic, a few hundred miles east of the coast of Brazil. The Brazilian Navy Hydrographic Center has officially named the system Subtropical Storm "Arani", but I'm not sure the low would have been named by NHC, since Arani has somewhat of a loose circulation and limited heavy thunderstorm activity. The storm is expected to move slowly eastward out to sea, and does not pose a threat to South America. The latest run of the GFDL model shows little development of Arani, and the storm is now encountering a frontal system, which is bringing 20 - 30 knots of wind shear. It is unlikely that Arani will become a tropical storm. Some runs of the GFDL last weekend were predicting Arani would intensify into a Category 3 hurricane; that's the first time I've even seen such a prediction for a South Atlantic storm. The metsul.com blog has more info on Arani, for those of you who read Portugese.


Figure 5. During the daytime on Tuesday 15 March 2011 at 1820 UTC the TRMM satellite flew over a rare cyclone labeled Arani in the South Atlantic. Arani had the appearance of a tropical cyclone but has been classified as a subtropical cyclone. NOAA's Satellite and Information Service classified Arani as a T1 on the Dvorak intensity scale which would indicate an estimated wind speed of about 29 kt (~33 mph). TRMM's Microwave Imager (TMI) and Precipitation Radar (PR) data were used in the image above to show rainfall near Arani. Image credit: NASA.

Jeff Masters

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Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128344
Quoting TampaFLUSA:
What the heck are you talking about?


Is my comment not fairly self-explanatory?
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Quoting CybrTeddy:
I see Igor and Tomas got retired.
Ian and Tobias..

Well at least they learned not to replace scary Russian names with another scary Russian name. They were asking for trouble with Igor.


So however destructive, Alex, Earl, Hermine, Karl and Matthew will all be used once again. Unbelievable.
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Quoting FloridaHeat:
I must go to my job at Publix now. I will try to update you tomorrow on the Japan situation. If you have an emergency, you can always email me because I do check my WUmail.
What the heck are you talking about?
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I am more upset that Owsley Stanley died. He had a great impact on my youth. he in fact had daily impact for the greater part of 1969 with his "orange sunshine" label. also his "white Lightning" was a staple of that era.
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Quoting FloridaHeat:
I must go to my job at Publix now. I will try to update you tomorrow on the Japan situation. If you have an emergency, you can always email me because I do check my WUmail.


thank god, the line at publix is huge... hopefully your nuke high school experience will quicken the line, and ill make sure to email you in case i need up to date info in japan, whatever i do i wont turn on the news.
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Quoting twincomanche:


Mowing grass you get radiation. Flying in a airplane at altitude you get radiation. What I was trying to point out is that at this time there are no serious health risks except for those brave souls trying to get this thing under control. There is way too much hyperventilating about this right now. We need to calm down. These people here in the States rushing out to empty the GNC stores of potassium iodide pills are being foolish, however half of it is because of all the misinformation spewing out.


I for one am thrilled you're here to tell all of us idiots to calm down. Silly us getting all worked up over those insignificant little nuke plants in Japan. Is there any way that you could leave condescension out of your posts? It gets seriously annoying after a while. Did the earthquake and tsunami in Japan happen in your world? The nuclear plant situation in Japan is absolutely serious. Take a look at what's going on there and you might realize that.
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oh my- someone who glorified the gangsta lifestyle gets gunned down- and folks are sad?

apropos (rolls eyes)

short sweet status update please
klaat- you are a very sensible person, I doubt anyone would ever make fun of you
Member Since: August 13, 2005 Posts: 166 Comments: 25938
Quoting TampaSpin:


lOOK beyond that......look toward the Baja of Cali.



Considering the recent earthquakes in the Gulf of California, Texas, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Southeastern Missouri, Northern Indiana, SW Ontario, and Southern Quebec put together, I made the observation that there was the appearance of an 'earthquake line'. Such an observation is not unprecedented however.
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power line is almost ready to go good news probally need to evacuate the north part of that island basically move everyone south
Member Since: September 11, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 4594
345. Absolutely amazing photo! So many layers of the story told in a single image. That's one for the ages...
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I must go to my job at Publix now. I will try to update you tomorrow on the Japan situation. If you have an emergency, you can always email me because I do check my WUmail.
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03/16/2011
GATHERING TO GO

Japanese soldiers gather for instruction on Kadena Air Base, Japan, March 16, 2011, before heading to mainland Japan with U.S. airmen to support humanitarian and recovery efforts. The U.S. has sent airmen, aircraft and thousands of pounds of relief supplies to northern Japan from Kadena Air Base. U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman Sara Csurilla







MIYAGI DAMAGE

U.S. Navy Petty Officer 3rd Class Garrett Krygier surveys the destruction in Miyagi prefecture, Japan, March 14, 2011, from an 8.9-magnitude earthquake and tsunami that struck northern Japan. Krygier is an aircrewman assigned to Helicopter Anti-Submarine Squadron 14, based on Naval Air Facility Atsugi, Tomodachi. U.S. Navy photo by Petty Officer 1st Class Ben Farone


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128344
I see Igor and Tomas got retired.
Ian and Tobias..

