Tomas spares Haiti, heads out to sea

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:38 PM GMT on November 06, 2010

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Tropical Storm Tomas is over the open Atlantic, headed away from the islands, and is unlikely to trouble any more land areas. Despite bringing heavy rains of 4 - 8 inches to highly vulnerable Haiti yesterday, flooding from the storm is only being blamed for seven deaths thus far, and Haiti has avoided a flooding catastrophe. More Haitians died (12) last weekend from flooding rains of much lesser amounts, so I think part of the credit for the low death toll during Tomas has to go to the preparedness efforts made in advance of the storm. Many people were removed from flood-prone ravines, and flood control ditches and sandbagging efforts helped stymie flood waters. Luck also played a role--had Tomas tracked just ten miles farther west yesterday morning, the eyewall would have avoided disruption from the rugged terrain on Haiti's southwest peninsula. This would have allowed Tomas to strengthen to a Category 2 storm, and the band of very heavy rain to the south of Port-au-Prince would probably have held together and dumped an additional 2 - 4" of rain on the vulnerable earthquake zone.

Tomas plowed through the southeastern Bahamas and Turks and Caicos islands early this morning as a strong tropical storm, and I anticipate that damage in the islands will be minor. Satellite loops show that the storm remains well organized, but clouds from an approaching cold front can be seen to Tomas' north, and the front is expected to catch up to the storm on Sunday and bring a rapid demise for Tomas.


Figure 1. Early afternoon satellite image of Tomas.

Tomas the second most damaging hurricane in St. Lucia history
Prime Minister Stephenson King announced Thursday that damage on the island of St.Lucia was $185 million--five time higher than earlier estimates. This sum is 19% of St. Lucia's GDP, and is the second most expensive hurricane ever for the island. Tomas damaged 10,000 homes and killed 14 people during its rampage over the island last Saturday. St. Lucia received the full brunt of the northern eyewall of Tomas as it intensified, and the St. Lucia weather service reported that sustained winds of 90 - 95 mph affected the island. Power has been restored to 90% of the island and most of the tourist facilities have reopened, however.

Tomas is the strongest hurricane to affect St. Lucia since Category 1 Hurricane Dean of 2007 brought 90 mph winds to the island. Dean killed one person and did $6.4 million in damage--0.5% of the nation's GDP. The island's strongest hurricane since accurate records began in 1851 was Hurricane Allen of 1980, which struck as a Category 3 hurricane with 130 mph winds. Allen killed 18 people on St.Lucia, and caused catastrophic damage of $235 million dollars ($613 million 2010 dollars.) This was 177% of the nation's GDP that year. The deadliest hurricane in St. Lucia history was the Category 5 Great Hurricane of 1780, which killed approximately 700 people. The Great Hurricane of 1780 was the Atlantic's deadliest hurricane of all-time, with 22,000 fatalities, mostly in the Lesser Antilles Islands.


Figure 2. Damage on St. Lucia from Hurricane Tomas. Image credit: St. Lucia Star.

Organizations Active in Haitian Relief Efforts:
Portlight disaster relief has shipped their mobile kitchen to Quisqueya, Haiti, and the kitchen will be ready to feed 500 people per day.
Lambi Fund of Haiti
Haiti Hope Fund
Catholic Relief Services of Haiti

Next update
I'll have an update Sunday morning.

My post on Haiti's hurricane history is now a permanent link in the "Articles of interest" section on our Tropical & Hurricane web page.

Jeff Masters

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247. plywoodstatenative
3:39 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting IKE:
Sure fire way of knowing this season is about finally finished...this blog is dead.

Plenty of death and destruction this season. Plenty of folks on here that get pissed over someone(like me), downcasting systems. Truth is, death and destruction doesn't turn me on.

Nineteen named systems. Twelve hurricanes. Five majors. The last major was in mid-September.

Most amazing thing to me about this Atlantic season...out of 19...one system actually made landfall in the lower 48 and it was a weak tropical storm way back in July.

Another amazing stat...the eastern PAC....

Seven named systems for the season!



