Arctic sea ice at a record low again; a warmer February for the U.S. coming

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:42 PM GMT on February 08, 2011

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Arctic sea ice extent for January 2011 was the lowest on record for the month, and marked the second consecutive month a record low has been set, according to the National Snow and Ice Data Center. Most of the missing ice was concentrated along the shores of Northeast Canada and Western Greenland. Relative to the 1979 - 2000 average, the missing ice area was about twice the size of Texas, or about 60% of the size of the Mediterranean Sea. Hudson Bay in Canada did not freeze over until mid-January, the latest freeze-up date on record, and at least a month later than average. The late freeze-up contributed to record warm winter temperatures across much of the Canadian Arctic in December and January. Bob Henson of the National Center for Atmospheric Research has a very interesting post on this, noting that Coral Harbor on the shores of Hudson Bay had a low temperature on January 6 that was 30°C (54°F) above average--a pretty ridiculous temperature anomaly. He quotes David Phillips, a senior climatologist with Environment Canada, who discussed the lack of ice near Canada's Baffin Island: "The Meteorological Service of Canada was still writing marine forecasts as of 7 January, well beyond anything we have ever done." Henson also writes:

"The extremes have been just as impressive when you look high in the atmosphere above these areas. Typically the midpoint of the atmosphere's mass--the 500-millibar (500 hPa) level--rests around 5 kilometers (3 miles) above sea level during the Arctic midwinter. In mid-December, a vast bubble of high pressure formed in the vicinity of Greenland. At the center of this high, the 500-mb surface rose to more than 5.8 kilometers, a sign of remarkably mild air below. Stu Ostro (The Weather Channel) found that this was the most extreme 500-mb anomaly anywhere on the planet in weather analyses dating back to 1948.

Farther west, a separate monster high developed over Alaska in January. According to Richard Thoman (National Weather Service, Fairbanks), the 500-mb height over both Nome and Kotzebue rose to 582 decameters (5.82 km). That's not only a January record: those are the highest values ever observed at those points outside of June, July, and August."



Figure 1. Monthly January sea ice extent for 1979 to 2011 shows a decline of 3.3% per decade. Image credit: National Snow and Ice Data Center.

The warm temperatures in Canada and record sea ice loss in the Arctic were also due, in part, to a strong negative phase of the Arctic Oscillation (AO). The Arctic Oscillation and its close cousin, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are naturally occurring pressure patterns in the Arctic and mid-latitudes. A negative AO and NAO results when we have weaker than normal low pressure over the Arctic, and weaker than normal high pressure over the Azores Islands. This fosters an easterly flow of air off the warm Atlantic Ocean into the Canadian Arctic, and also weakens the winds of the polar vortex, the ring of counter-clockwise spinning winds that encircles the Arctic. A weaker polar vortex allows cold air to spill southwards out of the Arctic into eastern North America and Western Europe. Thus, the strongly negative AO and NAO the past two winters have been largely responsible for the cold and snowy winters in these regions, and exceptionally warm conditions in the Arctic. I described this pattern in more detail in my December post titled, Florida shivers; Hot Arctic-Cold Continents pattern is back. It is possible that Arctic sea ice loss is largely responsible for the unusual Arctic Oscillation pattern we've observed during the past two winters, as well as for the record-strength ridges of high pressure observed over Greenland and Alaska this winter. It should not surprise us that Arctic sea ice loss would be capable of causing major perturbations to Earth's weather, since it is well known that changes from average in sea surface temperatures over large regions of the ocean modify the jet stream, storm tracks, and precipitation patterns. The El Niño and La Niña patterns are prime examples of this (though the area of oceans affected by these phenomena are much larger than what we're talking about in the Arctic.) Another example: Feudale and Shukla (2010) found that during the summer of 2003, exceptionally high sea surface temperatures of 4°C (7°F) above average over the Mediterranean Sea, combined with unusually warm SSTs in the northern portion of the North Atlantic Ocean near the Arctic, combined to shift the jet stream to the north over Western Europe and create the heat wave of 2003, the deadliest heat wave in history with 30,000 - 50,000 deaths in Europe.

