Greenland update for 2010: record melting and a massive calving event

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:31 PM GMT on March 04, 2011

Share this Blog
6
+

No humans were present on the morning of August 4, 2010, in a remote fjord in Northwest Greenland, when the air vibrated with a thunderous crack as one of the largest icebergs in world history calved from the Petermann Glacier, the island's second largest ocean-terminating glacier. Where the glacier meets the sea, a 43 mile-long tongue of floating ice existed at the beginning of 2010. On August 4 2010, a quarter of this 43 mile-long tongue of floating ice fractured off, spawning a 100 square mile ice island four times the size of Manhattan, with a thickness half that of the Empire State building. According to Andreas Muenchow, associate professor of physical ocean science and engineering at the University of Delaware's College of Earth, Ocean, and Environment, the freshwater stored in this ice island could have kept the Delaware or Hudson rivers flowing for more than two years, or kept all U.S. public tap water flowing for 120 days. There was speculation that the ice island could find its way into the open Atlantic Ocean in two years, and potentially pose a threat to oil platforms and ships. However, as the ice island made its turn to get from the narrow Petermann Fjord to enter Nares Strait between Greenland and Canada, the mighty iceberg split into thousands of small icebergs that will not pose an unusual threat to shipping when they emerge into the Atlantic.


Figure 1. The 100 square-mile ice island that broke off the Petermann Glacier heads out of the Petermann Fjord in this image taken by NASA's Aqua satellite on August 21, 2010. Image credit: NASA. I've constructed a 7-frame satellite animation available here that shows the calving and break-up of the Petermann Glacier ice island. The animation begins on August 5, 2010, and ends on September 21, with images spaced about 8 days apart. The images were taken by NASA's Aqua and Terra satellites.

Petermann Glacier spawned smaller ice islands in 2001 (34 square miles) and in 2008 (10 square miles). In 2005, the Ayles Ice Shelf, about 60 miles to the west of Petermann Glacier, disintegrated and became a 34 square-mile ice island. The August 2010 Petermann Glacier calving event created the largest iceberg observed in the Arctic since 1962, when the Ward Hunt Ice Shelf on the north coast of Canada's Ellesmere Island calved off a massive 230 square mile chunk. The Ward Hunt Ice Shelf also calved off a huge 21 square mile ice island a few days after the August 2010 Petermann Glacier calving event. According to an article in livescience.com, "Driftwood and narwhal remains found along the Ellesmere coast have radiocarbon dates from roughly 3,000 to 6,800 years ago, implying that the ice has been intact since those remains were deposited." All of the these calving events are evidence that the ice sheets in the Arctic are responding as one would expect to significantly warmer temperatures.

Warmer ocean temperatures cause significant melting of Greenland's glaciers
At a talk last December at the world's largest conference on climate change, the American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting in San Francisco, glacier expert Eric Rignot of UC-Irvine implicated ocean warming as a key reason for the calving of the Petermann Glacier's ice island. The ocean waters near the glacier have warmed by 1 - 2°C over the past three years, he said, and all of the periphery of Greenland has seen ocean heat increases in recent years, with the result that 20 - 80% of all the mass lost by Greenland's glaciers in recent years could be attributed to melting of the glaciers by warmer waters attacking them from beneath. Ocean temperatures along the southwest coast of Greenland (60N to 70N, 60W to 50W) computed from the UK Hadley Center data set during 2010 were 2.9°C (5.2°F) above average--a truly remarkable anomaly, and far warmer than the previous record of 1.5°C above average set in 2003. Sea surface temperature records for Greenland began in the 1920s. A study earlier this year published in the journal Science (Spielhagen et al., 2011) found that ocean temperatures on the east side of Greenland are now at their warmest levels in at least 2,000 years. The researchers studied a sediment core containing fossil remains of planktic foraminifers, which vary as a function of water temperature. The study noted that not only have the waters flowing northward on the east side of Greenland warmed significantly, the volume of water flowing north has also increased, resulting in a large transport of heat into the Arctic. "Such an increased heat input has far-reaching consequences," they wrote.


Figure 2. Departure of sea surface temperature from average for 2010 from the NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation SST Anomaly data set for October 2010. Areas colored red are warmer than the 1971-2000 average, areas colored blue are cooler than that average. A large region of record warm water temperatures extended along the west coast of Greenland, leading to record warm air temperatures and record melting along the western portion of Greenland in 2010. Ocean temperatures along the southwest coast of Greenland (60N to 70N, 60W to 50W) computed from the UK Hadley Center data set during 2010 were 2.9°C (5.2°F) above average--a truly remarkable anomaly, surpassing the previous record of 1.5°C set in 2003. Sea surface temperature records for Greenland began in the 1920s. Image credit: NOAA Visualization Lab.