Somehow Ike, I have a feeling mother nature has at least one more gasp before we can declare the season dead. We have already seen one rare storm from a CV wave, who knows what is next. Though I would look at a sub-tropical system more so than anything else.
Member Since: November 15, 2005 Posts: 16 Comments: 4189
246. Orcasystems
3:38 PM GMT on November 07, 2010


Click to enlarge
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
245. raggpr
3:38 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Starting to rain a lot here in puerto rico. 0.18 inches last 15 min. Starting to count lets see how much it rains today. Yesterday it rained 1 inch, the day before 5 inches.
Member Since: September 11, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 245
244. lhwhelk
3:37 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting Thundercloud01221991:



I love the snow... it is so nice to see it
Seeing's all I want to do with snow. I was living near Chicago one year when snow covered the No Parking This Side of Street sign. No fun. Snow is pretty, but I'd rather watch it from a distance. Like about 500+ miles.
Member Since: August 26, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 63
243. IKE
3:36 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting CosmicEvents:
Ike, just keep on doing what you do. I love it. Not much into death and destruction myself. Nothing we can do to prevent it if it happens, but while we wait, I prefer the downcast over the upcast. Have a healthy off-season.


You too and thanks.

19-12-5.

$$
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
242. CosmicEvents
3:34 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting IKE:
Sure fire way of knowing this season is about finally finished...this blog is dead.

Plenty of death and destruction this season. Plenty of folks on here that get pissed over someone(like me), downcasting systems. Truth is, death and destruction doesn't turn me on.

Nineteen named systems. Twelve hurricanes. Five majors. The last major was in mid-September.

Most amazing thing to me about this Atlantic season...out of 19...one system actually made landfall in the lower 48 and it was a weak tropical storm way back in July.

Another amazing stat...the eastern PAC....

Seven named systems for the season!

Ike, just keep on doing what you do. I love it. Not much into death and destruction myself. Nothing we can do to prevent it if it happens, but while we wait, I prefer the downcast over the upcast. Have a healthy off-season.
Member Since: August 3, 2005 Posts: 10 Comments: 5456
241. weatherguy03
3:20 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Thank You!!
Member Since: July 5, 2005 Posts: 589 Comments: 29691
239. hydrus
2:06 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting hurristat:

Hahaha this is the reason I love staying around in the winter -- laughing at cold Floridians (my high yesterday was 40 :P)
We had a high of 45 yesterday...It was 22 this morning...That is a little cool for this time of year. Even up here on the plateau..
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 19494
238. hurristat
1:59 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting surfmom:
36 DEGREES??? IKE -- Torture
wonder if the volcano has mellowed out some.... right now I need to see when we warm up again.... 4 days ago minimal wear to run -- today, leggings hat & gloves....totally interferes with my personal absorption of Sun Beams

Hahaha this is the reason I love staying around in the winter -- laughing at cold Floridians (my high yesterday was 40 :P)
Member Since: October 15, 2008 Posts: 11 Comments: 2305
237. hydrus
1:29 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Trough doing a great job removing energy from the tropics...
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 19494
236. all4hurricanes
1:18 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Hermine hit Texas, maybe she passed over mexico first but she was a tropical storm over Texas
I don't think the blog is an accurate indicator of when the season is over, the blog goes quiet as soon as there is no developing or threatening storms, and MHs, which is most of the time. I still think we'll get to w this year
Member Since: March 29, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2338
235. reedzone
1:16 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting IKE:
Tomas...





Where? All I see is a trough :P
Member Since: July 1, 2008 Posts: 13 Comments: 7334
234. Neapolitan
12:39 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Another weird pattern set up, I see. It's 57 degrees in both the tropics (Havana, Cuba) and the mountain northwest (Boise, Idaho). It's 50 in both Vancouver, Washington, and Guatemala City, Guatemala. San Jose, California--on the cold Pacific--is only a few degrees cooler than San Jose, Costa Rica, which sits in the steamy jungles of Central America.

All I know is that we'll be the low- to mid-80s here again by next weekend, and that makes me a happy guy...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13250
233. WxLogic
12:37 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Good Morning
Member Since: August 14, 2008 Posts: 4 Comments: 4881
232. severstorm
12:29 PM GMT on November 07, 2010

Morning All,Surfmom the cold air is not to far from you,I'm 50 miles to your NE. Be glad you have the gulf close to you.
Member Since: November 25, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 956
231. GeoffreyWPB
12:13 PM GMT on November 07, 2010
Member Since: September 10, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 10576
230. Thundercloud01221991
11:56 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting surfmom:
Wellll, if you like snow -- congrats, otherwise..... my condols
I have never missed the experience.....hard core tropic girl here : )

Do we have any left overs from Tomas to be watching???
MORE IMPORTANT - How did the island of Caicos fair??
oooops forgot the dog..... BRB