References
Feudale, L., and J. Shukla (2010), "Influence of sea surface temperature on the European heat wave of 2003 summer. Part I: an observational study", Climate Dynamics DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0788-0


Figure 2. The 6-10 temperature forecast issued by NOAA's Climate Prediction Center calls for an above-average chance of warm temperatures across most of the U.S. by mid-February.

A warmer forecast for February
Over the past two weeks, the Arctic Oscillation has undergone a major transition, changing from negative to positive. This means that low pressure over the Arctic has intensified, which will act to speed up the counter-clockwise spinning winds (the polar vortex.) This spin-up of the polar vortex will tend to keep cold air bottled up the Arctic, leading to more Arctic sea ice formation and warmer winter conditions over the U.S. This warm-up is reflected in the latest 6 - 10 day temperature outlook from NOAA's Climate Prediction Center (Figure 2.) Could it be the groundhog was right, and we have only three more weeks of winter left? Time will tell--we have little skill predicting what may happen to the Arctic Oscillation more than about two weeks in advance.

Jeff Masters

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45 degrees and light rain just SW of Houston it was 50 degrees last night.
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AMY!!!!!
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I was in Andrew as well, but you have to remember as well that the one spotlight that was shown on Cutler Ridge was the shoddy construction throughout those areas that were hard hit. You have to remember that when talking about Andrew, that the ways in which some buildings were constructed was brought to light.
Member Since: November 15, 2005 Posts: 16 Comments: 4189
15 degrees in Arlington where Super Bowl was
17 Degrees in Dallas
19 degrees in Corsicana
25 degrees and falling in San Antonio

Front passed NW counties and 26 degrees and falling in Brenham
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
Quoting AussieStorm:


1. Maybe the shape and the high standard of construction kept it from being damaged.

2. If the Clemson University tested the same type anemometer and found it was out, then I would say the anemometer was defective and gave the wrong reading, so the corrected reading would be more or less correct.


Read my post on hurricane mesovortices. Not to say their research was wrong about anemometer testing. However, they tested it in an attempt to prove winds weren't that strong in Hurricane Andrew. I beg to differ, although yes it could have been the anemometer malfunctioning, the other explanation is that mesovortices could easily be the culprit for such an incredibly high wind observation. However, we will never know for sure.
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Quoting Neapolitan:

1) There was a lot of damage, but the containment building was built to hold up in winds as strong as 235 mph (a Cat 7, if there were such a classification), or roughly 90 mph faster than were felt at the facility. Too, protocol is for a plant to shut down prior to a landfalling storm; TP started shutting down 12 hours before Andrew made landfall. (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/gen -comm/info-notices/1993/in93053.html)

2) I was in Cutler Ridge for Andrew, and he was bad, but I have a hard time believing he was 35 mph faster than 177. Fowey Rocks had a peak gust of about 170 mph at 130 feet just before the tower broke. The highest one-minute speed in the northern eyewall at 10,000 feet just before landfall was 186 mph. And the MCP of 922mb only correlates with 155 mph. Then again, the NHC says damage two miles south of the Perrine anemometer was even worse than that found at the Perrine location, so who knows? I just know this much: as much as I like storms, particularly tropical weather, I never want to go through that again. ;-) (http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1992andrew.html)



I'm sure in general sense, Andrew did not produce gusts of 212 mph, but here's the problem. What about when we look at damage surveys and we see some buildings crushed and others spared? It has been proven that hurricanes, particularly strong and intensifying ones, have small but extremely strong vortices within the eye wall. If one of those happened to move over that location, 212 mph isn't hard to believe at all.


Link

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Grothar.... you have mail...

:)



SQUAWK!!!!!

:)
Member Since: January 24, 2007 Posts: 317 Comments: 31946
Complete Update





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Quoting JFLORIDA:



its last major eruption occurred in 1477 when it produced a large ash and pumice fallout. It also produced the largest known lava flow during the past 10,000 years on earth.

Have to add it is only the second largest Volcano in Iceland. Watch and wait to see if it progresses to eruption and then at what level.
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Quoting JFLORIDA:



its last major eruption occurred in 1477 when it produced a large ash and pumice fallout. It also produced the largest known lava flow during the past 10,000 years on earth.

