The ARkStorm: California's coming great deluge

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:04 PM GMT on January 28, 2011

For thirty days and thirty nights the rain fell in unending torrents. By the end of the biblical deluge, rivers of water ten feet deep flowed through the streets of Sacramento, and an astounding 29.28 inches of rain had fallen on San Francisco. According to wunderground's weather historian, Christopher C. Burt, in the Sierras, the moist flow of air from Hawaii--often called an "atmospheric river" or the "Pineapple Express"--hit the steeply sloping mountainsides and rose upwards. The air expanded and cooled, causing truly prodigious rains, with the mining town of Sonora receiving 8.5 feet of rain over a 2-month period. The resulting floods inundated California's Central Valley with a lake 300 miles long and 20 miles wide.

The above event occurred in January 1862, and similar extreme rain events have deluged in California seven times in the past 2,000 years--about once every 300 years. Great storms like the flood of 1862 will happen again. If the planet continues to warm, as expected, the odds of such an event will at least double by 2100, due to the extra moisture increased evaporation from the oceans will add to the air. A group of scientists, emergency managers, and policy makers gathered in Sacramento, California earlier this month to discuss how the state might respond to a repeat of the 1862 rain event--the ARkStorm Scenario. The "AR" stands for "Atmospheric River", the "k" for 1,000 (like a 1-in-1000 year event), and of course "ARkStorm" is meant to summon visions of biblical-scale deluge, similar to the great flood of 1862. The team's final report envisions the most expensive disaster in world history, with direct damages and loss of economic activity amounting to $725 billion.

"Atmospheric Rivers" was a term coined in the 1990s to describe plumes of moisture that ride up out of the subtropics into the mid-latitudes along the axis of a cold front. Traditional water vapor satellite imagery does not show these plumes very well, and it was only when microwave satellite imagery from polar orbiting satellites became available in the late 1990s that the full importance of these Atmospheric Rivers came to be revealed. Atmospheric Rivers account for a significant portion of California's cold season rainfall and snowfall, and an entire session was devoted to them at the December 2010 American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting in San Francisco, the world's largest Earth Science meeting.


Figure 1. The total amount of rainfall one could get if all the moisture in the air were condensed and fell out as rain is called the Total Precipitable Water (TPW). Here, TPW values from microwave satellite measurements are plotted, and show a plume of very moist air connecting the subtropics near Hawaii with Southern California. TPW vales in excess of 20 mm (about 0.8 inches, blue and warmer colors) are "Atmospheric Rivers", and are often associated with heavy rainfall events capable of causing flooding. This Atmospheric River occurred on December 21, 2010, and brought very heavy flooding rains to Southern California. Image credit: University of Wisconsin CIMSS.

California's Delta Region levees at high risk of failure
Much of Central California's water supply and agricultural areas are protected by an antiquated and poorly maintained set of levees along the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers that are in serious danger of failure during an extreme flood or major earthquake. The 1,600 miles of levees protect 500,000 people, 2 million acres of farmland, and structures worth $47 billion. Of particular concern is the delta at the confluence of California's Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers, about 80 miles inland from San Francisco Bay. The Delta Region receives runoff from more than 40% of California, and is the hub of California's water supply system, supplying water to 25 million people and 3 million acres of farmland. Key transportation and communication lines cross the region. The Delta Region is home to dozens of islands with highly productive farms that have subsided to elevations as much as 25 feet below sea level. Jeffrey Mount, director of the Center for Integrated Watershed Science and Management at the University of California at Davis, said in a recent interview with MSNBC, "The chances of a catastrophic flood occurring in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta sometime in the next 50 years are about two out of three." He called Sacramento, which is only protected to a 1-in-80 year flood by its levees, "the most at-risk large metropolitan area in the country, with less than half the protection that New Orleans had. It is at extreme risk due to levee failure and subsidence."" The most serious catastrophe for the levees in the Delta Region would be a major earthquake occurring during the dry season. Such a quake would allow salt water to intrude from San Francisco Bay, shutting off the fresh water supply for millions of Californians for months. Collapse of the levees during the wet season would be less devastating, as water pressure from the relatively high flow rates of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers would keep salt water from intruding into the Delta Region. There are no good solutions to California's Delta Region water vulnerabilities, but a new $10 billion dollar canal that would route fresh water around the region is being proposed as a possible way Califoria could avoid losing its fresh water supply if a catatrophic failure of the Delta Region levees allowed salt water intrusion to occur.

