Amazon rainforest recovering from its second 100-year drought in 5 years

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:32 PM GMT on December 03, 2010

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Life-giving rains have returned over the past two months to Earth's greatest rainforest--the mighty Amazon--after it experienced its second 100-year drought in five years this year. The record drought began in April, during the usual start to the region's dry season, when rainfall less than 75% of average fell over much of the southern Amazon (Figure 2.) The drought continued through September, and by October, when the rainy season finally arrived, the largest northern tributary of the Amazon River--the Rio Negro--had dropped to thirteen feet (four meters) below its usual dry season level. This was its lowest level since record keeping began in 1902. The low water mark is all the more remarkable since the Rio Negro caused devastating flooding in 2009, when it hit an all-time record high, 53 ft (16 m) higher than the 2010 record low. The 2010 drought is similar in intensity and scope to the region's previous 100-year drought, which hit the Amazon in 2005, according to Brazil's National Institute of Space Research. Severe fires burned throughout the Amazon in both 2005 and 2010, leading to declarations of states of emergencies.


Figure 1. Hundreds of fires (red squares) generate thick smoke over a 1000 mile-wide region of the southern Amazon rain forest in this image taken by NASA's Aqua satellite on August 16, 2010. The Bolivian government declared a state of emergency in mid-August due to the out-of-control fires burning over much of the country. Image credit: NASA.

Causes of the great 2010 Amazon drought
During the 20th Century, drought was a frequent visitor to the Amazon, with significant droughts occurring an average of once every twelve years. These droughts typically occurred during El Niño years, when the unusually warm waters present along the Pacific coast of South America altered rainfall patterns. But 2010 was a La Niña year. The 100-year drought of 2005 occurred in an El Niño-neutral year. Subsequent analysis of the 2005 drought revealed that it was unlike previous El Niño-driven droughts, and instead was caused by record warm sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic (Phillips et al., 2009.) These warm ocean waters affected the southern 2/3 of the Amazon though reduced precipitation and higher than average temperatures. Very similar record Atlantic sea surface temperatures were observed in 2010, and likely were the dominant cause for the 2010 drought.


Figure 2. The great Amazon drought of 2010 began in April, when portions of the southern Amazon recorded precipitation amounts less than 75% of normal (brown colors). The drought spread northward and peaked during July and August, but drew to a close by November when the rainy season began. Image credit: NOAA Climate Prediction Center.

The importance of the Amazon to Earth's climate
We often hear about how important Arctic sea ice is for keeping Earth's climate cool, but the Amazon may be even more important. Photosynthesis in the world's largest rainforest takes about 2 billion tons of carbon dioxide out of the air each year. However, in 2005, the drought reversed this process. The Amazon emitted 3 billion tons of CO2 to the atmosphere, causing a net 5 billion ton increase in CO2 to the atmosphere--roughly equivalent to 16 - 22% of the total CO2 emissions to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels that year. According to Phillips et al., 2009, "The exceptional growth in atmospheric CO2 concentrations in 2005, the third greatest in the global record, may have been partially caused by the Amazon drought effects documented here." The Amazon stores CO2 in its soils and biomass equivalent to about fifteen years of human-caused emissions, so a massive die-back of the forest could greatly accelerate global warming. In late 2009, before the 2010 drought, the World Wildlife Federation released a report, Major Tipping Points in the Earth's Climate System and Consequences for the Insurance Sector, which suggested that odds of extreme 2005-like droughts in the Amazon had increased from once every 40 - 100 years, to once every 20 years. The study projected that the extreme droughts would occur once every two years by 2025 - 2050. This year's drought gives me concern that this prediction may be correct. The occurrence of two extreme droughts in the past five years, when no El Niño conditions were present and record warm Atlantic sea surface temperatures occurred, are suggestive of a link between global warming and extreme Amazon drought. If the climate continues to warm as expected, the future health of Earth's greatest rainforest may be greatly threatened, and the Amazon may begin acting to increase the rate of global warming. According to Rosie Fisher, a scientist at the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, Colorado who specializes in interactions between climate and forests, "I'm genuinely quite alarmed by this. In some ways it kind of reminds me of when they figured out than the Greenland ice sheet was melting much faster than the climate models predicted it would."

