Globe's coral reefs take second worst beating on record during 2010

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:50 PM GMT on January 07, 2011

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Record warm ocean temperatures across much of Earth's tropical oceans during the summer of 2010 created the second worst year globally for coral-killing bleaching episodes. The warm waters, fueled in part by the El Niño phenomena, caused the most coral bleaching since 1998, when 16 percent of the world's reefs were killed off. "Clearly, we are on track for this to be the second worst (bleaching) on record," NOAA coral expert Mark Eakin in an interview last month. "All we're waiting on now is the body count." The summer 2010 bleaching episodes were worst in Southeast Asia, where El Niño warming of the tropical ocean waters during the first half of the year was significant. In Indonesia's Aceh province, 80% of the bleached corals died, and Malaysia closed several popular dive sites after nearly all the coral were damaged by bleaching. However, in the Caribbean's Virgin Islands, coral bleaching was not as severe as experienced in 2005, according to National Park Service fisheries biologist Jeff Miller. I'll discuss the reasons for this in a future blog post. In other portions of the Caribbean, such as Venezuela and Panama, coral bleaching was worse than that experienced in 2005.


Figure 1. An example of coral bleaching that occurred during the record-strength 1997-1998 El Niño event. Image credit: Craig Quirolo, Reef Relief/Marine Photobank, in Climate, Carbon and Coral Reefs

What is coral bleaching?
Coral bleaching is a whitening of the corals that occurs when stresses such as high water temperatures, increased water acidity, or pollution disturbs the symbiotic relationship between the corals and the algae that live inside them. Bleaching episodes occur when ocean temperatures rise above 85 - 87°F (29.5 - 30.5°C.) Peak warming events took place in the western Indian Ocean and north-western Pacific in 1997/98, in the north of Australia and central Pacific during 2003/04, and in the Caribbean in 2005. About half of the reefs affected by bleaching in these episodes have recovered, and one recent study cautions that non-lethal bleaching episodes and subsequent recovery of corals is often under-reported.

Australia's Great Barrier Reef at risk
With summer now in full swing in the Southern Hemisphere, coral bleaching concern now shifts to Australia's Great Barrier Reef. Ocean temperatures along the reef are currently up to 1°C above average, due, in part, to the current moderate to strong La Niña event. NOAA's Coral Reef Watch has issued its highest level of coral bleaching alert for the northern 2/3 of the Great Barrier Reef, since the La Niña event is predicted to persist into at least April. Also of concern is the tremendous run-off occurring in the wake of the record flooding that has affected the neighboring Australian province of Queensland. While the floods have now peaked and the rivers of Queensland are now falling, the $5 billion disaster dumped a large amount of sediments, pollutants, fertilizers, and pesticides into the southern portion of the Great Barrier Reef, and this will act to increase the stress on the corals. However, the floods may end up indirectly benefiting some portions of the Great Barrier Reef. The cloud cover and strong winds that accompanied the flooding rain storms also acted to cool the waters along the reef. According to an analysis I did of the UK Met Office Hadley Centre global ocean temperature data, sea surface temperatures along the southern portion of the reef, between 15°S and 20°S latitude, were the warmest ever for September, 1.27°C above average. These waters cooled significantly, relative to average, during October and November, and were just 0.12°C warmer than average during November. Cooler waters will mean less potential for coral bleaching, though the pollution in the flood run-off water may end up killing some corals.


Figure 2. Forecast stress on coral due to warm ocean temperatures for Australia, Jan - Apr 2011. The northern 2/3 of the Great Barrier Reef are under the highest alert level for coral bleaching. Waters are cooler along the southern portion of the reef, due, in part, to the storms that have brought record flooding to portions of Queensland, Australia. Image credit: NOAA Coral Reef Watch.