A 2009 study by the California Department of Water Resources concluded:

The Delta Region as it exists today is unsustainable. Seismic risk, high water conditions, sea level rise and land subsidence threaten levee integrity. A seismic event is the single greatest risk to levee integrity in the Delta Region. If a major earthquake occurs, levees would fail and as many as 20 islands could be flooded simultaneously. This would result in economic costs and impacts of $15 billion or more. While earthquakes pose the greatest risk to Delta Region levees, winter storms and related high water conditions are the most common cause of levee failures in the region. Under business-as-usual practices, high water conditions could cause about 140 levee failures in the Delta over the next 100 years. Multiple island failures caused by high water would but could still be extensive and could cause approximately $8 billion or more in economic costs and impacts. Dry-weather levee failures [also called sunny-day events] unrelated to earthquakes, such as from slumping or seepage, will continue to occur in the Delta about once every seven years. Costs to repair a single island flooded as the result of a dry-weather levee failure are expected to exceed $50 million. The risk of flooding in the Delta Region will only increase with time if current management practices are not changed. By the year 2100, Delta levee failure risks due to high water conditions will increase by 800 percent. The risk of levee failure from a major earthquake is projected to increase by 93 percent during the same period.


The ARkStorm scenario and Great Flood of 1862 are discussed in much more detail by weather historian Christopher C. Burt in his latest post.


Figure 2. Levee failure on the Upper Jones Tract in the Delta Region on June 4, 2004. Image credit: California Department of Water Resources. A 1997 flood in the Delta Region did $510 million damage, damaged or destroyed 32,000 homes and businesses, and left 120,000 homeless.

Wilma pounding New Zealand; Australia eyes two potential new tropical cyclones
With February nearly upon us, the traditional peak of the Southern Hemisphere tropical cyclone season is here. Activity has picked up markedly this week, with the formation of the year's first two Category 4 tropical cyclones, Tropical Cyclone Wilma and Tropical Cyclone Bianca. Wilma passed over American Samoa as a strong tropical storm, and hit Tonga as a Category 3 storm, causing substantial damage to the islands, but no deaths or injuries. Wilma is currently pounding New Zealand's North Island with heavy rains and strong winds, and is the strongest tropical cyclone to affect that country in fourteen years, according to weatherwatch.co.nz. Tropical Cyclone Bianca is expected to skirt the west coast of Australia over the next few days and rapidly weaken, but could bring heavy rains to the coast near Perth when it makes landfall on Sunday as a tropical storm. Of much greater concern for Australia are two potential tropical cyclones that could hit the flood-ravaged state of Queensland next week. Both the European Center and GFS models predict that the remains of Tropical Cyclone Anthony will regenerate into a tropical storm and hit Queensland early next week. A second and potentially more powerful storm is forecast by the European model to form next week in the islands to the east of Australia, and threaten Queensland at the end of the week. The GFS model has backed off on its prediction of such a storm forming. If the cyclone were to form, it would be a serious blow for Queensland, which is struggling to recover from record floods. As reported in the latest Bureau of Meteorology climate statement and flood summary, the past four months (September - December) have been the rainiest such period in Queensland's history, and the resulting flooding disaster has been Australia's most expensive natural disaster in history.


Figure 3. Tropical Cyclone Bianca, the globe's second major tropical cyclone of 2011, as seen at 06:30 GMT on January 28, 2011 by NASA's Aqua satellite. Biana is expected to rapidly weaken and hit the Australian coast near Perth as a tropical storm on Sunday. Image credit: NASA.

Have a great weekend, and I'll be back Monday with a new post.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting EYEStoSEA:
Jedkins....just read about your illness. You mentioned several friends also have had it, which leads one to believe it is a virus that has spread to you...which is what a virus does....and all may have different symtoms. Probably the reason it seems to come and go is because you are temporarily diquising the symtoms with meds. Drink, drink, drink lots of liquids. A virus will run its course,eventually. Hope you get better very soon.