Record warmth and melting in Greenland during 2010
Greenland's climate in 2010 was marked by record-setting high air temperatures, the greatest ice loss by melting since accurate records began in 1958, and the greatest mass loss of ocean-terminating glaciers on record. That was the conclusion of the 2010 Arctic Report Card, a collaborative effort between NOAA and European Arctic experts that comes out each year. Was 2010 the warmest year in Greenland's history? That is difficult to judge. We know it was also very warm in the late 1920s and 1930s in Greenland, but we only have two stations, Godtahab Nuuk and Angmagssalik, with weather records that go back that far (Figure 3.) Godtahab Nuuk set a record high in 2010, but temperatures at Angmagssalik in 2010 were similar to what was observed during several years in the 1920s and 1930s. Marco Tedesco of the City College of New York's Cryosphere Processes Laboratory remarked that last year's record warmth and melting in Greenland began when an unusually early spring warm spell reduced and "aged" the snow on the surface of the ice sheet, so that the snow became less reflective, allowing it to absorb more heat from the sun. This accelerated snow melt even further, exposing the bare ice, which is less reflective than snow and absorbs more heat. This feedback loop extended Greenland's record melting season well into the fall.


Figure 3. Historic temperatures in Greenland for the six stations with at least 50 years of data, as archived by NASA. Three of the six stations set record highs in 2010. However, only two of the six stations (Godtahab Nuuk and Angmagssalik) have data going back beyond the 1930s, which was a period of warmth in Greenland similar to the warmth of the current decade. Godtahab Nuuk set a record high in 2010, but 2003 still ranks as Angmagssalik's hottest year on record.


Figure 4. The 2010 summer melt season was lasted more than 40 days longer (purple colors) than the mean melt season from 1979 - 2007. Image credit: Arctic Report Card.

Why Greenland matters: sea level rise
The major concern with a warming climate in Greenland is melting of the Greenland ice sheet, which currently contributes about 25% of the observed 3 mm/year (1.2 inches per decade) global rise in sea level. Higher sea levels mean increased storm surge inundation, coastal erosion, loss of low-lying land areas, and salt water contamination of underground drinking water supplies. Greenland ice mass loss is accelerating over the long term, according to independent estimates using three different techniques (Figure 5), with more mass being lost each year than the previous year. According to Rignot et al., 2011, ice mass loss is also accelerating in Antarctica, and "the magnitude of the acceleration suggests that ice sheets will be the dominant contributors to sea level rise in forthcoming decades, and will likely exceed the IPCC projections for the contribution of ice sheets to sea level rise in the 21st century." As I discussed in a 2009 blog post, How much will global sea level rise this century?, the IPCC in 2007 estimated that global sea level would rise 0.6 - 1.9 feet by 2100, but several studies since then predict a higher range of 1.6 - 6.6 feet.

During the warm period 125,000 years ago, before the most recent ice age, roughly half of the Greenland ice sheet melted. This melting plus the melting of other smaller Arctic ice fields is thought to have caused 7.2 - 11.2 feet (2.2 - 3.4 meters) of the 13 - 20 foot (4 - 6 meter) sea level rise observed during that period. Temperatures in Greenland are predicted to rise 3°C by 2100, to levels similar to 125,000 years ago. If this level of warming occurs, we can expect sea levels to rise 13 - 20 feet several centuries from now. There's enough water locked away in the ice sheet to raise sea level to rise 23 feet (7 meters), should the entire Greenland ice sheet melt.


Figure 5. Loss of mass from Greenland's ice sheet in gigatons per year from 1992 through 2009, as computed from satellite gravity measurements from the GRACE satellites (red line) and from a mass balance method. The mass balance method computes the amount of snow on the surface, the amount of ice mass lost to wind and melt, and the amount of ice lost computed from glacier velocity and ice thickness. Adding together these terms gives the total amount of ice lost or gained over the ice sheet. The acceleration is given in gigatons per year squared. Another paper by Zwally et al. (2011) used a third method, laser satellite altimetry, to determine Greenland mass loss. Between 2003 to 2007, the ice sheet lost 171 gigatons of mass per year. Between 1992 to 2002, Greenland was only losing only 7 gigatons per year. Image credit: Rignot et al., 2011, Geophysical Research Letters.

References
Rignot, E., et al., 2011: Acceleration of the contribution of the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets to sea level rise, Geophysical Research Letters, in press, doi:10.1029/2011GL046583.

Spielhagen, et al., 2011, Enhanced Modern Heat Transfer to the Arctic by Warm Atlantic Water, Science 28 January 2011: Vol. 331 no. 6016 pp. 450-453 DOI: 10.1126/science.1197397

Zwally, J., et al., 2011, Greenland ice sheet mass balance: distribution of increased mass loss with climate warming; 2003 - 07 versus 19922 - 2002, Journal of Glaciology, Vol. 57, No. 201, 2011.