Long term outlook for world's coral reefs: grim
The large amount of carbon dioxide humans have put into the air in recent decades has done more than just raise Earth's global temperature--it has also increased the acidity of the oceans, since carbon dioxide dissolves in sea water to form carbonic acid. Corals have trouble growing in acidic sea water, and the combined effects of increasing ocean temperatures, increasing acidity, pollution, and overfishing have reduced coral reefs globally by 19 percent since 1950. Another 35 percent could disappear in the next 40 years, even without the impact of climate change, according to a report released in October 2010 by the World Meteorological Organization and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Coral loss has been the most severe in Earth's hottest ocean, the Indian Ocean. Up to 90% of coral cover has been lost in the Maldives, Sri Lanka, Kenya and Tanzania and in the Seychelles. Global warming has heated up most of the tropical ocean surface waters by about 0.5°C (0.9°F) over the past 50 years, and the remarkable bleaching episodes of 1998 and 2010 both occurred when strong (natural) El Niño episodes heated up Pacific tropical waters to record levels. If the Earth continues to heat up this century as expected, coral bleaching episodes will grow more frequent and intense, particularly during strong El Niño episodes. The twin stresses of ocean acidification and increasing ocean temperatures will probably mean that by 2050, it will be difficult for any coral reefs to recover when subject to additional stresses posed by pollution or major storms, according to a talk presented by Stanford climate scientist Ken Caldeira at last month's American Geophysical Union (AGU) meeting.


Figure 3. Departure of sea surface temperature in the Australian region over the past one hundred years, year-by-year (red line), and decade-by-decade (grey bars.) The 2010 value is preliminary and does not include data for December 2010. If ocean temperatures and ocean acidity continue to rise in Australian waters at the same pace as has occurred over the past 100 years, the Great Barrier Reef will be in significant danger by 2050. Image credit: Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

Coral expert J.E.N. Veron, former chief scientist of the Australian Institute of Marine Science, had this to say in an excellent interview he did with Yale Environment 360 last year: "the science is clear: Unless we change the way we live, the Earth's coral reefs will be utterly destroyed within our children's lifetimes.

"You may well feel that dire predictions about anything almost always turn out to be exaggerations. You may think there may be something in it to worry about, but it won't be as bad as doomsayers like me are predicting. This view is understandable given that only a few decades ago I, myself, would have thought it ridiculous to imagine that reefs might have a limited lifespan on Earth as a consequence of human actions. It would have seemed preposterous that, for example, the Great Barrier Reef--the biggest structure ever made by life on Earth--could be mortally threatened by any present or foreseeable environmental change. Yet here I am today, humbled to have spent the most productive scientific years of my life around the rich wonders of the underwater world, and utterly convinced that they will not be there for our children's children to enjoy unless we drastically change our priorities and the way we live."

Reefs are the ocean's canaries and we must hear their call. This call is not just for themselves, for the other great ecosystems of the ocean stand behind reefs like a row of dominoes. If coral reefs fail, the rest will follow in rapid succession, and the Sixth Mass Extinction will be upon us--and will be of our making.


I might add that not only are reefs the ocean's canaries, they are incredibly valuable in their own right. According to the World Meteorological Organization, coral reefs provide economic services--jobs, food and tourism--estimated to be worth $30 billion per year. NOAA put this figure at twelve times higher, $375 billion each year. Corals cover just 0.2% of the world's oceans, but contain about 25% of all marine species.

Next post
I'll be back with a new post on Tuesday at the latest.

Check out wunderground weather historian Christopher C. Burt's post on the notable weather extremes of December 2010. It was truly an extreme month!

Jeff Masters

Coral Bleaching. (Dawnlisa)
Since the end of April the coral in the Andaman sea has started bleaching due to the increase in sea water temperature. If things don't cool down soon the coral may die. You can see the white patches in the photo that are mainly table coral and normally a dark colour.
Coral Bleaching.
A parrot fish at the coral reef (BoazR)
as seen from the underwater observatory
A parrot fish at the coral reef
coral reef (js64)
coral reef

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Quoting Neapolitan:

Well, I'm honored. I have made mistakes here. Many of them. But if I've succeeded in impressing you, I'm pleased. ;-)

P.S. - See comment #210.


See comment #261
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting PensacolaDoug:



Big let down when ya gotta ask..."Is that all there is?"
The look on their faces when from smile to frown.
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Quoting MichaelSTL:
By the way, here is a comparison between November 1917 and November 2010:





Evidently, despite having a higher 6 month SOI (for the same period as 2010), 1917 didn't have a really strong La Nina in terms of SSTs. Yet, November 2010 was over a degree warmer. Note also that some areas were still as much as 7 degrees warmer than normal in 1917 (Europe was also warmer).