Deforestation in Brazilian Amazon falls to lowest rate on record
There is some good news from the Amazon--deforestation rates in the Brazilian Amazon have fallen 14% in the past year, and are at their lowest rate on record, according to mongabay.com, an environmental science and conservation news site that focuses on tropical forests. In 2009, Brazil passed a law committing to a 36 - 39% reduction in emissions of greenhouse gases. Reducing deforestation by 80% by 2020 was the primary method envisioned to achieve the reduction. Brazil is now four years ahead of that schedule, and no longer is the world's biggest deforester--Indonesia now cuts down more acreage of forest each year than Brazil does.

For more information
Nick Sundt at the WWF Climate Blog has a remarkably detailed post on this year's Amazon drought, and Dr. Joe Romm at climateprogress.org has another excellent post.

Phillips, et al., 2009, Drought Sensitivity of the Amazon Rainforest, Science 6 March 2009: Vol. 323 no. 5919 pp. 1344-1347 DOI: 10.1126/science.1164033.

I'll have new post Monday or Tuesday.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
Link


link below is now working
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54479
Link
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54479
Good points Moron

A smackdown?

I know you better. LOL!
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Time to do more with less. And yes, it takes the consumer to make that choice. There is incredible power in concensus of opinion.
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Too noisy



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Gratuitous Tropical Image.

Pacific

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Quoting Patrap:
We were promised flying cars Like George Jetson had,,but we got The Prius instead.

We got screwed I think.

heheheheh
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Quoting KerryInNOLA:
I hope I am alive the day when all the gas hogs run out. They won't be able to run their noisy toys anymore. And the military won't be able to fill up their aircraft carriers and tanks anymore. Hell Obama won't be able to fly to Afganistan on a wasteful political mission anymore. And the Earth will start healing itself.

Do your twin 240HP Yamaha motors run on sunlight?
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We were promised flying cars Like George Jetson had,,but we got The Prius instead.

We got screwed I think.
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Nice post, Nea.
Without doing the math, it looks like about 75% of EVERYONE agrees that we are affecting climate.
So there is still a relatively small group of individuals who dissagree, or are not sure..

Generally, I find Ideologically-driven minority groups to be most vocal when they are in the "wavering zone".
It will not surprise me, if that poll was done today, to see the gap has closed some more.
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As I drive my car along the same roads every day and see everyone else driving along those same roads, I think of how nice it would be if we didn't have to take our separate cars and could just get on something that would take us where we need to go. That way, I could spend the time reading or answering and sending messages on my Blackberry without having to drive at the same time. And I wouldn't have to keep filling up at the pump either.
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2010 Tropical Storm Season


The tropical storm season begins on June 1, lasting through the end of November. As storms are named, their place in the list below will become a link to a page providing information about that storm. The maximum strength attained by the storm, followed by the dates of its genesis and dissipation are also given.

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Quoting JRRP:

eso parece mas cientifico que hecharle la culpa al calentamiento global


But as Levi said, "Of course global warming will be blamed for record Atlantic SSTs".
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Quoting calusakat:


Saw an interesting bumpersticker on a silver Lexux in Naples today.

It read...
If AGW Scientists said it, I believe them and that settles it.

BTW it seemed like an additional sticker looked like it read ACLU. But they drove off too fast for me to be sure. Probably done by a local print shop.

??????

Goodness, that sounds a lot like bumper stickers on cars over thirty years ago, only it was about the Bible. As I recall those who had that sort of view were ridiculed not only by those who disputed the Bibles teachings; but, by many Christians who felt it was wrongheaded to be so dogmatic.

At best, man-made Global Warming is a theory. Only time will tell if it then becomes fact. The foolish claim that 97% of scientists believe in AGW; is just that...foolish and downright ignorant of how statistically impossible it is to have such a high percentage of persons agreeing on anything.

I guess people are right in their claims that our institutes of education have failed us horribly.

Seems to me you missed the intentional irony: the creator of the bumper sticker appears to have been making a direct parody of the religious original. Seems highly effective, if you ask me.

Yes, AGW is a theory--as is gravity, and relativty, and electricity. See, in science, a theory doesn't mean "wild guess" or "speculation"; it refers to a "proposed explanation of empirical phenomena, made in a way consistent with the scientific method".