Thanks! Its definitely not meds though, I don't take meds of any kind and haven't all my life. The only time I really have is one time I got a sinus infection and I got some antibiotics. But I don't drug my body full of pain killers and other pills, unless I absolutely would need them. Meds were designed to help people overcome what their body can't.

For whatever reason, this illness just comes in waves of pain. Who knows why, I'm not an expert on biology.
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Quoting Floodman:


No, organized religion and closed minds are the work of the devil


lol, you Sir have made a wise statement!
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Fate of Nations

Live on Network News.

Walk Like an Egyptian.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 439 Comments: 137203
Quoting Xyrus2000:


It may not be a virus at all. It could be an allergic or toxicity reaction to something. Allergic and toxicity reactions take on all forms, and can form recurrence patterns like the one you've explained.

It may also be bacterial in origin, though I'm not aware of a bacterial infection that would demonstrate recurring symptoms.

Certain diseases have behavior like this, like Lyme disease but the symptom recurrence usually takes long than a a day.

Another possibility is a rapidly mutating cold or flu virus, but that's pretty unlikely.

If you're concerned about, go see a doctor. Idle speculation on a message board won't really help that much unless someone on here is an MD.


Well I mainly brought it up just to give a detailed description in order to find out if other people had it. I certainly wouldn't turn to a blog of any kind for help lol. For obvious reasons. I will see my Doctor if it persists too much longer, or if it gets a lot worse than it already is.

My current thought is it might be bacterial in nature, I have had experience with bacterial issues on trips to Central America, and if I'm correct bacterial infections have symptoms that come in intense waves of pain. I'm not for sure about that, but that's the kinda symptoms I have.
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Quoting Ossqss:


Quite a tactful, but tasteless way to circumvent the facts on the 97% fallacy of consensus. We must assume that you agree that the study referenced was indeed radially altered to suit the political need for such a statistic. In football, that is called the misdirection play. In the field of statistics, it is called cherry picking. You know, like the Yamal tree ring data.

You do the dance of misdirection/deception well, as do others on this blog when faced with that of which does not conform to the desired end game propaganda.

Have a nice Day to the one, who by definition of their handle, hates mankind ;) L8R


Hey, dude, you're the one who brought up the whole Luciferian World Order thing. If you didn't want to discuss it, why bring it up? All I can say is look who's hand waving now.

As for the Zimmerman and Duran poll, I provided the link to Jeff Masters' blog on the topic. He does a lot better job discussing it than I could ever do. Here's the link, in case you missed it:

Opinion polls of climate change

Looks to me that there's multiple lines of evidence pointing to a consensus amongst climate scientists that AGW is the real deal. As for my handle - there's definitely some folks out there that have no appreciation for irony. It's sad, very sad.

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Quoting Surfcropper:
I'm a fan of Jedkins...though not a fan of his school's football team.


lol! Well believe it or not, I grew up a Gators fan, and still am, its family tradition, I became very sad to discover that they don't have a MET program, and that's how my choice ended up being Florida State.


The way it works is, when I'm at Florida State, sure I can be a seminoles fan, but inside I still got gator loyalty :)

(btw don't tell anyone going to Florida State I said that, or I might get death threats lol)
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Begin Rant.

Umm, I'm not sure if y'all have noticed or not, but there is an actual climate blog on this site! It's not that hard to get there. In fact, I'll even link it up for y'all! And if you're not sure if your're there or not, this is what it looks like:



Just follow the link and it'll take you there, trust me. Or just click on the picture! It'll take you there too. Truth be told, I'm getting a little tired of coming on here looking for a weather discussion and instead seeing nothing but climate spam. Too often have I tried to start a meteorological discussion only to get ignored. So I civilly ask everyone so bent on talking climate to take it to the climate blog. It's there for a reason, believe it or not. So what do y'all say?

End Rant.
Thanks and Gig 'Em.
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 47 Comments: 11984
Quoting misanthrope:

Wow, you really do believe in the Luciferian World Order thing. So, we're not really talking about science after all.

Enough said.

BTW - I did a search and couldn't find a single reference to Lucifer, Satan or the devil in that UN document. Maybe I should have tried mephistopheles? Or maybe you posted the wrong link?