The difference for December will probably be even larger since 1917 had an anomaly of -0.69, a drop of 0.38 in one month (2010 would need an anomaly of +0.35 or less). Also, the following year had one of the strongest El Ninos on record (as a reanalysis shows, they also link it to the flu pandemic).


Arrhenius predicted about 7 C in the polar regions... amazing isn't it?

Sad that this is so controversial....
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Quoting txag91met:

More ice in the Bering sea (alaska) vs 1979.


Clearly a sign of major global warming..
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Quoting MichaelSTL:


LOL

The last time you did that I posted an article that disproved that - all you do is persist in posting the same nonsense over and over! Classic


Hummer vs Prius Redux: This time to Hummer? I don't think so!

Here we go again, another writer putting out a story about the Hummer being greener than a Prius. Even Hummer manufacturer General Motors isn't foolish enough to try and make this absurd claim. It's not clear what the author's motivation is, but he might want to check some facts next time put clicking the publish button. The main evidence he references are the now debunked CNW research article that came out in 2006, that contained plenty of factual errors in their analysis of the manufacturing costs of the nickel metal hydride batteries and information about nickel producer Inco.


Again, classic!


Actually, that might explain the rather bizzare behavior of the folks who send there kids to our LEED certified school.

Over 12% of our family's carbon footprint are school trips from the green school.

The last one I drove up in my American made hybrid sedan and it just struck me that the only other vehicle there that was half-way green was a Mercedes diesel (the owner will use the class project biodiesel... a good guy).

And then... a Hummer?

Ah... now I understand :).
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Quoting oracle28:


Neapolitan, you amaze me, you're never wrong. Not once on this board have you made a mistake or invalid conclusion, that's an incredible feat.

Well, I'm honored. I have made mistakes here. Many of them. But if I've succeeded in impressing you, I'm pleased. ;-)

P.S. - See comment #210.
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North Carolina

... Avery County...
Linville 14.0 1034 am 1/08 4 in. Since last report
Flat Springs 13.7 800 am 1/08 includes 3 in last hr

... Buncombe County...
6 NE Canton 9.0 1038 am 1/08 storm total snowfall.
Asheville 4.5 1031 PM 1/07

... Madison County...
3 NNE Faust 20.0 846 am 1/08 since Thursday night

5 NNE Mars Hill 9.0 330 PM 1/07

... Haywood County...
3 N Maggie Valley 15.0 858 am 1/08 Cataloochee ski area
4 N Maggie Valley 12.0 415 am 1/08 five top mtn 4700 ft
7 E Waterville 12.0 900 am 1/08

... Ashe County...
3 SW Creston 7.5 800 am 1/08 cocorahs

... Watauga County...
2 N Silverstone 9.0 711 am 1/08 Zionville

Another 6inches today then 1foot Monday and then upslope snows kick in to bring record breaking totals. Won't mention next weekends storm yet...
Member Since: May 17, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 904
266:

The story does not smell test. The Sudbury mine, for example, has out of production from quite some time.

Since 1978... long before anybody even dreamed of the Prius

As a matter of fact, it is a poster child for successful reclamation efforts

Sudbury cleanup

Like any other extraction we can choose to do it safely and responsibly.

I was not making a point saying CFLs or hybrids are bad (they are not) but the problem is the complete lack of respect of human rights under which the materials are made in China and elsewhere.
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Quoting Neapolitan:

I posted this earlier:

"It's always happened, and always will. The FAA is working with airports across the country to insure runways are updated, but don't expect delays. Passengers won't even be able to tell a difference. Although some neighborhoods may hear a little more air traffic as flight paths adjust while the airport updates each runway one at a time." (http://www.myfoxtampabay.com/dpp/news/local/hillsborough/north-pole-shifting-causes-tia-to-renumber -runways-01062011)

The thing is, they don't close both runways at once; hence my earlier comments about parallel runways. Yes, it costs money for paint and taxiway signage and labor and all--but overall, this is no big deal--much as some would have you believe.


Neapolitan, you amaze me, you're never wrong. Not once on this board have you made a mistake or invalid conclusion, that's an incredible feat.
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Quoting TampaFLUSA:
Actually they have to close two runways here in Tampa and diverting flight paths over S Tampa and Carrolwood neighborhoods flying at a low altitude. It's going to cost thousands of $. Then Orlando, Jax, and Atlanta among others.