I love the snow... it is so nice to see it
Member Since: August 1, 2006 Posts: 28 Comments: 3716
229. aspectre
11:54 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
To the left, HurricaneThomas has been meandering toward Bermuda, but has been predicted to be turning eastnortheast to east later today.
And the red dot to the right is the center of (what-might-become-Victoria) tropical disturbance (that hasn't even been given Invest status as yet) which has been steadily moving west .
Should get interesting if&when West meets East

TS.Tomas
6Nov 09amGMT - 21.9n71.3w - 70mph_(~112.7km/h) - 993mb - NHC.Adv.#33
6Nov 12pmGMT - 22.6n70.9w - 60knots.(~111.1km/h) - 990mb - NHC.Adv.#33A
6Nov 03pmGMT - 23.1n70.6w - 65mph_(~104.6km/h) - 991mb - NHC.Adv.#3
H.Tomas
6Nov 06pmGMT - 23.8n70.3w - 65knots.(~120.4km/h) - 988mb - ATCF
?TS?Tomas
6Nov 09pmGMT - 24.2n70.0w - 65mph_(~104.6km/h) - 991mb - NHC.Adv.#35
H.Tomas
7Nov 12amGMT - 24.9n69.7w - 70knots.(~129.6km/h) - 987mb - ATCF
7Nov 03amGMT - 25.2n69.6w - 80mph_(~128.7km/h) - 986mb - NHC.Adv.#37
7Nov 06amGMT - 26.0n69.0w - 70knots.(~129.6km/h) - 987mb - ATCF
7Nov 09amGMT - 26.2n68.8w - 75mph_(~120.7km/h) - 989mb - NHC.Adv.#38

Copy&paste 21.9n71.3w-22.6n70.9w, 22.6n70.9w-23.1n70.6w, 23.1n70.6w-23.8n70.3w, 23.8n70.3w-24.2n70.0w, 24.2n70.0w-24.9n69.7w, 24.9n69.7w-25.2n69.6w, 25.2n69.6w-26.0n69.0w, 26.0n69.0w-26.2n68.8w, xsc, bda, 28n50w into the GreatCircleMapper for a look at the headings and the distances traveled over the last 12^hours.
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228. IKE
11:51 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Tomas...



Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
227. surfmom
11:46 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting Thundercloud01221991:
I had a burst of snow last night... everything is covered with a dusting of snowfall
Wellll, if you like snow -- congrats, otherwise..... my condols
I have never missed the experience.....hard core tropic girl here : )

Do we have any left overs from Tomas to be watching???
MORE IMPORTANT - How did the island of Caicos fair??
oooops forgot the dog..... BRB
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
226. IKE
11:46 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Yeah...Tomas is getting quickly destroyed in shear/dry-air.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
225. IKE
11:43 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting surfmom:
Bless you for these words, they WARM my spirit!!! -- LOL -- dang the dog is asking to go out...*sigh*.... two more gulps of HOT Coffee & off I go, pleasure having the morning waltz w/you IKE


Have a nice Sunday surfmom! My poodle woke me up at 3 wanting to go out. He's a smart dog. Now watch him lift his leg in my house today!
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
224. Neapolitan
11:42 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
I left not too many hours ago with Tomas back to a hurricane, and see he was still listed as one at the 5AM update. But, my, have things changed: he looks to have ingested--or been injected by--a shot of the cold and dry air he's been holding off for the past several days, and has completely disintegrated, or so it appears: upper-level circulation has ceased, convection has vanished. I think that's the absolute quickest I've ever seen a TC lose all tropical characteristics.

Tomas = no mas...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13250
223. surfmom
11:42 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting IKE:


You'll be back in the lower 80's in a few days.
Bless you for these words, they WARM my spirit!!! -- LOL -- dang the dog is asking to go out...*sigh*.... two more gulps of HOT Coffee & off I go, pleasure having the morning waltz w/you IKE
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
222. Thundercloud01221991
11:40 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
I had a burst of snow last night... everything is covered with a dusting of snowfall
Member Since: August 1, 2006 Posts: 28 Comments: 3716
221. IKE
11:38 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting surfmom:
36 DEGREES??? IKE -- Torture
wonder if the volcano has mellowed out some.... right now I need to see when we warm up again.... 4 days ago minimal wear to run -- today, leggings hat & gloves....totally interferes with my personal absorption of Sun Beams


You'll be back in the lower 80's in a few days.....