Quite a tactful, but tasteless way to circumvent the facts on the 97% fallacy of consensus. We must assume that you agree that the study referenced was indeed radially altered to suit the political need for such a statistic. In football, that is called the misdirection play. In the field of statistics, it is called cherry picking. You know, like the Yamal tree ring data.

You do the dance of misdirection/deception well, as do others on this blog when faced with that of which does not conform to the desired end game propaganda.

Have a nice Day to the one, who by definition of their handle, hates mankind ;) L8R
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8203
It's the Itchy and Scratchy showwwwwwwwwwww....!
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 439 Comments: 137203
Quoting Levi32:
Oh check it out! La Nina finally starts to show herself in the northern hemisphere longwave pattern on the GFS in 15 days:

This would mean a return of arctic cold to Alaska and western Canada, while the eastern U.S. would finally start warming up.

I won't be liking "warm up" becuase that means "no snow".
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 12 Comments: 20737
Quoting Floodman:


Yeah, I always forget those...

So how are you, hydrus?
Busy..Busy..Busy..Busy..Busy..I am seriously Busy...Good to see some of the seniors posting thoough...:)
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Quoting atmoaggie:
Who?

Who's on first.

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Quoting Floodman:


Those are all Lucifer references in their own right...that or clowns

I'll go with clowns. I just had a vision of them all piling out of one of those little clown cars along with a cloud of cigar smoke. Maybe funny to only me.

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Quoting misanthrope:


Not my statement Aggie, it comes from the Department of Atmospheric Sciences of Texas A&M. So, do we believe their signed statement or the recollections of an obviously biased individual? An individual who washed out of graduate school, by the way.

Who?
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Oh check it out! La Nina finally starts to show herself in the northern hemisphere longwave pattern on the GFS in 15 days:

This would mean a return of arctic cold to Alaska and western Canada, while the eastern U.S. would finally start warming up.

Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26780
Jedkins....just read about your illness. You mentioned several friends also have had it, which leads one to believe it is a virus that has spread to you...which is what a virus does....and all may have different symtoms. Probably the reason it seems to come and go is because you are temporarily diquising the symtoms with meds. Drink, drink, drink lots of liquids. A virus will run its course,eventually. Hope you get better very soon.
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Well after a allergic reaction to a new anti inflammatory drug for a Bad A/c Joint..

Im sticking to the reg meds today.



Ill have the graphs up in a bit on that episode,..

The Lady who does them for me in Boca raised her fee.










Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 439 Comments: 137203
Quoting Surfcropper:


Palin? How about Limbaugh or Beck? All of those could lead you to a Lucifer reference, I'm certain.


Those are all Lucifer references in their own right...that or clowns
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Quoting Floodman:
Okay, well I'm off to look for anthills to kick over...have a great day, y'all


Don't forget to stamp your feet after each one.
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Quoting misanthrope:

Maybe for some USC fans but I don't really have a problem with him.



Palin? How about Limbaugh or Beck? All of those could lead you to a Lucifer reference, I'm certain.
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Okay, well I'm off to look for anthills to kick over...have a great day, y'all
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The solar AP index remains astonishingly low so far in January, and sunspots have been on a general decline during the month (the disk even went spotless yesterday), certainly the complete opposite of what we should be seeing, racing towards the solar maximum of solar cycle #24.



Member Since: November 24, 2005 Posts: 635 Comments: 26780
Quoting Surfcropper:


Try the name Bush...right? Am I right?

Maybe for some USC fans but I don't really have a problem with him.

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When it comes to stirring up a ruckus in here, Pat is the master...I am but an egg, compared to him
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Quoting misanthrope:

Wow, you really do believe in the Luciferian World Order thing. So, we're not really talking about science after all.

Enough said.

BTW - I did a search and couldn't find a single reference to Lucifer, Satan or the devil in that UN document. Maybe I should have tried mephistopheles? Or maybe you posted the wrong link?



Try the name Bush...right? Am I right?
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Quoting Patrap:
A no football Saturday brings out da Poke e Mon in me Flood.