I posted this earlier:

"It's always happened, and always will. The FAA is working with airports across the country to insure runways are updated, but don't expect delays. Passengers won't even be able to tell a difference. Although some neighborhoods may hear a little more air traffic as flight paths adjust while the airport updates each runway one at a time." (http://www.myfoxtampabay.com/dpp/news/local/hillsborough/north-pole-shifting-causes-tia-to-renumber -runways-01062011)

The thing is, they don't close both runways at once; hence my earlier comments about parallel runways. Yes, it costs money for paint and taxiway signage and labor and all--but overall, this is no big deal--much as some would have you believe.
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Quoting Neapolitan:

You so often ask this of me (and others), and I've so often answered, so I won't again here. But in this particular instance, I'm not saying none of us aren't guilty, including myself; I'm responding to the outright ludicrous statement that oil sand extraction isn't environmentally destructive. It is.


Human mercury poisoning in CFL manufacturing

I am not anti-CFL (they save me tons of money).

But, Nea, if you want to address a truly horrible ecological and human rights travesty please work about doing something about the mercury poisoning of the ecosystem and especially workers in China.

This is orders of magnitude worse so that some American's can pretend that they are "green"
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Solar Panels require strip mines also

No matter how you slice it any human use of energy requires some invasive processes.

The question is a matter of education... did our parents teach us to clean up after ourselves?
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Quoting Neapolitan:

You so often ask this of me (and others), and I've so often answered, so I won't again here. But in this particular instance, I'm not saying none of us aren't guilty, including myself; I'm responding to the outright ludicrous statement that oil sand extraction isn't environmentally destructive. It is.


In the 3 sentences you quoted the minister managed to nail the #1 ecological problem with the bitumen extraction (water usage).

He is very aware of the real ecological problem and has pledged to do something about it.

All human activity changes the planet... do we deforest without reclamation or with reclamation?

The US timber industry learned that ecological soundness is good for business years ago... something that hasn't caught on as well in places where human rights are not respected.

After all, in places where human beings are not respected, neither will Mother Earth be respected.

Now, the stone age did not end for lack of stones. Ditto for the oil age...
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Quoting Neapolitan:

Airports don't need to be closed for runway renumbering--unless the airport has but one runway. And such renumbering generally takes place at night--when traffic is very light--so any particular runway need only be closed for an hour or two. Also, many large airports have parallel runways; one of those at a time can be closed during off-peak hours, leaving the airport completely functional.

Haven't seen you around here much lately (unless you've been trolling under another pseudonym); it's refreshing to see you still have nothing to add beyond snide and mean-spirited comments. ;-)


Aw, miss me, did you?
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Quoting TampaFLUSA:
Actually they have to close two runways here in Tampa and diverting flight paths over S Tampa and Carrolwood neighborhoods flying at a low altitude. It's going to cost thousands of $. Then Orlando, Jax, and Atlanta among others.


It's really no big deal.
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Quoting PensacolaDoug:
Quoting FLPandhandleJG:
I wonder what the Euro will be like near 12:30 my time or so

I'm hoping it comes in colder and further south with the frozen stuff...
Of course, I'm kind of stupid that way...


ME TOO!..lol
Member Since: August 3, 2006 Posts: 132 Comments: 20635
Quoting washingtonian115:
The kids were all excited about the snow they saw this morning,and that we were going to have a big snow event.How ever their feelings were hurt once they saw how little we had on the ground,and that the snow had stop falling.Their outside now,but their not to happy...



Big let down when ya gotta ask..."Is that all there is?"
Member Since: July 25, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 564
The kids were all excited about the snow they saw this morning,and that we were going to have a big snow event.How ever their feelings were hurt once they saw how little we had on the ground,and that the snow had stop falling.Their outside now,but their not to happy...
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Quoting FLPandhandleJG:
I wonder what the Euro will be like near 12:30 my time or so

I'm hoping it comes in colder and further south with the frozen stuff...
Of course, I'm kind of stupid that way...
Member Since: July 25, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 564
twisterdata.com should get the awesome site of the year award!

Quoting FLPandhandleJG:






I wonder what the Euro will be like near 12:30 my time or so..
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So, the price of beef is going up?