Wunderground's climate change section has a Greenland web page with detailed information and references.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 939 - 889

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22Blog Index

You know it.... Taz has more weather knowledge than most people on here.... And everyone likes him....
Member Since: January 24, 2007 Posts: 317 Comments: 31946
Quoting NRAamy:
Taz needs to be made a featured blogger....


I'll vote YEA.....
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
Oh Nooo!! we have enough GW with one sun... What about having 2 suns??...

China's 'Two Suns' Video Unexplained By Science
Space.com space.com Sat Mar 5, 12:15 am ET

Weeks after a story shot across the Web claiming that the imminent explosion of a nearby star would result in the appearance of a second sun in the sky %u2013 a story that was later debunked %u2013 two suns were caught on camera yesterday in China. The suns %u2013 one fuzzy and orange, the other a crisp yellow orb %u2013 appeared side-by-side, one slightly higher than the other.

What's going on? Life's Little Mysteries, a sister site to Space.com, asked Jim Kaler, the University of Illinois astronomer who squelched the excitement over the aforementioned exploding Betelgeuse and who has written books on the day and night sky. The double sun image is an effect of optical refraction, Kaler said, but it's a "pretty darn rare" one, and one not fully explained by science...


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Taz needs to be made a featured blogger....
Member Since: January 24, 2007 Posts: 317 Comments: 31946
Quoting EYEStoSEA:


LOL.....good one Taz..:)



thanks
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Tazmanian:
vote for gumby for President.



LOL.....good one Taz..:)
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
gumby for President.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Patrap:
The GOP decides accurate weather forecasting and hurricane tracking are luxuries America can%u2019t afford
Republicans try to defund NOAA%u2019s satellite program -- just as climate change is making the weather much more extreme....


Surprise surprise. Almost as surprising as the attack on teachers and education. Or environmental regulation. Or financial regulation. Or healthcare. So on and so forth.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


Oh yea, I noticed the avatar...lol..."a face only a mother could love"....but I do Believe my dizzy head is getting better and better ~~~~.....
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
Quoting sunlinepr:


AWESOME video...sound and all...you could almost feel the heat....
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Lava spews 65 feet high after crater collapse
Sun Mar 6, 8:44 pm ET

VOLCANO, Hawaii – A new vent has opened at one of the world's most active volcanoes, sending lava shooting up to 65 feet high, scientists at Kilauea volcano said Sunday.

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory said the fissure eruption was spotted shortly after the floor at the Pu'u O'o crater collapsed around 5 p.m. Saturday. It occurred along the middle of Kilauea's east rift zone, about 2 miles west of Pu'u O'o.



Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
DAVIESS COUNTY, Ind. — A large levee break in western Daviess County, Ind., will leave water standing for several days, a top official said.

Paul Goss, director of emergency management for Daviess County, said no homes have been affected, just farmland and nearby county roads.

“Nobody lives out in that area,” said Goss, “but the farmers just won’t have access to their fields.”

The break is in a levee on the White River near county roads 650 North and 375 West, about three miles west of Indiana 57. It was reported at 4:15 p.m. Sunday by a conservation officer.

The break is about 25 feet wide. The cause is unknown, Goss said.

Goss said the river was 23.2 feet on Sunday at 7 p.m. and is expected to rise slightly before returning to that level Thursday. Flood stage is 15 feet, Goss said.

“It’ll have to get back to about five feet before we can get heavy equipment in there," Goss said. "So, it’ll be present for quite a while.”

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
next system enters

in 36 hrs


Used to bad weather here this time of year, and blossoms are just a minor thing compared to loss of lives and property. La took the hit this time and was sorry to hear of the damage and death of the mother who saved her child. Ty Keeper for all the visuals....I watch them intently.
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
Quoting Ossqss:


Most Americans are TS, no luck involved there. Dat is da fact !

Make it a good week folks! out>




Except them there Liberals that are now so few, as many have opened dat eye! Nite ED!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
next system enters

in 36 hrs
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Dat's bad mojo for sure,,

Sorry for the Loss.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127601
Quoting Patrap:
Good luck wit dat train-o-thought TS,






..."sure as the dust blows High in June,,when moving thru Kashmir",



Well, Pat, I guess what fruit tree blossoms the hail didn't get yesterday, the 32 degress should get tonight.....another fruitless season......
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
Good luck wit dat train-o-thought TS,






..."sure as the dust blows High in June,,when moving thru Kashmir",

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127601
Quoting Patrap:
Maybe Fla's new Guvna will run for President in 2012?

ACK!!!!!


Don't wanna think about that.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Patrap:
Maybe Fla's new Guvna will run for President in 2012?

ACK!!!!!


Glad to see your ready for change in the current President........!!!!!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Maybe Fla's new Guvna will run for President in 2012?