Yea, I saw that. 21-30 km/3 spread over 950 km/2. That's a lot of lava...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13465
I thought this Arctic front was supposed to go more east to the SE States, instead it's plunged straight into TX just like last weeks blast. Another blown forecast
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
Quoting Neapolitan:

1) There was a lot of damage, but the containment building was built to hold up in winds as strong as 235 mph (a Cat 7, if there were such a classification), or roughly 90 mph faster than were felt at the facility. Too, protocol is for a plant to shut down prior to a landfalling storm; TP started shutting down 12 hours before Andrew made landfall. (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/gen -comm/info-notices/1993/in93053.html)

2) I was in Cutler Ridge for Andrew, and he was bad, but I have a hard time believing he was 35 mph faster than 177. Fowey Rocks had a peak gust of about 170 mph at 130 feet just before the tower broke. The highest one-minute speed in the northern eyewall at 10,000 feet just before landfall was 186 mph. And the MCP of 922mb only correlates with 155 mph. Then again, the NHC says damage two miles south of the Perrine anemometer was even worse than that found at the Perrine location, so who knows? I just know this much: as much as I like storms, particularly tropical weather, I never want to go through that again. ;-) (http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1992andrew.html)
Thanks for the link Nea. Even though the lower Keys were not affected directly by Andrew, it certainly put a hurting on our 150 mile extension cord to the mainland. A lot of people evacuated the keys only to stop in Cutler Ridge and sit through a horrible storm. I don't care how bad the storm is, I will NEVER evacuate toward an approaching storm. If I am going to die, I would rather die at home than sitting in a car in a gridlock situation on the turnpike. Even though the storm was a tremendous tragedy for a lot of people, I think Homestead is much improved with the rebuilding that went on. Not to mention our construction codes. I still have the Miami Herald edition with all the pictures of destruction. And I was amazed at how many people survived with their houses falling apart around them.
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Quoting caneswatch:
From last night:

Two questions, this should stump someone here:

1. The Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant was hit by the severe part of Hurricane Andrew and yet, it wasn't significantly damaged and a bigger disaster was avoided. How so?

2. From Wiki:

The highest recorded surface gust, within Andrew's northern eyewall, occurred at the home of a resident about a mile from the shoreline in Perrine, Florida. During the peak of the storm, a gust of 212 miles per hour (341 km/h) was observed before both the home and anemometer were destroyed. Subsequent wind-tunnel testing at Clemson University of the same type of anemometer revealed a 16.5% error. The observed value was officially corrected to be 177 miles per hour (285 km/h).

Since Andrew was so powerful, what if it was 212 mph (which I believe was the correct reading)?

1) There was a lot of damage, but the containment building was built to hold up in winds as strong as 235 mph (a Cat 7, if there were such a classification), or roughly 90 mph faster than were felt at the facility. Too, protocol is for a plant to shut down prior to a landfalling storm; TP started shutting down 12 hours before Andrew made landfall. (http://www.nrc.gov/reading-rm/doc-collections/gen -comm/info-notices/1993/in93053.html)

2) I was in Cutler Ridge for Andrew, and he was bad, but I have a hard time believing he was 35 mph faster than 177. Fowey Rocks had a peak gust of about 170 mph at 130 feet just before the tower broke. The highest one-minute speed in the northern eyewall at 10,000 feet just before landfall was 186 mph. And the MCP of 922mb only correlates with 155 mph. Then again, the NHC says damage two miles south of the Perrine anemometer was even worse than that found at the Perrine location, so who knows? I just know this much: as much as I like storms, particularly tropical weather, I never want to go through that again. ;-) (http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/1992andrew.html)
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13465
Quoting cat5hurricane:

Hey, welcome back. Really glad everything has been going well now. And expect a nice warmup in Louisiana after this brief cold snap.
As much as I despise summer, I am ready to drive down the highway with the top down, with the windows dropped, and the heat not on full blast, for a change.

(Yes, I have been driving with the top down...in my car that's bearable with a light jacket up until about 25 F.)
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Quoting aislinnpaps:
Good morning, everyone. Things are going well here since the fire. We're in a new doublewide on the property and beginning on the process to start rebuilding.