So far as your next statement, a couple of things. First, it's not 97% of all scientists, but rather 97% of climate scientists from a 2008 survey--folks who, by the way, know what they're talking about. Second, a very telling part of that same survey is that only 47% of petroleum geologists hold the same opinion. (64% of meteorologists--folks who study short-term weather and not climate--believe in AGW.) From one article about the survey: The bottom line is, the more you know about the field of climate science, the more you are likely to believe in global warming and humankind's contribution to it. Here's a graph of the results from that survey, and this question: Do you think human activity is a significant contributing factor in changing mean global temperatures?

Appropriate tropical weather-related image

...all of which nicely illustrates your comment: "I guess people are right in their claims that our institutes of education have failed us horribly." You got that right; deniers remind us of that every single day. ;-)
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13568
Good points Moron.
There was an interesting discussion/debate on BBC Radio today. The last of a 4 part series "What or Who is the reason that GW is not being acted upon".

The general consensus was that People, Governments, Organisations cannot do what is really needed.
And that it will be up to Industry through Capitalism generally, to come up with the solutions REQUIRED BY THE CONSUMER. (in this case the consumer of electricity, gasoline, products that waste, etc. etc.)
Industries have already come a long way in this direction, and in fact are the only entities that have the real incentive to produce the solutions. Namely, the Profit motive.

And those that bash the ones who are seeing huge potential earnings and profits from 'green' technologies are being unfair in that they deny that there are vast earnings and profits being made now through 'dirty' technologies.

I think that this is a fair assessment, given the truth that most people are not prepared to do without anything, and in fact want more. Fair enough, actually.
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"Smart meters are supposed to be able to time charging of cars."

The gold mine for utilities (which I support) would be to have radio-controlled outlets specifically for my car. The trade: the utility decides when to activate (slack load time) and I get a price break. Many large industrial users pay lowered rates for 'interruptable' power today.

Utilities would LOVE to have a flat useage curve. I propose to help give them one - for a discount.
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129. JRRP
Quoting Levi32:
As Dr. Masters also mentioned, it should be noted that the drought really only affected the southern Amazon, and not so much the northern part of South America which remained moist. It is not a coincidence that the two big droughts occurred in 2005 and 2010, the two years with the highest tropical Atlantic SSTs on record, and the fact that they were both southern Amazon droughts.

Extremely high SSTs north of South America acts to force subsidence in the region south of the equator. Typically, a full Amazonian drought is caused by El Nino's warm SSTs in the Pacific having the same effect, but on a broader scale, covering more of the forest. However, this can happen in non-nino years too when the north Atlantic is extremely warm, focusing rainfall/upward motion farther north than normal. This will typically keep northern South America moist, especially during La Nina years, but the southern Amazon suffers greatly from reduced rainfall, hence the droughts.

It's meteorologically explainable. Of course global warming will be blamed for record Atlantic SSTs, even though we are in the middle of the first AMO peak that has been fully observable for accurate SST data. Oh well. We shall see.

Precipitation Anomalies for July-August 2005:


eso parece mas cientifico que hecharle la culpa al calentamiento global
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Quoting DocBen:
"statistically impossible it is to have such a high percentage of persons agreeing on anything."

Disagree. I bet 97% of us here agree that today was Friday.



LMAO!. Nice one!
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"statistically impossible it is to have such a high percentage of persons agreeing on anything."

Disagree. I bet 97% of us here agree that today was Friday.

And the other 3% - paid by the pain reliever industry to claim it's Monday.
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DoverWxwatchter 12:55 AM GMT on December 04, 2010
If the electricity comes from coal fired plants, I think EVs are worse than gasoline.

I think the efficiency of electric to motion still makes it superior. It would be good, however, to have EPA figures of CO2/mile based on different fuels. (Maybe they do - not sure) I do know they have done some calculations of cents/mile based on certain price scenarios.
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Quoting pottery:
We are in for a hard future...


UC Berkeley Study on Dire Warnings

It is important to be positive... as the above study points out this is doing more harm than good.

Which message makes more sense? "Cut your home carbon footprint by 67% and save money" or something negative? Really, there is always room for improvement. A local newpaper columnist who is a neighbor has concluded that light bulbs don't cost that much... so as a counterpoint I went through and did some cleanup on mine (like going from 13 to 7 watt CFLs in the ceiling fans) and getting an 18% improvement in base home performance with a 3 year payout (based upon the interval data from the smart meter... much clearer than before but not worth the money for my 2 cents).

Saving money is COOL. America WASTES 50% of its energy. It's a no-brainer to reduce our carbon footprint by over 50% (since we can selectively knock out coal fired electric plants).