ACK!!!!!
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127601
The GOP decides accurate weather forecasting and hurricane tracking are luxuries America can’t afford
Republicans try to defund NOAA’s satellite program -- just as climate change is making the weather much more extreme.
February 18, 2011




By Michael Conathan, CAPAF’s new Director of Oceans Policy

Weather predictions were once a frequent punchline but have improved dramatically in recent years. More often than not you’ll need an umbrella if your local television channel or website of choice tells you to take one when you leave the house. But we could take a huge step back to the days when your dartboard had a reasonable chance of outpredicting Al Roker if House Republicans have their way with the 2011 federal budget.

The House of Representatives is debating the Full Year Continuing Resolution Act (H.R. 1) to fund the federal government for the remainder of fiscal year 2011. The Republican leadership has proposed sweeping cuts to key programs across the climate change, clean energy, and environmental spectrum. They have also decided that accurate weather forecasting and hurricane tracking are luxuries America can no longer afford.

The GOP’s bill would tear $1.2 billion (21 percent) out of the president’s proposed budget for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, or NOAA. On the surface, cutting NOAA may seem like an obvious choice. The FY 2011 request for the agency included a 16 percent boost over 2010 levels that would have made this year’s funding level of $5.5 billion the largest in NOAA’s history.

Even this total funding level, however, is woefully insufficient for an agency tasked with managing such fundamental resources as the atmosphere that regulates our climate, the 4.3 million square miles of our oceanic exclusive economic zone, the ecological health of coastal regions that are home to more than 50 percent of all Americans, response to environmental catastrophes including the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, and fisheries that employ thousands of Americans and annually contribute tens of billions of dollars to the national economy.

More than $700 million of the president’s proposed 2011 increase in NOAA funding would be tagged for overhauling our nation’s aging environmental satellite infrastructure. Satellites gather key data about our oceans and atmosphere, including cloud cover and density, miniscule changes in ocean surface elevation and temperatures, and wind and current trajectories. Such monitoring is integral to our weather and climate forecasting and it plays a key role in projections of strength and tracking of major storms and hurricanes—things most Americans feel are worth keeping an eye on.

In fact, NOAA has been making great strides in hurricane tracking. The average margin of error for predicting landfall three days in advance was 125 miles in 2009—half what it was 10 years prior. This data translates into a higher degree of confidence among the public in NOAA’s forecasts, which means individuals will be more likely to obey an evacuation order. Further, since evacuating each mile of shoreline costs approximately up to $1 million, greater forecasting accuracy translates to substantial savings.

The United States needs these satellites if we’re to continue providing the best weather and climate forecasts in the world. The implications of the loss of these data far exceed the question of whether to pack the kids into snowsuits for the trip to school. The concern here is ensuring ongoing operational efficiency and national security on a global scale. In some cases it can literally become a question of life and death.

Consider the following numbers:

* The $700 billion maritime commerce industry moves more than 90 percent of all global trade, with arrival and departure of quarter-mile long container ships timed to the minute to maximize revenue and efficiency. Shipping companies rely on accurate forecasts to set their manifests and itineraries.
* Forecasting capabilities are particularly strained at high latitudes and shippers have estimated that the loss of satellite monitoring capabilities could cost them more than half a billion dollars per year in lost cargo and damage to vessels from unanticipated heavy weather.
* When a hurricane makes landfall, evacuations cost as much as $1 million per mile. Over the past decade, NOAA has halved the average margin of error in its three-day forecasts from 250 miles to 125 miles, saving up to $125 million per storm.
* Commercial fishing is the most dangerous profession in the country with 111.8 deaths per 100,000 workers. A fisherman’s most valuable piece of safety equipment is his weather radio.
* When disaster strikes at sea, polar-orbiting satellites receive emergency distress beacons and relay positioning data to rescuers. This resulted in 295 lives saved in 2010 alone and the rescue of more than 6,500 fishermen, recreational boaters, and other maritime transportation workers since the program began in 1982.
* Farmers rely on NOAA’s drought predictions to determine planting cycles. Drought forecasts informed directly by satellite data have been valued at $6 billion to 8 billion annually.
* NOAA’s volcanic ash forecasting capabilities received international attention last spring during the eruption of the Icelandic volcano, Eyjafjallajökull. The service saves airlines upwards of $200 million per year.
* NOAA’s polar-orbiting satellites are America’s only source of weather and climate data for vast areas of the globe, including areas key to overseas military operations. Their data are integral to planning deployments of troops and aircraft—certain high-atmosphere wind conditions, for example, can prohibit mid-air refueling operations.

All of these uses will be compromised if the Republicans succeed in defunding NOAA’s satellite program. At least an 18-month gap in coverage will be unavoidable without adequate funding for new polar-orbiting satellites this year. More troubling, taking an acquisition program offline and then restarting the process at a later date would lead to cost increases of as much as three to five times the amount the government would have to spend for the same product today.