More like poke 'em mon...LOL

So what happened, did everyone party too hard last night? No witty (or non-witty) retorts aside from Pat, and we all expect something out of him...LOL
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It looks like there could be a little better agreement between the forecast offices on the timing of the front. What do y'all think? :P

Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 47 Comments: 11984
A no football Saturday brings out da Poke e Mon in me Flood.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 439 Comments: 137203
Quoting hydrus:
and carbs......DONT FORGET CARBS...:0


Yeah, I always forget those...

So how are you, hydrus?
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Quoting hydrus:
Yes. This could be a powerful system. Frigid air surging south. Moisture flow moving up from the gulf. Dynamics are only fair but that could change..Regardless, if I lived in Washington D.C..I would keep the snow shovel close by. The models are all coming into agreement now on the track of next weeks low, but not the strength...This is 120 hours out..
So far in our forecast the weather man has wintery mix.
Quoting xcool:
Good god look at those.Those need to cool down quick
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 12 Comments: 20737
Quoting misanthrope:

Wow, you really do believe in the Luciferian World Order thing. So, we're not really talking about science after all.

Enough said.

BTW - I did a search and couldn't find a single reference to Lucifer, Satan or the devil in that UN document. Maybe I should have tried mephistopheles? Or maybe you posted the wrong link?



Don't forget Beelzebub...might be a distaff reference there somewhere
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Quoting Floodman:


Exercise and protein
and carbs......DONT FORGET CARBS...:0
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Quoting Ossqss:


LOL, those statements coming from that handle are hilarious!

On your highlighted item,,,,, are you referring to this from your friends at the UN ?

Section IV
Means of Implementation
Chapter 33
Financial Resources & Mechanisms

Wow, you really do believe in the Luciferian World Order thing. So, we're not really talking about science after all.

Enough said.

BTW - I did a search and couldn't find a single reference to Lucifer, Satan or the devil in that UN document. Maybe I should have tried mephistopheles? Or maybe you posted the wrong link?

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370. xcool
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A program from BBC - Nobel Prize winner, and the President of the Royal Society, Sir Paul Nurse examines why science appears to be under attack and why public trust in key scientific theories has been eroded.

Nurse interviews scientists and deniers (Fred Singer Link Link and James Delingpole Link )

It is worth watching!

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Quoting Patrap:
The Mayan's have cleared the Ort Cloud and are inbound,,on time,on target.


Riding a feathered serpent and mad as hell, I suspect
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Quoting Patrap:
If ?


LOL

Not many Grizzlies scooping Montians into Trainloads of coal and refining oil and burning it by the Billions of Gallons daily.

Well,,last I checked.


The cause and effect bus on the Warming left the Station about a decade ago


You know my feelings on this subject, brother...I was simply poking the hornet's nest with multiple sharp sticks...feeling kind of curmudgeonly today...LOL

So who wants to fight? Anyone? No comments from either the the CC deniers or the faithful (of any denomination)? it must really be dead in here...LOL
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The Mayan's have cleared the Ort Cloud and are inbound,,on time,on target.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 439 Comments: 137203
If ?


LOL

Not many Grizzlies scooping Montians into Trainloads of coal and refining oil and burning it by the Billions of Gallons daily.

Well,,last I checked.


The cause and effect bus on the Warming left the Station about a decade ago
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 439 Comments: 137203
Man Made global warming (if such exists) is due to overreaching greed and short-sightedness (see the pattern developing?)
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Quoting overwash12:
So,man-made global warming is the work of the DEVIL! lol


No, organized religion and closed minds are the work of the devil
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Quoting hydrus:
You sound like a nutritionist. What is good for muscle growth and blood circulation?


Exercise and protein
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@Hydrus & Grothar: Compliment gladly accepted. Thanks.

@aquak9: Thanks even more. ;-)

@Ossqss: My bad; here's the link to the survey (PDF). "...the debate on the authenticity of global warming and the role played by human activity is largely nonexistent among those who understand the nuances and scientific basis of long-term climate processes. The challenge...[is] how to effectively communicate this fact to policy makers and to a public that continues to mistakenly perceive debate among scientists."