Once again we're under a winter weather advisory for sleet, snow and freezing rain. We should be seeing seventy degrees this month, ah well, it will happen soon. It doesn't stay like this for long in Louisiana.

Hope everyone is having a wonderful day.
I didn't realize you were in LA. Where?
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Icelandic volcano 'set to erupt'
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We have a WS Warning as well here in far eastern NC....should be fun night. Go snow day!
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Massive Arctic Blast cutting Texas in half this morning, massive temperature drops ongoing
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
Quoting caneswatch:
From last night:

Two questions, this should stump someone here:

1. The Turkey Point Nuclear Power Plant was hit by the severe part of Hurricane Andrew and yet, it wasn't significantly damaged and a bigger disaster was avoided. How so?

2. From Wiki:

The highest recorded surface gust, within Andrew's northern eyewall, occurred at the home of a resident about a mile from the shoreline in Perrine, Florida. During the peak of the storm, a gust of 212 miles per hour (341 km/h) was observed before both the home and anemometer were destroyed. Subsequent wind-tunnel testing at Clemson University of the same type of anemometer revealed a 16.5% error. The observed value was officially corrected to be 177 miles per hour (285 km/h).

Since Andrew was so powerful, what if it was 212 mph (which I believe was the correct reading)?


1. Maybe the shape and the high standard of construction kept it from being damaged.

2. If the Clemson University tested the same type anemometer and found it was out, then I would say the anemometer was defective and gave the wrong reading, so the corrected reading would be more or less correct.
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Good morning. It is a chilly 66 degrees here in Key West today. Lots of sun though so it should warm up nicely.
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Morning Cat5 and thank you. I'm more than ready for the warm up! Spring is my favorite time of year.
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Good morning, everyone. Things are going well here since the fire. We're in a new doublewide on the property and beginning on the process to start rebuilding.

Once again we're under a winter weather advisory for sleet, snow and freezing rain. We should be seeing seventy degrees this month, ah well, it will happen soon. It doesn't stay like this for long in Louisiana.

Hope everyone is having a wonderful day.
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19 just north of Austin TX
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9628
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27*F in Macon, Ga this morning with a warning:

Winter Storm Warning
Statement as of 6:00 AM CST on February 09, 2011


... Winter Storm Warning in effect from 6 PM this evening to 6 am
CST Thursday...

The National Weather Service in Birmingham has issued a Winter
Storm Warning for snow... which is in effect from 6 PM this evening to
6 am CST Thursday. The Winter Storm Watch is no longer in effect.

A mixture of rain and snow will likely transition to all snow
Wednesday evening. The snow is then expected to taper off after
midnight. Average accumulations of one to three inches are
expected. Isolated areas of higher accumulations are possible. As
snow increases in coverage and intensity... and temperatures drop
below freezing... travel conditions could become hazardous.

A Winter Storm Warning for heavy snow means severe winter weather
conditions are expected or occurring. Significant amounts of
snow are forecast that will make travel dangerous. Only travel in
an emergency. If you must travel... keep an extra flashlight...
food... and water in your vehicle in case of an emergency.


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279. IKE

Quoting severstorm:

Yes, Thats what i'm hearing to. Also i read that the severe weather in March and April could be more than normal. I have 34.6 at my place.
It's clouded up here already. Another dreary day here.
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Quoting IKE:

From what I've read it may stay warmer until the end of the month when a cool down happens. Nothing like what we've been through though.

It's 38.8 at my location this morning.

Yes, Thats what i'm hearing to. Also i read that the severe weather in March and April could be more than normal. I have 34.6 at my place.
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277. IKE

Quoting severstorm:

Good Morning Ike, Thats like a good song for me. Love the cold but its been here way to long. Really looks like a good warm up starting next week.
From what I've read it may stay warmer until the end of the month when a cool down happens. Nothing like what we've been through though.

It's 38.8 at my location this morning.
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Quoting IKE:
6-10 day temps.......spring is in the air...soon.......



Good Morning Ike, Thats like a good song for me. Love the cold but its been here way to long. Really looks like a good warm up starting next week.
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275. IKE
6-10 day temps.......spring is in the air...soon.......