Renewables... fossil fuels are finite so we are going to need to develop these things sooner or later so better sooner than later since a 30 year lead time is needed for deployment of any new technology on the scale at which it needs to be deployed. We don't know when peak fossil fuel will be (also peak cheap oil is already here) so when it hits it will be too late to do anything about it with the 30 year lead time if we don't start now.

China and India development (and even to a lesser extent Brazil) will certainly stress the environment. There is nothing that can be done about this so we are just learn to adapt.

China has gotten the point about efficiency and renewables, however. They understand that they have to go full force on efficiency and renewables for the reasons I give above.

Keep the message positive. I don't despair for the future...

Waste is not conservative. Lack of efficiency is not conservative. Wasting fossil fuels (which are very useful things) is not conservative.
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123. DDR
Trinidad and Tobago Met office
INFORMATION BULLETIN
PERIOD OF RAIN/SHOWERS CONTRIBUTING TO SWOLLEN
RIVER COURSES PARTICULARLY IN NORTHEAST AND
SOUTHEAST TRINIDAD
Atmospheric instability promoted by the presence
of a quasi-stationary shear line over Trinidad
and Tobago is manifesting into periods of
rain/showers particularly in Northeast and
Southeast Trinidad. Overnight, favoured areas
included Tobago and Northeast Trinidad.


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Quoting DoverWxwatchter:
If the electricity comes from coal fired plants, I think EVs are worse than gasoline.


My point is "it depends". You just need to be aware of where the electricity is coming from. I am not saying they are a bad thing (and are certainly better than your run-of-the-mill 20 MPG average American car... but cannot compete against a good hybrid).

Now, in China... the electric cars ARE coal powered.
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Quoting DocBen:
Re: The load on the electricity gris with EVs:

Batteries can be charged overnight. My reccomendation to utilities is that they work with consumers to arrange the timing of the charging cycles - with a rate reduction for such non-peak useage. This fits especially well with nuclear power which wants to run flat-out 24/7.

And, my 'depends on what is available' will include that issue. Where I currently live we have a rather large nuke plant (Wolf Creek Kansas)

However - you do raise good points. We must always be on the lookout for the Law of Unintended Consequences.


Agree 100%.

Kansas also has tons of windmills and that is also a plus for electric cars since windmills tend to work better at night!

Glad to see that you consider nuclear to be part of the solution also!

Smart meters are supposed to be able to time charging of cars. That is about the only thing I can see they are good for (trojan horse way of implementing them does not have me impressed).

White Stallion coal plant hearing

They are permitting coal plants now in Texas. My eldest's school class was chosen to give the final testimony at the state level (see link) under the theory that having the future generations speak would be the most powerful.

Didn't work; plant permitted.

In Texas the reality is that increased electric power use drives COAL.

That is what has me so concerned about these electric cars for Texas.
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120. DDR
T&T radar...Link
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119. DDR
Hi pottery
Interest weather here,light showers this evening.
radar showing heavy rain affecting eastern areas of the island over the last 6-8 hours,could be some flooding issues.
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it has already begun to be done
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54479
Quoting pottery:
Good Blog, Dr. Masters.
Very timely and relevant to matters being discussed in Mexico right now.
I was aware of the drought in the Amazon basin, but did not realise that massive rivers like Rio Negro were so low. Or that the fires in Bolivia had been so bad.

The loss of so much tropical forest in the Amazon basin, and other areas too, is a disaster that has been talked about for years. Only recently have meaningful efforts been made to slow the destruction.
We will all feel the effects of these fires/forest loss. And with the seemingly endless trend to warmer climate, the problems are going to get worse.

We are in for a hard future...
a whole lot sooner than we think
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 174 Comments: 54479
Quoting Neapolitan:

Yep. Just as the theory predicts...


Saw an interesting bumpersticker on a silver Lexux in Naples today.

It read...
If AGW Scientists said it, I believe them and that settles it.

BTW it seemed like an additional sticker looked like it read ACLU. But they drove off too fast for me to be sure. Probably done by a local print shop.

??????

Goodness, that sounds a lot like bumper stickers on cars over thirty years ago, only it was about the Bible. As I recall those who had that sort of view were ridiculed not only by those who disputed the Bibles teachings; but, by many Christians who felt it was wrongheaded to be so dogmatic.