Whats that mean in English?


Quoting MichaelSTL:
I was expecting the MEI to drop again, given how high the SOI was, but instead it rose:



The last time that this index showed higher values for the average of any six months was during the same half-year in 1917(!), so any SOI-based classification would classify this event as the second-strongest event of the last century.
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Quoting alfabob:
Something besides dead animals and common geological events:

Before Global Warming:


32 Years Later:

More ice in the Bering sea (alaska) vs 1979.
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Quoting kellnerp:

Showing pictures of an open pit mining operation while it is still being worked means little. After remediation and after twenty years then lets compare photos.

And it is bringing work to this area.

The real shame in oil sands is that it consumes huge quantities of natural gas to extract the oil. A gallon of oil sand oil has already produced it's weight in CO2 before it is used. Better that gas should be piped south and used.

If extraction weren't environmentally destructive, remediation and 20 years of time wouldn't be needed in the first place, would it? And, yes, I've seen ample remediation efforts in Alberta and elsewhere (Montana coal fields, Florida wetlands, etc.). But to me, simply planting grass seeds and pine saplings atop a vast, flat field where once were arboreal forests and marshes and rivers and lakes scattered among rolling hills and valleys in no way comes close to making things right--not for people, and certainly not for the hundreds or thousands of generations of native species that are permanently gone from the area. Certainly some remediation is better than simply walking away and waiting hundreds of years for nature to slowly take things back--but better still to not have to do anything in the first place.

And, yes, the coal sands supply jobs. But that's an oft-heard excuse for *anything* destructive. Just remember, cleaning up after BP made work. So did cleaning up after Union Carbide in Bhopal. And so on.
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Time to go shovel that fluffy white stuff and stop burning coal to run the servers. :)
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Quoting EnergyMoron:


Realizing this is Suncor stuff (the oldest mining operator) here are some examples...

This doesn't bother me that much, blood for oil in the human rights abuse basket case locations makes my blood boil.

If you want to stop it, then do your part to end America's sick addiction to oil

The United States is no longer the biggest consumer of petroleum. China is quickly taking that honor for both petroleum and coal. And the United States consumes these products much more responsibly than most other countries.

Maybe if Canada didn't tax the oil sands projects so heavily there would be more left over for remediation. It's possible that Canada needs the money to pay for free health care and other entitlements diverting funds badly needed to plant trees.
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Quoting EnergyMoron:
No longer 100% for tomorrow but "Chance of rain near 100 percent in the morning"... Much better (love the rain!)

Nea (226):

Where would you rather get your energy from?

Iraq?
Nigeria?
Saudi Arabia?
Russia?
Other assorted human rights violators?

How much oil do you use per year?

You so often ask this of me (and others), and I've so often answered, so I won't again here. But in this particular instance, I'm not saying none of us aren't guilty, including myself; I'm responding to the outright ludicrous statement that oil sand extraction isn't environmentally destructive. It is.
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Quoting EnergyMoron:


Precisely. The real problem is using clean natural gas to generate oil for SUVs and other gas guzzlers.

No such thing as a gas guzzler. Just people not planning their trips to fully utilize the capacity of the vehicle they are driving. Go back to the 60's when women generally didn't work and you cut the commute usage of gasoline in half and you solve unemployment at the same time.

Practical but politically incorrect. Environmental disaster is the high price of political empowerment.

Gee, I wonder if I'll get flagged for this?
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Heavy oil on Louisiana Coast and some birds are caked in earl!! Gov Jindal @ Cotton Bowl. Plaquemines Parish pres Nungesser cursed out the Coast Guard. The Feds aren't as upset as they should be??
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Quoting pottery:

Can you post some images of examples of "remediation and after 20 years" that have worked?
Would like to see that.


Realizing this is Suncor stuff (the oldest mining operator) here are some examples...

Suncor

This doesn't bother me that much, blood for oil in the human rights abuse basket case locations makes my blood boil.

If you want to stop it, then do your part to end America's sick addiction to oil
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GFS shows a big one coming to Michigan, Indiana and Ohio in about a week. None of this piddling 12 inch stuff. Time to put PAM on the shovels.
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Quoting kellnerp:

Showing pictures of an open pit mining operation while it is still being worked means little. After remediation and after twenty years then lets compare photos.