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274. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Seychelles Meteorological Services
Tropical Cyclone Advisory #1
PERTURBATION TROPICALE 05-20102011
10:00 AM Reunion February 9 2011
=====================================

At 6:00 AM UTC, Tropical Disturbance 05 (1001 hPa) located at 13.6S 55.8E has 10 minute sustained winds of 25 knots with gusts of 50 knots. The disturbance is reported as moving west southwest at 6 knots.

Dvorak Intensity: 2.0/2.0/D 1.0/12HRS

Forecast and Intensity
============================
12 HRS: 13.9S 54.9E - 30 knots (DEPRESSION TROPICALE)
24 HRS: 14.0S 54.7E - 30 knots (DEPRESSION TROPICALE)
48 HRS: 14.6S 54.3E - 40 knots (Tempête Tropicale Modéree)
72 HRS: 15.6S 54.0E - 50 knots (Forte Tempête Tropicale)

Additional Information
======================

Deep convection (with cloud tops at -80C) is consolidating since the end of the night near the center that is estimated to be just to the east of main thunderstorm activity. Moderate easterly shear is forecast to maintain within the next two days.

Consequently, lower than average intensification rate is expected during that time. After that, upper level conditions improve significantly with lower shear under the upper level ridge and good outflow specially polewards. Therefore, stronger intensification rate is expected at that time. System is moving west southwestward along the northern side of the subtropical ridge. Within the next few days, a deep mid latitude trough is expected to be south of the system around 50E and generate a weakness in the subtropical ridge. This pattern should allow a gradual polewards turn and a slow down of the track. There is still some uncertainity about how far this system will make its turn. Present track forecast is based on a consensus of available tracks but it is worth notice that there is stronger than usual uncertainty specially at long range.

The next tropical cyclone advisory from Seychelles Meteorological Services will be issued at 12:30 PM UTC..
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Taking into account the age of the Earth, the 30 years of data presented here is unassailable.

I was wondering if you would take the time to chime in on a discussion that takes place on a regular basis between myself and my colleagues. It concerns the last great ice age. The two theories that we have settled on for the cause of the warming period that we (I say we, but as we weren't really there, well you know what I mean) experienced exist of:
1) Dinosaur flatulence
2) The proliferation of Cadillac Escalades driven by prehistoric greedy self-absorbed North American rich white men.
Number 1 is the strongest theory, for this reason. A lot of dinosaurs ate plants. And they ate a lot of plants. If you have ever eaten a lot of cabbage, you know where I coming from. Number 2 is losing steam. Try as they will, they cannot find any remains of these Escalades. Knowing that this latest warming period is being caused by greedy self-absorbed North American rich white men driving Cadillac Escalades has caused some of my colleagues to latch onto this theory as the cause of that other, earlier warming period. I tend to humor them as they get really nasty when an alternate theory (dinosaur flatulence for instance) is presented. For some odd reason, I see a lot of parallels in their nastiness with the "experts" researching the current warming period.

We have conclusively eliminated the AO and the NAO. Way back when, nobody knew what they were. Much the same as today.


Gotta sign off now. We are expecting another snow/ice storm in Texas tonight and tomorrow. And to think that during the summer months, it is routinely 100 plus degrees here. Strange days indeed.

Cheers
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I noticed the warmer pattern indicated by the GFS and see 40s in the future, that's a heat wave here in Michigan. Just have to get through this week now, single digits tonight, cold out there!
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Quoting Surfcropper:


Pretty steady trend in 30 years. Anyone want to bet that this trend has been on going prior to 1979? The graph would look the same from 5500 BC-5470 BC, according to the Ancient Alien Ice Data Observation Clinic.


I see your point. If one is going to assume that FUTURE trend decreases at the same rate, then they have to assume it's been decreasing at the same rate for an equal time in the PAST.

So is there a chart that shows the level 32 years BEFORE 1978 (around 1946 or so), in which, if the trend followed, would have put the extent at 17 million square kilometers?
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Guess what!.Vmax A.K.A Micheal Laca already has an account.And!! he personally knows the Doc himself!.The Doc and him are both good friends!
Cool mang.
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Quoting Jedkins01:
I don't know about you guys, but I'm happy to know this massive cold junk in the south has an end in sight... Looks like the Arctic Oscillation is changing.