Well at least they learned not to replace scary Russian names with another scary Russian name. They were asking for trouble with Igor.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24033
Quoting Skyepony:
#
2014: A special police van equipped with a water cannon - normally used to disperse rioters - meanwhile arrived at the power station early on Thursday. Tepco plans to use the cannon to spray water onto reactor 4's spent fuel storage pond. The cannon is thought to be strong enough to allow engineers to remain a safe distance from the complex and limit their exposure to radiation.


2010: More on the power line being laid to the Fukushima Daiichi plant to help restore the reactor cooling systems: Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco) spokesman Naoki Tsunoda has said it is almost complete, and that engineers plan to test it "as soon as possible", according to the Associated Press. Reviving the electric-powered pumps might allow the engineers to finaly cool the overheated reactors and spent fuel storage ponds


YAY !
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Quoting Patrap:
"We believe that secondary containment has been destroyed and there is no water in the spent fuel pool and we believe that radiation levels are extremely high which could possibly impact the ability to take corrective measures."


Hence the water cannon
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Quoting Patrap:
TMZ we are not.

We are Weather Underground.


Yeah but the number of off-topic posts regularly surpass the mention of a famous hip hop artist passing away. I'd much rather read about Nate Dogg passing (and I'm 40 BTW but musically diverse) than some dope spewing misinformation about various topics they know nothing about and trying to impose their right wing political ideology on everyone.

But thanks for keeping it real Pat...

Keep on keeping on!
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"We believe that secondary containment has been destroyed and there is no water in the spent fuel pool and we believe that radiation levels are extremely high which could possibly impact the ability to take corrective measures."
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128344
Quoting twhcracker:


a href="" target="_blank">Link


what I meant was:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LcxYwwIL5zQ
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Quoting Patrap:
TMZ we are not.

We are Weather Underground.


We are also not the New Orleans Chamber of Commerce either. Maybe you should consider that before you do another commercial.
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337. N3EG
Quoting P451:
Also 3 2.2M quakes around Mt St Helens although the depth of them is 8km+ --- any mountain activity you would expect surface quakes of 0-3km. Still though you don't know what that mountain is up to these days after it's surprise awakening which actually happened not too long after that 5M+ quake in CA. Crescent City? I forget that was a while ago.



We get those all the time...another yawn echo from the Pacific Northwest.
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Quoting hydrus:
It looks like a little wave coming your way...



Think it will come up the coast? Give us late snow? Sometimes it has snowed in April, Prince was right.
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10 minutes ago skyepony


Radiation very high at Japan's Fukushima reactor, warns US Nuclear Regulatory Commission





THERE is no water left in the spent fuel pool of reactor 4 at Japan's Fukushima nuclear plant, resulting in "extremely high" radiation levels, the chair of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission warned today.

"In addition to the three reactors that were operating at the time of the incident, a fourth reactor is also right now under concern. This reactor was shut down at the time of the earthquake," said NRC chairman Gregory Jaczko.

"What we believe at this time is there has been a hydrogen explosion in this unit due to an uncovering of the fuel in the spent fuel pool," he said, noting the explosion happened several days ago but its effects were cause for concern.

"We believe that secondary containment has been destroyed and there is no water in the spent fuel pool and we believe that radiation levels are extremely high which could possibly impact the ability to take corrective measures."

Start of sidebar. Skip to end of sidebar.
Related Coverage

* Nature shows no mercy Adelaide Now, 15 minutes ago
* Japan quake: Latest updates The Daily Telegraph, 19 minutes ago
* Pressure Japan for nuclear fix Courier Mail, 6 hours ago
* Stay indoors and cover up The Australian, 7 hours ago
* Health risks from radiation The Daily Telegraph, 11 hours ago

End of sidebar. Return to start of sidebar.

Jaczko briefed legislators about the latest developments as part of a House of Representatives hearing on the US energy budget, after meeting with President Barack Obama at the White House.

He said that if the United States were facing a similar situation, it would order a much larger evacuation zone than Japan has 20 kms, and so the US has called on Americans within 80 kms of the Japan nuclear plant area to leave.