Anyway, the nice late-January thaw continues across the U.S. In the past 24 hours, daily record highs and high minimums have outnumbered daily record lows and low maximums by 45-5 (9-1). Over the past 48 hours, that ratio has been 99-9 (11-1), over the past 72 hours it's been 134-24 (5.58-1), and over the past 96 hours 168-90 (1.86-1). With warm temps expected across the southern third of the country over the next three or four days, the ratio should stay about the same. Another Arctic blast is expected mid-week, however, so a good part of the heat should go away for at least a few days after that.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 14846
Quoting Jedkins01:
Hey does anybody else have an illness here that acts both like a flu and a cold, that comes in waves, in where it seems to go away for a while and then comes back with a vengeance?

I am very resistant to most viruses. In fact I haven't gotten a virus that has made me throw up in many years. Most flu viruses I don't get and they are usually just achy rather than vomit related for me. Also I usually get over a virus in about 3 days. I eat great and always out to stay in top physical fitness.

However, I have now had this illness for over 2 weeks, it first behaved as cold virus that caused a lot of itchiness deep in the throat with a cough. Then it went away for a few days, then this Tuesday I came down with full-blown intense cold like symptoms, as well as flu symptoms in which I have not experienced in a very long time. Oddly enough, it went away late Wednesday into Thursday, I felt perfectly fine. However, as of yesterday, I now have intense symptomps of both the flu and the cold the come on an off in intense waves.

The reason posting this to see if anyone else has been experiencing what I have. I'm trying to figure out if its just some really weird virus or some sort of bacterial infection. My friends have have all been experiencing the same symptoms for the same amount of time.


I will go see my Doctor if I have to, I'm a little worried its some super-virus of some sort. I am someone who is hardly ever sick, and when I do get something, I overcome it really fast normally. Even the E-coli I got on a trip to Central America didn't hit me as hard as it did most people.


However, whatever this illness is, its not one to mess with at all. My friends have been hit even harder then me.


It may not be a virus at all. It could be an allergic or toxicity reaction to something. Allergic and toxicity reactions take on all forms, and can form recurrence patterns like the one you've explained.

It may also be bacterial in origin, though I'm not aware of a bacterial infection that would demonstrate recurring symptoms.

Certain diseases have behavior like this, like Lyme disease but the symptom recurrence usually takes long than a a day.

Another possibility is a rapidly mutating cold or flu virus, but that's pretty unlikely.

If you're concerned about, go see a doctor. Idle speculation on a message board won't really help that much unless someone on here is an MD.
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Quoting washingtonian115:
Nice one headed right or me.
Yes. This could be a powerful system. Frigid air surging south. Moisture flow moving up from the gulf. Dynamics are only fair but that could change..Regardless, if I lived in Washington D.C..I would keep the snow shovel close by. The models are all coming into agreement now on the track of next weeks low, but not the strength...This is 120 hours out..
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Quoting misanthrope:


Sorry, but you're not really bolstering your credibility by providing links to drivel like this. Gotta love it, "Luciferian World Order."

I'm just curious, do you even read this stuff before posting it?

"Man made global warming is a total FRAUD! It is an Illuminist SCAM of creating a false global crisis to drive the world to a One World Government. It is to create the basis for taxing all humanity to finance this Luciferian New World Order. The idea that carbon dioxide is bad for the earth is nonsense. Carbon dioxide is what plant life breathes (and they exhale oxygen in the process). The fossil record is quite clear: planet earth was tropical or sub tropical in the past!"


LOL, those statements coming from that handle are hilarious!

On your highlighted item,,,,, are you referring to this from your friends at the UN ?

Section IV
Means of Implementation
Chapter 33
Financial Resources & Mechanisms
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8203
Quoting hydrus:
Earth Momma...Sounds nice...We are looking at another storm here on the Cumberland Plateau..This could be a bad one...NCEP 102 hours out..
Nice one headed right or me.
Member Since: August 14, 2010 Posts: 12 Comments: 20737
I'm a fan of Jedkins...though not a fan of his school's football team.
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Quoting misanthrope:


Not really sure what you're getting at; creationism is not science. I guess that's why people can be so certain about it.



Exactly. That's what I was trying to say originally. Sorry if I tend to confuse the message sometimes.
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Dr. Masters (r) co-founded wunderground in 1995. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters 1986-1990. Co-blogging with him: Bob Henson, @bhensonweather

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