And it is bringing work to this area.

The real shame in oil sands is that it consumes huge quantities of natural gas to extract the oil. A gallon of oil sand oil has already produced it's weight in CO2 before it is used. Better that gas should be piped south and used.


Precisely. The real problem is using clean natural gas to generate oil for SUVs and other gas guzzlers.

There is a project in Canada that does use the heavy crude to generate all power and is sequestration ready (provided one can find a place to sequester the CO2). Also the water use is much less than a typical bitumen project. This is a much more evironmentally responsible way to extract the energy.

Long Lake project
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Quoting pottery:

Can you post some images of examples of "remediation and after 20 years" that have worked?
Would like to see that.

Can't see them. :)
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Quoting twincomanche:


Since runways are number in 10 degree increments it's unlikely that renumbering would have to be done very often for any shifting of the poles. However I do remember the East West runways at Anchorage being renumbered several years back. Maybe when they get out of whack by more than ten degrees? I'm sure there is a regulation put out by the FAA. They have a regulation for everything.


As I read an article this morning on the disruption at Tampa Airport - - What I took away from it was that the lane closure, 1 at a time, are being renumbered to compensate the N pole shift, but the last time this "routine maintenance" had been done was in 1971. They are also taking this opportunity to do road surface repairs. Phase One would be completed by Thursday.I found nothing alarming in this as some of the news headlines have suggested.

http://www.tampabay.com/news/transportation/tampa-airport-runway-closures-bring-noise-to-neighborho ods/1144240
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No longer 100% for tomorrow but "Chance of rain near 100 percent in the morning"... Much better (love the rain!)

Nea (226):

Where would you rather get your energy from?

Iraq?
Nigeria?
Saudi Arabia?
Russia?
Other assorted human rights violators?

How much oil do you use per year?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting kellnerp:

Showing pictures of an open pit mining operation while it is still being worked means little. After remediation and after twenty years then lets compare photos.

And it is bringing work to this area.

The real shame in oil sands is that it consumes huge quantities of natural gas to extract the oil. A gallon of oil sand oil has already produced it's weight in CO2 before it is used. Better that gas should be piped south and used.

Can you post some images of examples of "remediation and after 20 years" that have worked?
Would like to see that.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Again: demonized? Overblown? Puh-leez...

Showing pictures of an open pit mining operation while it is still being worked means little. After remediation and after twenty years then lets compare photos.

And it is bringing work to this area.

The real shame in oil sands is that it consumes huge quantities of natural gas to extract the oil. A gallon of oil sand oil has already produced it's weight in CO2 before it is used. Better that gas should be piped south and used.
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Quoting twincomanche:


Since runways are number in 10 degree increments it's unlikely that renumbering would have to be done very often for any shifting of the poles. However I do remember the East West runways at Anchorage being renumbered several years back. Maybe when they get out of whack by more than ten degrees? I'm sure there is a regulation put out by the FAA. They have a regulation for everything.

If the runways get off by more than 10 degrees, yes, they must be renumbered. But, again, it's no big deal; Tampa is in the news now, but airports along Florida's east coast went through the process last year, and Atlanta will do it next year.

"It's always happened, and always will. The FAA is working with airports across the country to insure runways are updated, but don't expect delays. Passengers won't even be able to tell a difference. Although some neighborhoods may hear a little more air traffic as flight paths adjust while the airport updates each runway one at a time." (http://www.myfoxtampabay.com/dpp/news/local/hillsborough/north-pole-shifting-causes-tia-to-renumber -runways-01062011

The good news is: as there's less and less reliance on magnetic compasses and more on electronic navigation systems based upon true north, this antiquated renumbering will become a thing of the past; future flyers will look upon it as quaint, kinda like how we smile at the Anglo-Saxons for using the barleycorn as the basis for the inch measurement.

Finally, click here to see a runway renumbering in progress. :-)
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Quoting alfabob:
Something besides dead animals and common geological events:

Before Global Warming:


32 Years Later:

It helps if you overlay the images and scale them to the same scale.
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Quoting jwh250:
What does the XTRP model have to say about the pole shift?


Looks to be trending.. err. west.
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Anybody snowed in yet? Mornin' yall.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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