"Recently the NRC made a recommendation that based on the available information that we have that for a comparable situation in the United States we would recommend an evacuation for a much larger radius than has currently been provided in Japan," he said.

"As a result of this recommendation the ambassador in Japan has issued a statement to American citizens that we believe it is appropriate to evacuate to a larger distance, up to approximately 50 miles (80 kms)."

France's Nuclear Safety Authority (ASN) earlier yesterday described the No. 4 rod pool as "the major concern" in the crisis.

"The next 48 hours will be decisive," said Thierry Charles, director for factory, laboratory, transport and waste safety at the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN).

In an assessment issued at 7pm AEDT yesterday, the IRSN said the water in the No. 4 pool was "boiling".

"Without water replenishment, the fuel-rod assemblies will start to be exposed in a few days. If the pool runs dry, this would eventually lead to the meltdown of the fuel.

"In such an event, the corresponding releases of radioactivity would be far higher than those that have occurred up till now."

A single dose of 100 millisieverts is considered by some experts to increase the risk of several types of cancer.

The Fukushima accident has generated a "radioactive plume" which is likely to expand in coming days but does not present any health threat to Tokyo, the head of a French nuclear safety agency said yesterday.

He added, though, that there could eventually be a "strongly contaminated zone" extending up to 60 km around the stricken plant.

The cloud's extent "is relatively concentrated on a zone of several dozen kilometres around the site, depending on the fluctuation of the winds, which are generally blowing towards the Pacific Ocean but not always," said Jacques Repussard, from the Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN).

"In the coming days, this plume will eventually reach a zone of several hundred kilometres, but our calculations show that, for example in Tokyo, exposure will not have any impact on health in any way," he told a parliamentary committee.

The Fukushima No. 1 plant, hit by a quake and tsunami on March 11, lies 250 kilometres northeast of the Japanese capital.

"There will be ionising radiation, there will be radioactive particles, but doses will be at levels that are far, far below those that, for instance, would need iodine tablets to be taken," said Repussard said.

Potassium iodine tablets are used in nuclear emergencies to protect the thyroid against radioactive iodine, which can cause cancer.

Eventually, said Repussard, "there will be a strongly contaminated zone, in the order of 50 to 60 kilometres around the site".

Beyond this, "there will be measurable impacts but not dramatic impacts".

Repussard did not give details about radioactivity levels, nor did he say what he meant by a "strongly contaminated zone" or what scenario of radioactivity emissions would be needed for this to happen.

Japan has set up a 20km exclusion zone around the plant and warned people living up to 10 kms beyond this to stay indoors. More than 200,000 people have already been evacuated.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128344
Quoting Patrap:
TMZ we are not.

We are Weather Underground.
You took the words out of my mouth.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting belizeit:
It feels like a tropical wave very unusual for march . March is supposed to be dry and breezy
It looks like a little wave coming your way...
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Quoting twhcracker:


Future Water Use in the Nuclear Power Industry Since the EPA has begun to restrict water withdrawal, open cycle cooling has essentially become illegal for new plants. Lobbying efforts may eventually overturn this regulation, but for now the power industry must turn to more expensive options such as closed cycle cooling, or other cooling methods that do not depend on water as much as current techniques.
The loss of the open cycle option has served to make coastal location less valuable. The lower wildlife density of deep ocean water has long been an attractive feature for coastal power plants, since open cycle cooling systems would become clogged less often and also have reduced environmental impact. As closed cycle wet systems are currently the second most popular option, the shift away from open cycle systems will serve to make freshwater more valuable than salt water for cooling purposes, as salt water is difficult to use in closed cycle systems. The Calvert Cliffs nuclear power plant, for example, is planning to use a small desalination plant to provide fresh cooling water for its proposed third unit.22 The plants location was originally chosen with the use of open cycle seawater using systems in mind, but has been forced to adopt freshwater using systems, despite the scarcity of fresh water in the immediate environment.


The Japanese reactors are not open cycle. They do not use salt water. They have already stated that using salt water was a last resort because after doing so the reactors would be a total loss.

I'm well aware that salt water can be used in open cycle cooling for power stations (not just nuclear plants). But we are talking about the Japanese reactors.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
330. Skyepony (Mod)
#
2014: A special police van equipped with a water cannon - normally used to disperse rioters - meanwhile arrived at the power station early on Thursday. Tepco plans to use the cannon to spray water onto reactor 4's spent fuel storage pond. The cannon is thought to be strong enough to allow engineers to remain a safe distance from the complex and limit their exposure to radiation.