So here’s the choice: Spend $700 million this year for continuous service or $2 billion to $3.5 billion at some point in the future for the same equipment and a guaranteed service interruption.

Environmental satellites are not optional equipment. This is not a debate about whether we should splurge on the sunroof or the premium sound system or the seat warmers for our new car. Today’s environmental satellites are at the end of their projected life cycles. They will fail. When they do, we must have replacements ready or risk billions of dollars in annual losses to major sectors of our economy and weakening our national security.

That’s an ugly forecast. Tragically, it’s also 100 percent accurate.

– Michael Conathan is Director of Oceans Policy at American Progress.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127601
Quoting JFLORIDA:
House Republicans cut funding to UN climate science body
21 February 2011 10.11 GMT


America is to cut off all funding to the United Nations climate science panel under sweeping Republican budget cuts that seek to gut spending on environmental protection.

The funding ban to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) stripping $2.3m (1.31m) from an international organisation that relies heavily on volunteer scientists %u2013 was among some $61bn (38bn) in cuts voted through the Republican-controlled House of Representatives on Saturday.


Kinda funny because they really just collect and analyze the various scientific reports. Cutting US funding will just result in a more negative stance towards the US by the world body. It wont change the science and we don't contribute that much. Considering what the DoD spends on PR.


It was obviously a waste of money! Good job, need many more wasteful cuts!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Grothar:



I don't know if I am allowed to say hello to you. But how was the weather in Colorado. Was there enough snow? Looks like it is going to be an active season. SST's are warming, and scientists may have discovered the possibility of extraterrestrial life. I am not sure if they will ever find intelligent life outside of our solar system, since they have had trouble finding it here.


Plenty of snow, and I mean plenty. Like I said, I can't wait to get back to Florida. I heard we got rain.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Frigging Fracking Frozen Still for now.

'Fracking' Disposal Sites Suspended, Likely Linked To Arkansas Earthquakes

LITTLE ROCK, Ark. -- Two natural gas companies have agreed to temporarily suspend use of injection wells in central Arkansas where earthquakes keep occurring.

Oklahoma City-based Chesapeake Energy and Clarita Operating of Little Rock told the Arkansas Oil and Gas Commission on Friday that they've stopped operation of the wells near Greenbrier and Guy pending the panel's next regular meeting on March 29.

Clarita's parent company is True Energy Services of Ada, Okla.

The commission says there is likely a link between the wells and the earthquakes. There have been more than 800 quakes in the area in the past six months and a magnitude 4.7 quake – the strongest in Arkansas in 35 years – hit there Sunday.

The high-pressure wells are used to dispose of waste water from natural gas drilling.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127601
Quoting Patrap:
Hiya tazaroo..

U still da man.



thanks
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hiya tazaroo..

U still da man.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127601
Quoting JRRP:
. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ,.-‘”. . . . . . . . . .``~.,
. . . . . . . .. . . . . .,.-”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .“-.,
. . . . .. . . . . . ..,/. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ”:,
. . . . . . . .. .,?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\,
. . . . . . . . . /. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,}
. . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,:`^`.}
. . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,:”. . . ./
. . . . . . .?. . . __. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :`. . . ./
. . . . . . . /__.(. . .“~-,_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,:`. . . .. ./
. . . . . . /(_. . ”~,_. . . ..“~,_. . . . . . . . . .,:`. . . . _/
. . . .. .{.._$;_. . .”=,_. . . .“-,_. . . ,.-~-,}, .~”; /. .. .}
. . .. . .((. . .*~_. . . .”=-._. . .“;,,./`. . /” . . . ./. .. ../
. . . .. . .\`~,. . ..“~.,. . . . . . . . . ..`. . .}. . . . . . ../
. . . . . .(. ..`=-,,. . . .`. . . . . . . . . . . ..(. . . ;_,,-”
. . . . . ../.`~,. . ..`-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..\. . /\
. . . . . . \`~.*-,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..|,./.....\,__
,,_. . . . . }.>-._\. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|. . . . . . ..`=~-,
. .. `=~-,_\_. . . `\,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\
. . . . . . . . . .`=~-,,.\,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . `:,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . `\. . . . . . ..__
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`=-,. . . . . . . . . .,%`>--==``
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _\. . . . . ._,-%. . . ..`\


Excellent!!!!! Thanx!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Patrap:
Surface stations are not the definitive data set for the observed warming.

Far from it.

Thats a assumption.



NOAA

Global Climate Change Indicators
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Climatic Data Center


Many lines of scientific evidence show the Earth's climate is changing. This page presents the latest information from several independent measures of observed climate change that illustrate an overwhelmingly compelling story of a planet that is undergoing global warming. It is worth noting that increasing global temperature is only one element of observed global climate change. Precipitation patterns are also changing; storms and other extremes are changing as well.
How do we know the Earth's climate is warming?