At best, man-made Global Warming is a theory. Only time will tell if it then becomes fact. The foolish claim that 97% of scientists believe in AGW; is just that...foolish and downright ignorant of how statistically impossible it is to have such a high percentage of persons agreeing on anything.

I guess people are right in their claims that our institutes of education have failed us horribly.


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
As Dr. Masters also mentioned, it should be noted that the drought really only affected the southern Amazon, and not so much the northern part of South America which remained moist. It is not a coincidence that the two big droughts occurred in 2005 and 2010, the two years with the highest tropical Atlantic SSTs on record, and the fact that they were both southern Amazon droughts.

Extremely high SSTs north of South America acts to force subsidence in the region south of the equator. Typically, a full Amazonian drought is caused by El Nino's warm SSTs in the Pacific having the same effect, but on a broader scale, covering more of the forest. However, this can happen in non-nino years too when the north Atlantic is extremely warm, focusing rainfall/upward motion farther north than normal. This will typically keep northern South America moist, especially during La Nina years, but the southern Amazon suffers greatly from reduced rainfall, hence the droughts.

It's meteorologically explainable. Of course global warming will be blamed for record Atlantic SSTs, even though we are in the middle of the first AMO peak that has been fully observable for accurate SST data. Oh well. We shall see.

Precipitation Anomalies for July-August 2005:

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting pottery:
Good Blog, Dr. Masters... We will all feel the effects of these fires/forest loss. And with the seemingly endless trend to warmer climate, the problems are going to get worse.

We are in for a hard future...


Yup. Perhaps what is even more troublesome is that many of those that "deny" this is happening are secretly and simultaneously building plans to profit from these changes (transportation and energy exploration/development in the arctic, land/farm development in the former rainforests, etc.)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good Blog, Dr. Masters.
Very timely and relevant to matters being discussed in Mexico right now.
I was aware of the drought in the Amazon basin, but did not realise that massive rivers like Rio Negro were so low. Or that the fires in Bolivia had been so bad.

The loss of so much tropical forest in the Amazon basin, and other areas too, is a disaster that has been talked about for years. Only recently have meaningful efforts been made to slow the destruction.
We will all feel the effects of these fires/forest loss. And with the seemingly endless trend to warmer climate, the problems are going to get worse.

We are in for a hard future...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Re: The load on the electricity gris with EVs:

Batteries can be charged overnight. My reccomendation to utilities is that they work with consumers to arrange the timing of the charging cycles - with a rate reduction for such non-peak useage. This fits especially well with nuclear power which wants to run flat-out 24/7.

And, my 'depends on what is available' will include that issue. Where I currently live we have a rather large nuke plant (Wolf Creek Kansas)

However - you do raise good points. We must always be on the lookout for the Law of Unintended Consequences.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting EnergyMoron:









.





Anyway, sequestration is still a long way off...

Green is not what comes out of the tailpipe... just remember that.



Excellent points. Good evening.
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I can see farms in the image. Notably Deforestation.
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Quoting EnergyMoron:


DocBen:

Be careful with those EVs... they are not necessarily the cleanest alternative. Just because there are no tailpipe emissions doesn't mean it is clean.

With the West Coast electricity mix the Leaf will generate 15 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles. This beats the Prius at 38 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles. I am getting the electricity pounds per CO2 numbers from the DOE

CO2 electric generation

However, when you buy an electric car you are putting additional stress on the grid, so you should perhaps consider that you are keeping a fossil fuel fired plant going. So, even on the West Coast the "incremental" carbon footprint is roughly 50 pounds per CO2 per 100 miles assuming you are keeping a natural gas peaking plant in operation.

What about the rest of the US? Average of 49 pounds per hundred miles of CO2, and in Texas that rises to 53 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles. But then you are keeping coal fired plants in existence by using these things, so really you should count this as 75 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles.

What about hybrids?

Other hybrids

Mentioned the Prius above (in a class by itself) but I have 3 adopted kids in the family so need something for 5 folks. Using the numbers in the article 63 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles for the Camry hybrid and 57 pounds for the Fusion hybrid.

Although my Fusion is getting about 45.4 MPG lifetime (including a 5,000 mile trip to Canada family vacation at 38.5 MPG) so this is about 43 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles.

I get 50 MPG commuting

If Houston had decent public transport I would of course be using that (did so daily when lived abroad).

But the point is that my wheels are doing better than a Leaf.

