Tomas gradually strengthening; 14 dead in St. Lucia from the storm

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:58 PM GMT on November 02, 2010

Share this Blog
4
+

The islands of St. Lucia, Barbados, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines continue to assess damage and clean up after Hurricane Tomas pounded the Lesser Antilles as a strengthening Category 1 hurricane with 90 - 95 mph winds on Saturday. St. Lucia was hardest hit, with fourteen people dead, many more missing, and damage estimated at $100 million--about 10% of the nation's GDP. Damage on neighboring St. Vincent was estimated at $62 million, which is 4% of that nation's GDP. The storm damaged 1,200 houses, and the northern half of the island, where most of the crops are, was badly hit, with no banana trees left standing and the plantain crop wiped out. Banana production employs 60% of the workforce on St. Vincent, and accounts for more than 50% of their exports. Also hard-hit was Barbados, where damage estimates are at $55 million, 1.5% of the nation's GDP. Tomas may be the most damaging storm to affect the island since Hurricane Janet of 1955. The havoc wreaked by Tomas in the Lesser Antilles makes is likely that the name Tomas will be retired from the list of active hurricane names in the Atlantic.


Figure 1. Torrential rains from Tomas triggered massive flooding on St. Lucia that destroyed several bridges and severely damaged roads. Image credit: St. Lucia Star.

Tomas gradually strengthening
Satellite loops of Tomas show a considerably more organized storm than yesterday, with a modest but increasing amount of heavy thunderstorm activity. However, low-level spiral bands are limited, and upper-level outflow is weak, and Tomas is not in danger of building an eyewall today. Curacao radar shows that the echoes from Tomas are disorganized, with no spiral banding apparent. Wind shear has declined to a moderate 10 -15 knots and the atmosphere in the Caribbean has moistened over the past day, allowing Tomas to re-organize. A hurricane hunter aircraft is on its way to Tomas this morning, and will have a better estimate of the storm's strength by early this afternoon.


Figure 2. Curacao radar at 10:07am EDT on Tuesday, November 2, 2010, showed a large area of rain associated with Tomas over the central Caribbean, but these echoes were poorly organized.

Track forecast for Tomas
The ridge of high pressure pushing Tomas to the west has weakened, allowing Tomas to slow down slightly to a forward speed of 10 mph this morning. This speed will decrease further to 5 mph tonight, as a trough of low pressure approaches the eastern U.S. and breaks down the ridge. By Wednesday, the trough to Tomas' north should be able to pull the storm to the northwest. Tomas' outer spiral bands will bring heavy rains to southwestern Haiti and eastern Jamaica beginning on Thursday night. The computer models have come into better agreement that Tomas will turn more to the north-northeast by Friday, with Haiti or Jamaica the most likely landfall locations. NHC is giving Port-au-Prince, Haiti, a 50% chance of receiving tropical storm force winds, and a 6% chance of hurricane force winds. These odds are 45% and 7%, respectively for Kingston, Jamaica, and 23% and 3% for Santo Domingo in the Dominican Republic.

Tomas may stall
The models are increasingly suggesting the once Tomas begins moving to the north-northeast, the trough pulling the storm that direction will lift out, stranding Tomas in a region of weak steering currents. Tomas may then wander and dump heavy rains for several days, Saturday through Monday. Given recent model trends, I believe this is likely, but the exact location where Tomas might be stranded is uncertain. The NOGAPS model gives a nightmare scenario for Haiti, with Tomas remaining stationary just off the coast from Port-Au-Prince as a hurricane for many days. The UKMET stalls Tomas over the Turk and Caicos Islands, while the GFS, GFDL, and ECMWF models predict Tomas will stall several hundred miles north of Hispaniola and drift eastwards. It's reasonable to go with the model consensus and predict Tomas will pass over western Haiti and stall far enough north of the nation so that heavy rains will not linger over Hispaniola for many days. The uncertainties in the track forecast are greater than usual, though.