Thousands of land and ocean temperature measurements are recorded each day around the globe. This includes measurements from climate reference stations, weather stations, ships, buoys and autonomous gliders in the oceans. These surface measurements are also supplemented with satellite measurements. These measurements are processed, examined for random and systematic errors, and then finally combined to produce a time series of global average temperature change. A number of agencies around the world have produced datasets of global-scale changes in surface temperature using different techniques to process the data and remove measurement errors that could lead to false interpretations of temperature trends.

The warming trend that is apparent in all of the independent methods of calculating global temperature change is also confirmed by other independent observations, such as the melting of mountain glaciers on every continent, reductions in the extent of snow cover, earlier blooming of plants in spring, a shorter ice season on lakes and rivers, ocean heat content, reduced arctic sea ice, and rising sea levels.




Simulated global temperature in experiments that include human influences (pink line), and model experiments that included only natural factors (blue line). The black line is observed temperature change.



LOL pat your falling be hide you need too make 11,000 commets be for the end of the hurricane seasone too make it up too where i am
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Surface stations are not the definitive data set for the observed warming.

Far from it.

Thats a assumption.



NOAA

Global Climate Change Indicators
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
National Climatic Data Center


Many lines of scientific evidence show the Earth's climate is changing. This page presents the latest information from several independent measures of observed climate change that illustrate an overwhelmingly compelling story of a planet that is undergoing global warming. It is worth noting that increasing global temperature is only one element of observed global climate change. Precipitation patterns are also changing; storms and other extremes are changing as well.
How do we know the Earth's climate is warming?

Thousands of land and ocean temperature measurements are recorded each day around the globe. This includes measurements from climate reference stations, weather stations, ships, buoys and autonomous gliders in the oceans. These surface measurements are also supplemented with satellite measurements. These measurements are processed, examined for random and systematic errors, and then finally combined to produce a time series of global average temperature change. A number of agencies around the world have produced datasets of global-scale changes in surface temperature using different techniques to process the data and remove measurement errors that could lead to false interpretations of temperature trends.

The warming trend that is apparent in all of the independent methods of calculating global temperature change is also confirmed by other independent observations, such as the melting of mountain glaciers on every continent, reductions in the extent of snow cover, earlier blooming of plants in spring, a shorter ice season on lakes and rivers, ocean heat content, reduced arctic sea ice, and rising sea levels.




Simulated global temperature in experiments that include human influences (pink line), and model experiments that included only natural factors (blue line). The black line is observed temperature change.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127601
As far as the global warming debate is concerned, all we should be seeing is debate on the effects of a warmer planet and how much humans are contributing to the current warming trend.


We have been warming, humans do contribute to the warmth of the planet, and humans are at least partially responsible for the current warming trend, so hopefully people will refrain from debating these topics.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting jasoniscoolman2011:
very silly



so jason how many names you going too make this year??? has far has i no you are a name spamer i still have 9 of your names on my Ignore ueser from last year



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AussieStorm:
Australia’s second wettest summer on record

One of the strongest La Niña’s on record has ensured summer 2010-11 has been the second wettest on record for Australia.

The average rainfall across Australia was 354.7mm, 70% above normal. Only the summer of 1973-74 saw more rain when an average of 419.8mm fell across the nation.

La Niña caused extensive flooding through the east and north of Australia over summer. The Murray Darling Basin recorded its third wettest summer on record following a decade in drought.

Looking ahead into autumn, the La Niña is now past its peak and has been weakening since early January.

“Until the Pacific Ocean returns to neutral in winter, marking the official end of the current La Niña, we can expect above average rain to continue over most of the country,” says Tom Saunders, Meteorologist at The Weather Channel.

The 111 years of records available show that:

Victoria recorded its wettest summer on record
Western Australia recorded its second wettest summer
South Australia recorded its third wettest summer
New South Wales recorded its fifth wettest summer
Queensland recorded its sixth wettest summer
Northern Territory recorded its eighth wettest summer
Tasmania recorded its seventeenth wettest summer
now lets see what we have in store for yer winter thats on the way
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Levi32:


I know of very few people who bother debating that it has warmed during the last 100 years. It has, though there are still contested issues with our surface station records that are yet unresolved.

I agree with most of what you listed there. However, one must be careful not to let connotation get attached to the phrase "Not debatable things: Whether or not humans are contribute to the temperature of our planet is not debatable."

That is as true as saying any ____ contributes to the temperature of the planet. Of course we do just like every part of the Earth system does. The debate is over how much, specifically whether we stick out as an abnormally significant influence against the climatic normal before our technology developed. I personally don't know and can't say with confidence that either we do or we don't. If sufficient empirical evidence comes to light (most of that being just waiting and observing) I will be right there supporting the theory. I'm just in the camp that we have a long way to go yet to come close to proving it, and that for the moment there is more than enough evidence supporting the null hypothesis.