2010: More on the power line being laid to the Fukushima Daiichi plant to help restore the reactor cooling systems: Tokyo Electric Power Company (Tepco) spokesman Naoki Tsunoda has said it is almost complete, and that engineers plan to test it "as soon as possible", according to the Associated Press. Reviving the electric-powered pumps might allow the engineers to finaly cool the overheated reactors and spent fuel storage ponds
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
TMZ we are not.

We are Weather Underground.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128344
Quoting TampaFLUSA:
How old are you?


19
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Quoting FloridaHeat:
I am sorry to go off topic, but I have some very important and sad news - Nate Dogg is dead.


Regulators! Mount up!
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How old are you?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Japan NHK LIVE TV English,USTREAM Feed
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 424 Comments: 128344
323. Skyepony (Mod)
Sometimes I surprise even myself. Muddled through German~ found the source for the ZAMG model. Here's the latest run for Iodine 131. Click on the pic to go to the page (scroll down for this animation). There's another you can click on to see how close it all got to Tokyo. They came close yesterday. Looks like some of the areas to the NE, that really got hit by the quake & tsunami may take a dose.

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Quoting CFLWX:
Nate Dogg gunned down in his hometown. RIP MAN!

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1plPyJdXKIY


The world is certainly coming to an end. A talent like Nate Dogg does not come around every day.
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Quoting Floodman:


Hardly...Armageddon, the penultimate battle is to be fought at Megiddo (hence Armageddon) in the Jezreel Valley...


You and all those silly details...buzzkill!
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Quoting RitaEvac:
It's the end of the world!!

nah, no, nope, everything is fine. There is no radiation threat anywhere, the nuke plants are stable, the DOW Jones will skyrocket back up to record levels, everybody will have jobs, everybody will be happy, your income will NEVER decline, and our infrastructure is stronger than its ever been.


a href="" target="_blank">Link
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Quoting MrMixon:
Someone posted some scientific information and you called it boring. Who is picking on who? For the record, I also responded to Amy's "snore" comment, so you're not getting special treatment.

Your concern for the Midwest is well-founded. The whole reason we're discussing the Montreal earthquake is to explore the question of whether or not it is related to the New Madrid system in the Midwest. So, it seems to me like we're all interested in the same thing.




Sir, I never used the word boring in any of my posts. You are the one who made the comment that my post has a "contrarian tone". Pardon me, but how can typed words have any tone at all? It was your interpretation, not mine that put the tone to what I posted. My comment was to imply that a 3.7 is totally overshadowed by a 9.0. It's called being sarcastically subtle.
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Quoting TampaSpin:


lOOK beyond that......look toward the Baja of Cali.