Intensity forecast for Tomas
Wind shear as diagnosed by the SHIPS model has dropped to the moderate range, 10 - 15 knots, and is predicted to stay low to moderate, 5 - 15 knots, for the remainder of the week. The relaxation of shear should allow Tomas to continue to re-organize over the next few days. Aiding this process will be an increasingly moist atmosphere. Dry air has decreased significantly over the past 24 hours, as seen on water vapor satellite imagery, and the models predict a very moist atmosphere will surround Tomas for the remainder of the week. With SSTs at a record warm 29.5°C and a very high ocean heat content, there is a substantial danger that Tomas will undergo a period of rapid intensification once it rebuilds its inner core and establishes an eyewall. This is not likely to happen today, but could occur as early as Wednesday night. This may give Tomas sufficient time to intensify into a major hurricane before landfall in Haiti or Jamaica, as predicted by the GFDL model. The most reasonable intensity forecast at this point is to call for a landfall on Friday at Category 2 strength, but Tomas could easily be anywhere from Category 1 to Category 3 hurricane strength on Friday. NHC is giving Tomas a 19% chance of reaching Category 3+ strength; I believe these odds are higher, 40%. With the atmosphere expected to be very moist, it is likely that Tomas will dump very heavy rains of 4 - 8 inches over much of Haiti, even if Tomas strikes as a tropical storm. Rains of this magnitude are capable of causing heavy loss of life due to extreme floods running down Haiti's deforested mountain slopes. Portlight.org is preparing to send their mobile kitchen with enough food to feed 500 people per day, if Tomas continues on its current forecast path.


Figure 3. Plot of all Category 1 and stronger hurricanes to pass within 50 miles of Barbados since reliable record keeping began in 1851. Image credit: NOAA Coastal Services Center.

Barbados hurricane history
Tomas is the strongest hurricane to affect Barbados since Category 3 Hurricane Allen of 1980, which passed just north of the island. Allen did $4 million in damage, compared to Tomas' $55 million. The deadliest hurricane in Barbados history was the Category 5 Great Hurricane of 1780, which killed approximately 4500 people on the island, and leveled every building, including the stone governor's mansion. The Great Hurricane of 1780 was also the Atlantic's deadliest hurricane of all-time, with 22,000 fatalities, mostly in the Lesser Antilles Islands.

Next update
I'll have an update Wednesday morning.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 408 - 358

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21Blog Index

Dozens of small groups are doing great work in Haiti...including the Lambi Fund and JP HRO...and Portlight, of course...also, many of thhe church related groups are doing good work..the Red Cross and UN have not been very effective and are not very popular with the people there in the greatest need...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Does anyone know what the rationale is for this northerly trajectory-projection to the Outer Banks?



Thanks in advance.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Met Service of jamaica website

Tuesday, November 2, 2010 at 4:00 p.m.

BULLETIN No: 12 / Hurricane watch in effect for Jamaica

HURRICANE WATCH NOW IN EFFECT FOR JAMAICA

A Hurricane Watch is now in effect for Jamaica as Tropical Storm Tomas moves on a track that is forecast to take it close to the east coast as a Category 2 hurricane. This means that hurricane conditions pose a possible threat within 48 hours.

At 4:00 p.m. the centre of Tropical Storm Tomas was located near Latitude 13.5 degrees North, Longitude 74.6 degrees West; about 520 km (320 miles) south-southeast of Morant Point, Jamaica or 620 km (385 miles) south-southwest of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

Tomas continues to move towards the west near 22 km/h (14 mph) but a turn towards the west-northwest and northwest with a decrease in forward speed is expected during the next 48 hours.

Maximum sustained winds are near 65 km/h (40 mph), with higher gusts. Strengthening is forecast and Tomas could regain hurricane strength by Thursday. Tropical Storm force winds extend outward up to 165 km (105 miles) from the centre.

Satellite imagery indicates that the area of showers and thunderstorms associated with Tomas has expanded over the past 6-12 hours. As the system slows down and strengthens during the next 48 hours, expect outer bands to start affecting southern and northeastern parishes of Jamaica. Tomas is expected to be closest to the island on Friday morning and there is a chance that hurricane force winds will be experienced over eastern sections of the country at that time. Above-normal wave heights should be expected over coastal areas of northern and southeastern parishes.

Northeasterly winds are forecast to increase to gale force over southern waters by Thursday and could gradually become near-northerly at hurricane force. All small craft, including fishers from the cays and banks, should now be arriving in port to start preparations for safe harbour.

The Meteorological Service continues to monitor the progress of this system, and all interests should pay special attention to further Releases.