Wednesday through Saturday
Partly cloudy. Highs in the lower 80s.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
220. surfmom
11:36 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
36 DEGREES??? IKE -- Torture
wonder if the volcano has mellowed out some.... right now I need to see when we warm up again.... 4 days ago minimal wear to run -- today, leggings hat & gloves....totally interferes with my personal absorption of Sun Beams
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
219. surfmom
11:29 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


2011 hurricane map

POST 183 - EXCELLENT POST !!!!
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
218. IKE
11:20 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting surfmom:
HUMMMMPFH
this blog is dead?????
I may be a bit frosty this AM --- but I ain't dead yet


Oops...sorry:)

Now I'm really getting up early with the time going back an hour!

I'm at 36.1 outside. 78.8 inside.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
217. surfmom
11:18 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
HUMMMMPFH - LOL
this blog is dead?????
I may be a bit frosty this AM --- but I ain't dead yet
Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
216. surfmom
11:17 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Checking in this AM w/ a Wake-Up temp of 49 degree's here in SWFL - SUX - got waves out there this morning -- but after yesterday chilly temps and being outside in the water most of the day (surfers participated in an event for kids w/autism) I just can deal w/anymore cold. Looks like the calorie burner today will be a run --sheesh-- HAT & GLOVES..... bogus tropics

Member Since: July 18, 2007 Posts: 30 Comments: 26536
215. IKE
11:15 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Sure fire way of knowing this season is about finally finished...this blog is dead.

Plenty of death and destruction this season. Plenty of folks on here that get pissed over someone(like me), downcasting systems. Truth is, death and destruction doesn't turn me on.

Nineteen named systems. Twelve hurricanes. Five majors. The last major was in mid-September.

Most amazing thing to me about this Atlantic season...out of 19...one system actually made landfall in the lower 48 and it was a weak tropical storm way back in July.

Another amazing stat...the eastern PAC....

Seven named systems for the season!

Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
214. IKE
10:11 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting KoritheMan:


That particular measurement seems a little odd when compared to this US temperature map:



They always get colder readings at that airport. It's about 25 miles west of me.

I have 36.7 right now.

.............................................

Sunrise/sunset for my location...

Actual Time 6:04 AM CST 4:51 PM CST
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
213. KoritheMan
10:05 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting IKE:
Crestview, Florida (Airport)
Updated: 37 min 57 sec ago
Clear
28 °F

Clear
Humidity: 96%
Dew Point: 27 °F
Wind: Calm
Pressure: 30.41 in (Steady)
Visibility: 10.0 miles
UV: 0 out of 16
Pollen: 2.60 out of 12
Pollen Forecast new!
Clouds:
Clear -
(Above Ground Level)
Elevation: 210 ft


That particular measurement seems a little odd when compared to this US temperature map:

Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 521 Comments: 19109
212. IKE
9:31 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Crestview, Florida (Airport)
Updated: 37 min 57 sec ago
Clear
28 °F

Clear
Humidity: 96%
Dew Point: 27 °F
Wind: Calm
Pressure: 30.41 in (Steady)
Visibility: 10.0 miles
UV: 0 out of 16
Pollen: 2.60 out of 12
Pollen Forecast new!
Clouds:
Clear -
(Above Ground Level)
Elevation: 210 ft
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
211. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
7:13 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
India Meteorological Department
Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #23
SEVERE CYCLONIC STORM JAL (BOB05-2010)
8:30 AM IST November 7 2010
==========================================

SUBJECT: Severe Cyclonic Storm Jal Over Southwest Bay of Bengal

Cyclone Warning for North Tamil Nadu and South Andhra Pradesh Coasts

At 3:00 AM UTC, Severe Cyclonic Storm Jal moved northwestwards and lays centered over southwest Bay of Bengal near 12.0N 83.0E about 420 km north-northeast of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), 320 km east-southeast of Chennai and 400 km southeast of Nellore.

It would move west-northwestwards and cross north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh coasts between Chennai and Nellore by tonight. However, latest observations indicate sign of weakening of the system.

Storm surge of about 1-2 meters above the astronomical tide may inundate the low lying areas of Nellore & Prakasam districts of Andhra Pradesh and Tiruvallur and Chennai districts of Tamil Nadu at the time of landfall.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 48 Comments: 43639
210. remembercleo
6:46 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
204. jurakantaino 5:20 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting sunlinepr:
NAM 84 hrs. New low in the Mona passage


That might be the little feature left behind by our old amigo Tom�sclose to the Columbia/Venezuelan coast, low shear, hot waters,and lots of humid air to feed on...
********************************************
Member Since: November 2, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 103
209. KoritheMan
6:14 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting MScasinojunkie:
what are the chances of having a W storm this year?