Well, I agree with what you just said, so it looks like we agree.

And yea, most people who know at least something about weather and climate will not debate that we have been warming or that humans don't contribute to the temperature of our planet.

However, the people in the uneducated masses on the subject will frequently say, "last winter we had record low temps and snow, Global Warming isn't real." Or they'll say, "Humans are too small to have any effect on temperature."

That's why included that.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Tornado kills mother, as 1500 evacuated

OFFICIALS worked today to get people back into their homes a day after a tornado ripped through a south-western Louisiana town, killing a mother shielding her child from the fierce winds and leaving 12 hurt.

Many of the 1500 residents who had been evacuated were being allowed to return to their homes in this community about 112km west of Baton Rouge, said Rayne Police Chief Carroll Stelly.

"If they have power and they have no barricade tape, they can sleep the night away," Chief Stelly said.

However, about 100 damaged homes were still barricaded off. Forty were uninhabitable and 60 hadn't been inspected yet, Chief Stelly said.

Some 150 homes had been damaged or destroyed as winds topped out at 217km/h, leaving at least 12 with injuries that were not life-threatening.

Pauline Patton, 64, and her husband, Howard, were at their apartment when she looked out the window and saw a funnel cloud bearing down on them. Suddenly, the power went out. Rainwater poured through the ceiling. Everything went black. It was like a bomb exploding as it passed over them, she said.

Start of sidebar. Skip to end of sidebar.

End of sidebar. Return to start of sidebar.

"It just happened so fast," she said. "You couldn't hardly see nothing. Everything was dark."

The couple were having lunch at the fire station-turned-shelter, courtesy of the Red Cross. They weren't sure when - or if - they'll be able to move back into the apartment.

The home where Jalisa Granger, 21, had died was completely crushed by part of an oak tree. Ms Granger, her toddler son and her mother all had to be pulled from the wreckage by neighbours and relatives on Saturday, said Maxine Trahan, a spokeswoman for the Acadia Parish Sheriff's Office. The area hit hardest was composed of mostly low- to moderate-income homes.

"My heart goes out to the residents because a lot of them don't have any insurance," Ms Trahan said. "So where do they begin?"

Today, a cat stretched on top of the demolished home where Ms Granger had been, sunning itself. Elsewhere, people's mud-soaked belongings had been strewn about the streets. Emergency workers had been spray-painting symbols on homes that they had checked. Splintered wood, glass shards and metal littered yards, while aluminum siding had been wrapped around trees.

The only sound was the occasional hum of a chainsaw in the distance, being used to cut downed tree limbs from power lines.

Meanwhile, the police chief asked people to be patient while officials worked to make sure it was safe for people to come back to their homes or retrieve belongings. Chief Stelly said they had not decided when to let people back in to the section of town that had been closed off.

Of the 1500 displaced, only about 25 stayed in a shelter set up at a local fire station.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
896. Skyepony (Mod)
Leighton Holdings chairman David Mortimer has called for Australia to introduce a consumption-based carbon tax without compensation until there is a global agreement to address climate change.

Speaking at an Australian Institute of Company Directors lunch in Sydney, Mr Mortimer said there would be no need to compensate trade-exposed industries or households under a consumption-based tax, as proposed by Access Economics' Geoff Carmody, "as it simply defeats the purpose of trying to drive behavioural change".

The proceeds of the carbon tax could be used to mitigate the risks of climate change - for example "to pay for the critical infrastructure which will be impacted by global warming and severe weather events".
Advertisement: Story continues below

Leighton Holdings is the world's largest contract coal miner and a member of the Australian industry greenhouse network.

Mr Mortimer asked whether there would be a time "that companies which mine coal are treated as pariahs by investors and financiers and subject to significant regulatory constraint, like the tobacco industry".

Mr Mortimer said he hoped the new carbon price framework delivered energy security at a competitive price.

Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 161 Comments: 37396
Quoting aquak9:
icebergs melting, greenhouse gasses, volcanoes, earthquakes...

and now I gotta worry about the damn squirrels, too?

listen i have all the answers to all questions regarding global warming


and thats the game
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Australia’s second wettest summer on record

One of the strongest La Niña’s on record has ensured summer 2010-11 has been the second wettest on record for Australia.

The average rainfall across Australia was 354.7mm, 70% above normal. Only the summer of 1973-74 saw more rain when an average of 419.8mm fell across the nation.

La Niña caused extensive flooding through the east and north of Australia over summer. The Murray Darling Basin recorded its third wettest summer on record following a decade in drought.

Looking ahead into autumn, the La Niña is now past its peak and has been weakening since early January.

“Until the Pacific Ocean returns to neutral in winter, marking the official end of the current La Niña, we can expect above average rain to continue over most of the country,” says Tom Saunders, Meteorologist at The Weather Channel.