Here is a list of Mag-3 or better for the U.S. Territories 7 day list...MAG UTC DATE-TIME
y/m/d h:m:s LAT
deg LON
deg DEPTH
km LOCATION
MAP 3.7 2011/03/16 17:36:56 45.571 -74.547 5.3 45 km ( 28 mi) WSW of Mirabel, Canada
MAP 3.3 2011/03/16 14:56:37 61.554 -149.805 20.4 5 km ( 3 mi) ENE of Big Lake, AK
MAP 5.4 2011/03/16 13:42:33 19.033 -67.918 56.0 95 km ( 59 mi) ENE of Hig%uFFFDey, Dominican Republic
MAP 3.5 2011/03/16 12:56:20 39.032 -118.808 6.4 8 km ( 5 mi) NNE of Schurz, NV
MAP 3.0 2011/03/16 05:20:00 19.082 -66.482 12.5 69 km ( 43 mi) N of Tierras Nuevas Poniente, PR
MAP 3.7 2011/03/15 18:14:40 38.385 -118.727 12.5 18 km ( 11 mi) SSW of Hawthorne, NV
MAP 3.2 2011/03/15 18:11:02 38.386 -118.727 12.2 18 km ( 11 mi) SSW of Hawthorne, NV
MAP 3.0 2011/03/15 13:49:08 19.127 -66.459 27.0 74 km ( 46 mi) N of Tierras Nuevas Poniente, PR
MAP 3.0 2011/03/15 13:07:51 18.284 -68.046 105.4 79 km ( 49 mi) ESE of Hig%uFFFDey, Dominican Republic
MAP 3.3 2011/03/15 07:15:48 31.561 -117.106 7.1 54 km ( 33 mi) WSW of Maneadero, Mexico
MAP 3.0 2011/03/15 05:37:47 19.123 -66.485 21.0 74 km ( 46 mi) N of Tierras Nuevas Poniente, PR
MAP 3.6 2011/03/14 06:30:03 31.996 -115.048 10.0 33 km ( 21 mi) S of Guadalupe Victoria, Mexico
MAP 4.0 2011/03/14 01:43:49 25.440 -109.662 10.0 72 km ( 45 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 3.8 2011/03/13 20:16:21 32.954 -100.810 5.0 28 km ( 18 mi) NNE of Snyder, TX
MAP 4.6 2011/03/13 16:07:34 25.285 -109.748 10.0 91 km ( 56 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 4.0 2011/03/13 05:54:25 25.276 -110.076 10.1 115 km ( 71 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 4.6 2011/03/13 02:50:11 25.442 -109.763 23.6 79 km ( 49 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 3.3 2011/03/13 01:19:16 51.831 -171.244 26.5 203 km (126 mi) SW of Nikolski, AK
MAP 3.0 2011/03/12 23:12:18 60.150 -150.884 47.2 28 km ( 18 mi) SE of Kasilof, AK
MAP 4.5 2011/03/12 21:58:39 25.308 -109.837 10.2 95 km ( 59 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 4.3 2011/03/12 20:16:58 25.423 -109.730 10.0 78 km ( 48 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 4.7 2011/03/12 17:54:18 25.456 -109.690 22.2 73 km ( 45 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 5.1 2011/03/12 17:13:01 25.466 -109.727 10.0 75 km ( 46 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 5.3 2011/03/12 14:11:04 25.396 -109.652 12.1 75 km ( 47 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 5.5 2011/03/12 13:26:02 25.350 -109.930 17.6 98 km ( 61 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 4.3 2011/03/12 12:06:16 51.593 -175.256 25.5 98 km ( 61 mi) SW of Atka, AK
MAP 4.4 2011/03/12 12:03:42 25.260 -109.964 10.1 108 km ( 67 mi) SW of Ahome, Mexico
MAP 3.0 2011/03/12 03:41:35 41.092 -125.437 27.2 109 km ( 68 mi) W of Trinidad, CA
MAP 3.0 2011/03/12 00:04:08 19.337 -154.981 9.3 16 km ( 10 mi) SSW of Leilani Estates, HI
MAP 3.2 2011/03/11 19:46:26 19.381 -155.011 9.0 14 km ( 9 mi) SW of Leilani Estates, HI
MAP 3.5 2011/03/11 12:15:06 51.147 -178.415 5.5 147 km ( 92 mi) WSW of Adak, AK
MAP 3.2 2011/03/11 10:56:23 35.496 -97.090 4.7 9 km ( 5 mi) ENE of Harrah, OK
MAP 3.0 2011/03/11 09:33:57 19.382 -155.015 7.6 14 km ( 9 mi) SW of Leilani Estates, HI
MAP 3.3 2011/03/11 09:03:37 19.349 -154.950 31.4 14 km ( 9 mi) SSW of Leilani Estates, HI
MAP 4.6 2011/03/11 08:58:25 19.341 -154.993 9.3 17 km ( 10 mi) SSW of Leilani Estates, HI
MAP 4.6 2011/03/11 07:36:11 51.209 -178.418 20.6 144 km ( 89 mi) WSW of Adak, AK
MAP 3.3 2011/03/11 06:18:03 19.344 -154.989 8.5 16 km ( 10 mi) SSW of Leilani Estates, HI
MAP 3.4 2011/03/11 04:51:25 35.351 -118.561 5.4 13 km ( 8 mi) N of Keene, CA
MAP 4.0 2011/03/11 00:25:28 18.897 -68.855 166.1 24 km ( 15 mi) NE of El Seybo, Dominican Republic
MAP 3.4 2011/03/10 21:31:23 51.116 -178.641 19.9 162 km (101 mi) WSW of Adak, AK
MAP 3.4 2011/03/10 20:40:07 51.485 -173.435 14.0 96 km ( 59 mi) SE of Atka, AK
MAP 3.4 2011/03/10 18:10:05 19.648 -64.169 8.0 103 km ( 64 mi) N of Settlement, British Virgin Islands
MAP 3.2 2011/03/10 15:56:24 36.008 -117.401 4.7 27 km ( 17 mi) N of Trona, CA
MAP 3.1 2011/03/10 07:41:30 19.157 -65.424 6.0 92 km ( 57 mi) NNE of Vieques, PR
MAP 3.2 2011/03/10 06:19:01 67.700 -152.596 6.4 62 km ( 38 mi) SW of Anaktuvuk Pass, AK
MAP 3.0 2011/03/10 05:03:52 55.741 -156.780 15.8 118 km ( 74 mi) ESE of Chignik, AK
MAP 3.5 2011/03/09 20:48:31 35.243 -92.397 5.9 2 km ( 1 mi) NNW of Greenbrier, AR
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.