I'd say 20%.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 521 Comments: 19109
208. KoritheMan
6:13 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting Orcasystems:
Haiti dodges storm disaster, cholera toll rises


From one extreme to the other...
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 521 Comments: 19109
207. MScasinojunkie
6:09 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
what are the chances of having a W storm this year?
Member Since: September 1, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 44
206. Orcasystems
5:46 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Haiti dodges storm disaster, cholera toll rises
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
205. JLPR2
5:42 AM GMT on November 07, 2010


Looks like a subtropical system in the making.
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8459
204. jurakantaino
5:20 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting sunlinepr:
NAM 84 hrs. New low in the Mona passage

That might be the little feature left behind by our old amigo Tomsclose to the Columbia/Venezuelan coast, low shear, hot waters,and lots of humid air to feed on...
Member Since: July 31, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 730
203. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
4:53 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
India Meteorological Department
Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #22
SEVERE CYCLONIC STORM JAL (BOB05-2010)
5:30 AM IST November 7 2010
==========================================

SUBJECT: Severe Cyclonic Storm Jal Over Southwest Bay Of Bengal

Cyclone Warning for North Tamil Nadu and South Andhra Pradesh Coasts

At 0:00 AM UTC, Severe Cyclonic Storm Jal moved northwestwards and lays centered over southwest Bay of Bengal near 11.5N 83.5E, or about 400 km northeast of Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), 400 km southeast of Chennai and 500 km southeast of Nellore.

3 minute sustained winds near the center is 55 knots with gusts of 65 knots. The central pressure is 988 hPa. The state of the sea is very high around the system's center

Animation of past 24 hours INSAT imagery indicates deep convection and organized cloud mass. The Dvorak intensity is T3.5. Intense to very intense convection over southwest Bay of Bengal in association with the system. Broken intense convection over adjoining west central Bay of Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and south coastal Andhra Pradesh. The lowest cloud top temperature due to convection is around -70 to -80C.

It would move west-northwestwards and cross north Tamil Nadu and south Andhra Pradesh coasts between Puducherry and Nellore close to Chennai by tonight.

Forecast and Intensity
=======================
6 HRS: 12.0N 83.0E - 60 knots (severe cyclonic storm)
12 HRS: 12.5N 82.0E - 60 knots (severe cyclonic storm)
36 HRS: 13.5N 80.0E - 60 knots (severe cyclonic storm)
60 HRS: 15.0N 77.5E - 30 knots (deep depression)

Storm surge of about 1-2 meters above the astronomical tide may inundate the low lying areas of Nellore & Prakasam districts of Andhra Pradesh and Tiruvallur, Chennai & Kanchipuram districts of Tamilnadu at the time of landfall.

Vertical wind shear of horizontal wind over the region is moderate to high. 24 hour tendency of vertical win shear is negative over parts of southwest Bay of Bengal and over east central Bay of Bengal. Sea surface temperature is around 29-31C and ocean heat content over southwest Bay of Bengal is 70-90 kj/cm2. The relative vorticity at 850 HPA level is (15-20*10-5S-1) and upper level divergence (10-20) around the system center is favorable for intensification. The system lies to the south of tropospheric ridge, which roughly runs along 17.0N at 200 HPA level.
Member Since: May 24, 2006 Posts: 48 Comments: 43639
202. remembercleo
4:12 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
i think it has outflow 2 the south now
Member Since: November 2, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 103
201. PcolaDan
4:10 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting PSLFLCaneVet:


Wow, an impressive eruption, w/o fallout? Cool.


I know, slow to respond. On the volcano blog. There is most definitely fallout, just not enough of the gaseous type to cause climate changes, especially in the upper atmosphere. Lots of ash (which generally falls back to earth on it's own or in rain) and hot mud though.
Member Since: August 22, 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 6010
200. sunlinepr
4:05 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Member Since: August 2, 2010 Posts: 21 Comments: 9648
199. sunlinepr
4:04 AM GMT on November 07, 2010
Quoting watchingnva:


wow tf...hate to say it, but that was a pitiful comment...


Same situation considered in 170 and 194
Member Since: August 2, 2010 Posts: 21 Comments: 9648

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About JeffMasters

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.