Currently its 41.7 at my house in Central Florida. I can't wait for some consistently warmer weather. I like a taste of winter. However I am ready for spring now. It appears I may get my wish, warmer weather will be on the way!


The one good thing is, we continue to get more rain to help the drought. More will arrive on Thursday and Friday to help things out, probably about another 0.50 to 1 inch.


Yes ! I am so ready for a change too. Been soggy long enough !
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
I don't know about you guys, but I'm happy to know this massive cold junk in the south has an end in sight... Looks like the Arctic Oscillation is changing.

Currently its 41.7 at my house in Central Florida. I can't wait for some consistently warmer weather. I like a taste of winter. However I am ready for spring now. It appears I may get my wish, warmer weather will be on the way!


The one good thing is, we continue to get more rain to help the drought. More will arrive on Thursday and Friday to help things out, probably about another 0.50 to 1 inch.
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Quoting KoritheMan:

I like you.
Guess what!.Vmax A.K.A Micheal Laca already has an account.And!! he personally knows the Doc himself!.The Doc and him are both good friends!
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Quoting Surfcropper:
Disney World draws the crowds year round

Its also protected by land in case the glaciers melt and flood the ocean.


Fortunately for us, glaciers melting won't do a whole lot. The amount of ice compared to the volume of water on the earth makes the amount of ice like a spec in comparison. Remember folks, water expand when it freezes, so that makes that scare of melting glaciers flooding coastal cities that much more unscientific and more political propaganda.


Even if water didn't expand as it freezes, it wouldn't make a difference in most places in the world. In fact, it would be like adding another gallon of water to an Olympic swimming pool and worrying about it flooding over. No sorry, even if all the glaciers melt, New York City, and my home town, the Tampa Bay area won't flood. The rise in water level will likely be too dang small to notice even if GW panic was right and all ice disappears.

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Quoting Ossqss:


Oh no!
Grothar tidbits! Yikes ~~~ out>>>. :)



LOL..funny !
Member Since: September 16, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1492
Quoting Grothar:




Yes, thanks, OSS. I like when the blog get a little philosophical so I can bore you all with my little "tidbits". Thornton Wilder's "Our Town" had a similar thought. Shows how important and insignificant we are at the same time:

"One of the most moving and thought-provoking excerpts in Our Town is when Rebecca Gibbs recounts to her brother George a letter that Jane Crofut received from her minister when she was ill. The minister addressed the envelope with grandiose flourish: "Jane Crofut; The Crofut Farm; Grover's Corners; Sutton County; New Hampshire; United States of America; Continent of North America; Western Hemisphere; the Earth; the Solar System; the Universe; the Mind of God" (p. 46). What do you think Thornton Wilder is proclaiming in this passage about man as an individual in the world?"


P.S. The weather in Grover's Corners was very warm that day. Just covering.



Oh no!
Grothar tidbits! Yikes ~~~ out>>>. :)

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caneswatch ,, from last night if ya did not see it :)

Nightall!

Turkey Point is discussed here and specifically in the notes section, 13 and 14 :)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Containment_building


"The Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station was hit directly by Hurricane Andrew in 1992. Turkey Point has two fossil fuel units and two nuclear units. Over $90 million of damage was done, largely to a water tank and to a smokestack of one of the fossil-fueled units on-site, but the containment buildings were undamaged."
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Quoting PSLFLCaneVet:



Carl Sagan is a favorite read of mine!

Thanks, Oss!




Yes, thanks, OSS. I like when the blog get a little philosophical
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Quoting PSLFLCaneVet:



Agreed, ya young rascal.

The Big A, was particularly vicious.

Good post!


Thanks PSL!
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Anytime you are 30 degrees cooler than average down in the lattitudes which is closer to the equator is more impressive and ridiculous than near the poles and 54 degrees above average. Why? cuz it's almost near the tropics!!


And you also have to remember that the choice of the averaging period determines "average".

There's no consensus on which averaging period to use. They're more interested in the "trend".

Cooler averaging period means higher current anomalies.
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Carl Sagan is a favorite read of mine!

Thanks, Oss!
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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