The 111 years of records available show that:

Victoria recorded its wettest summer on record
Western Australia recorded its second wettest summer
South Australia recorded its third wettest summer
New South Wales recorded its fifth wettest summer
Queensland recorded its sixth wettest summer
Northern Territory recorded its eighth wettest summer
Tasmania recorded its seventeenth wettest summer
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting TomTaylor:

So what exactly remains to be debated regarding the "AGW theory"? Please correct me where you think I am wrong...



Debatable things:
The effects of a warmer climate are obviously debatable. (Though from the looks of it, you have a great grasp on the changes spawned by a warmer planet)

The amount humans are contributing is obviously debatable. However, that will likely never be answerable. (By answerable, I also mean 100% accurate)

Whether or not we will be warmer in the future and how much warmer we will be in the future is debatable, because we can't say for certain we will be warmer in the future.




Not debatable things:
Whether or not we have warmed, is not debatable. Everything indicates warming, the only discrepancy is how much we've warmed.

Whether or not humans are contribute to the temperature of our planet is not debatable.

Whether or not humans are contributing to the change in the temperature of our planet is not debatable. (Note, the amount we are contributing is debatable)





Did I miss anything?





Did I miss anything?


I know of very few people who bother debating that it has warmed during the last 100 years. It has, though there are still contested issues with our surface station records that are yet unresolved.

I agree with most of what you listed there. However, one must be careful not to let connotation get attached to the phrase "Not debatable things: Whether or not humans are contribute to the temperature of our planet is not debatable."

That is as true as saying any ____ contributes to the temperature of the planet. Of course we do just like every part of the Earth system does. The debate is over how much, specifically whether we stick out as an abnormally significant influence against the climatic normal before our technology developed. I personally don't know and can't say with confidence that either we do or we don't. If sufficient empirical evidence comes to light (most of that being just waiting and observing) I will be right there supporting the theory. I'm just in the camp that we have a long way to go yet to come close to proving it, and that for the moment there is more than enough evidence supporting the null hypothesis.
Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26551
892. Skyepony (Mod)
The National Weather Service in Indianapolis has issued a
flash flood warning for a levee failure in west-central Daviess County in southwest Indiana until 11:15 p.m.
A levee on the White River, just west of Capehart near County Road 700 North, has failed causing flash flooding of immediately surrounding areas.
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 161 Comments: 37396
Quoting aquak9:


oh great...not to mention the silly string map'o'death

g'nite my friends


'Night!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
890. JRRP
. . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . ,.-‘”. . . . . . . . . .``~.,
. . . . . . . .. . . . . .,.-”. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .“-.,
. . . . .. . . . . . ..,/. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ”:,
. . . . . . . .. .,?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\,
. . . . . . . . . /. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,}
. . . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,:`^`.}
. . . . . . . ./. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,:”. . . ./
. . . . . . .?. . . __. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :`. . . ./
. . . . . . . /__.(. . .“~-,_. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,:`. . . .. ./
. . . . . . /(_. . ”~,_. . . ..“~,_. . . . . . . . . .,:`. . . . _/
. . . .. .{.._$;_. . .”=,_. . . .“-,_. . . ,.-~-,}, .~”; /. .. .}
. . .. . .((. . .*~_. . . .”=-._. . .“;,,./`. . /” . . . ./. .. ../
. . . .. . .\`~,. . ..“~.,. . . . . . . . . ..`. . .}. . . . . . ../
. . . . . .(. ..`=-,,. . . .`. . . . . . . . . . . ..(. . . ;_,,-”
. . . . . ../.`~,. . ..`-.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..\. . /\
. . . . . . \`~.*-,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..|,./.....\,__
,,_. . . . . }.>-._\. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .|. . . . . . ..`=~-,
. .. `=~-,_\_. . . `\,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\
. . . . . . . . . .`=~-,,.\,. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .\
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . `:,, . . . . . . . . . . . . . `\. . . . . . ..__
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .`=-,. . . . . . . . . .,%`>--==``
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _\. . . . . ._,-%. . . ..`\
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Hi all. I have just been looking through the past 13days of Dr. Masters Blogs. Not one mention of the $20billion quake in Christchurch. Also, this piece of ice broke off on August 8, 2010, not in Jan or Feb 2011, it's summer in Greenland then. BTW how did Greenland get it's name???? Maybe it was "green" many 100's or 1000's of years ago. If this event had of happened in Iceland then I would be more worried.
Any mention of the Tornado that killed a young mother and left 40houses uninhabitable and another 60 possibly the same.
Also, what's going on off the coast of Oregon, 3 quakes at not much depth, 4.6, 4.8 and 4.9. slow release of energy I hope.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 939 - 889

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Overcast
67 °F
Overcast