The only way around this is a dedicated green charging station. No way on that one... it is costly enough to offset my houses power with panels. And where would I put another 33 panels to feed a Leaf anyway?

You might argue we are going to sequester carbon. Well, the EPA came out with regs for this and they will not allow injection pressures over 0.9 times the fracture gradient. This will esssentially kill any sequestration onshore outside of depleted oil and gas reservoirs.

Offshore sequestration can work

Purgen

I did geomechanics screening for that project a few years ago... did change the concept from shallow sediments to deeper horizons. The process is safe because the CO2 forms hydrates if there is a leak that gets too close to the mudline. And the salinity in the formations is essentially that of the sea so one can release pressure in the storage container by dumping the water into the ocean, unlike problems posed by terrestrial deep saline reservoirs.

Anyway, sequestration is still a long way off...

Green is not what comes out of the tailpipe... just remember that.


what he said.
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Quoting FLPandhandleJG:


Oh, that's just ugly.
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Quoting DocBen:
EvPv - mine is a Honda Civic. My next is likely to be something like the Leaf - depends on what is available.


DocBen:

Be careful with those EVs... they are not necessarily the cleanest alternative. Just because there are no tailpipe emissions doesn't mean it is clean.

With the West Coast electricity mix the Leaf will generate 15 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles. This beats the Prius at 38 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles. I am getting the electricity pounds per CO2 numbers from the DOE

CO2 electric generation

However, when you buy an electric car you are putting additional stress on the grid, so you should perhaps consider that you are keeping a fossil fuel fired plant going. So, even on the West Coast the "incremental" carbon footprint is roughly 50 pounds per CO2 per 100 miles assuming you are keeping a natural gas peaking plant in operation.

What about the rest of the US? Average of 49 pounds per hundred miles of CO2, and in Texas that rises to 53 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles. But then you are keeping coal fired plants in existence by using these things, so really you should count this as 75 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles.

What about hybrids?

Other hybrids

Mentioned the Prius above (in a class by itself) but I have 3 adopted kids in the family so need something for 5 folks. Using the numbers in the article 63 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles for the Camry hybrid and 57 pounds for the Fusion hybrid.

Although my Fusion is getting about 45.4 MPG lifetime (including a 5,000 mile trip to Canada family vacation at 38.5 MPG) so this is about 43 pounds of CO2 per 100 miles.

I get 50 MPG commuting

If Houston had decent public transport I would of course be using that (did so daily when lived abroad).

But the point is that my wheels are doing better than a Leaf.

The only way around this is a dedicated green charging station. No way on that one... it is costly enough to offset my houses power with panels. And where would I put another 33 panels to feed a Leaf anyway?

You might argue we are going to sequester carbon. Well, the EPA came out with regs for this and they will not allow injection pressures over 0.9 times the fracture gradient. This will esssentially kill any sequestration onshore outside of depleted oil and gas reservoirs.

Offshore sequestration can work

Purgen

I did geomechanics screening for that project a few years ago... did change the concept from shallow sediments to deeper horizons. The process is safe because the CO2 forms hydrates if there is a leak that gets too close to the mudline. And the salinity in the formations is essentially that of the sea so one can release pressure in the storage container by dumping the water into the ocean, unlike problems posed by terrestrial deep saline reservoirs.

Anyway, sequestration is still a long way off...

Green is not what comes out of the tailpipe... just remember that.
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Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


I am afraid that some will discover this too late. This does not even have to pertain to climate change to realize how important those forests are.


Agreed.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 585 Comments: 20862
Quoting Some1Has2BtheRookie:


I am afraid that some will discover this too late. This does not even have to pertain to climate change to realize how important those forests are.


L8R

Everyone stay safe and cozy!
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Quoting KoritheMan:


Considering how crucial it is to our climate, you should.


I am afraid that some will discover this too late. This does not even have to pertain to climate change to realize how important those forests are.
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Quoting RufusBaker:
I just cant really get excited over the Amazon rain forest sorry guys out till next cane season!!!


Considering how crucial it is to our climate, you should.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 585 Comments: 20862
I just cant really get excited over the Amazon rain forest sorry guys out till next cane season!!!
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Quoting Grothar:
If you don't believe me, here is a picture of my bedroom



Did you get that on sale at Ikea or something :)
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Keep in mind that August in Bolivia, being a southern hemisphere country, is usually one of its colder months. The coolest months of the year in La Paz, the capital of Bolivia are usually June and July.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.