The next Bulletin on Tropical Storm Tomas will be issued at 8:00 p.m. today.


egt
Member Since: August 17, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 672
I very rarely doubt the NHC, but if Tomas makes the CURRENT TRACK they are showing right NOW.... I will be more amazed by thier skill Than ever before!
Quoting aprinz1979:


Is there an internet site to donate?

Portlight Strategies, their direct link:

Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
That closed low is about to go right over me... im looking for rain and wind in about 20 minutes although we already have that now. Lol
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
I can see it now at this very minute Tomas COC is at 13.5N 75.1W and is moving Westbound
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
portlight.org Wunderground Featured Blog





Member Since: Posts: Comments:
400. TX2FL
Portlight folks-a very good friend of mine is from St. Lucia...will see if I can get some info about a contact for aid.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
If you are Canadian, the Canadian Government has a program where they will match all Canadian donations dollar for dollar.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
Quoting largeeyes:
Portlight: Any recommendations on who can be donated to to help St. Lucia?

heartbreaking video: Link


Donate to UNICEF

UNICEF is deploying clean water and sanitation supplies, therapeutic foods, medical supplies and temporary shelter to Jacmel and Port-au-Prince. UNICEF will also be focusing on children who have become separated from their families to protect them from harm or exploitation.
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
Quoting Bordonaro:

ALL OF IT..If any can donate PLEASE do so.


Is there an internet site to donate?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
TOMAS
Rainbow

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting scott39:
Sarcasm flag up! The NHC will not take the track off Haiti until its in CA.
...been sayn for 3 days now tommys CA bound imo
Member Since: October 5, 2007 Posts: 20 Comments: 4970
Quoting scott39:
This is true.


Not long now before the present steering regime collapses and the flow switches out of the SW. Tomas should slow tonight, possibly to a crawl then start accelerating to the WNW, NW, N and finally off to the NNE

Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 15671
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


NHC can't declare it for other nations.

"THE GOVERNMENT OF JAMAICA HAS ISSUED A HURRICANE WATCH FOR JAMAICA."

once that occurs the NHC is obligated to do IA's. im sure the NHC and Jamaican Gov't have been on the phone though.


"Hi, this is the NHC."

"Yes, man?"

"You have to put up hurricane warnings. Tomas is on it's way."

"I and I'll take care of it. Jah bless."
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
HURRICANE TOMAS


We are watching the forecasts for Hurricane Tomas in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The NHC gives the storm a chance at making landfall somewhere in Haiti; given that nearly a million and a half people are still living in tents a landfall would be a major catastrophe. Portlight is poised to respond to this situation if it happens and we are ready to commit our resources to provide any assistance that may be necessary.


portlight.org Wunderground Featured Blog





Portlight and it wunderground supporters and those worldwide have made the relief mission to Haiti post Earthquake a reality and continues to this day.



The following is an open letter from Richard Lumarque, the extraordinary man who headed up our field team in Haiti after the earthquake in January. For those of you who followed our efforts in the aftermath of the earthquake you will remember the amazing job that Richard, his cousin Tabitha and their team did in the early days; they worked miracles and without them we would have accomplished a mere fraction of what we did.




Portlight Featured Wunderground Entry


Richard in Haiti earlier this year doing the Best of Works..






Help us Bring some Joy to those without much this season..




HAITI TOYS FOR CHRISTMAS DREAM



Dear Paul,


I want to start by thanking you for the interest and sincere caring your organization has shown to the underprivileged and poor people of the island of Haiti.


After being devastated by the earthquake of January 12th of this year where countless people lost their lives and forcing countless men, women and children to live in sub-human conditions, the survivors are now faced with an outbreak of cholera that threatens all of them. With the holidays coming, we want, once again, to come up with a way to give these people a ray of hope. We want to remind them that Portlight Strategies and the good-hearted people of America have not forgotten about them; we want them to know that we share their pain and suffering.


If you watch the news as I do, you will see that the big NGOs with millions of dollars in donations are still facing the same difficulties they have since the earthquake: supplies are locked up in warehouses and not being distributed in a timely manner to help the people that need these supplies the most. After doing some research on how we can make a difference for the Holidays, I think we can accomplish the following objective:


The Sean Penn foundation had taken a special interest in a camp located in the city of Petionville that holds about 40,000 of the homeless. He started a school for primary education which provides about 250 primary school students an opportunity for a quality education. The school was being cared for by another NGO but they too stopped providing the necessary funds to sustain the school. University Quisqueya up to now has been sustaining the operation of the school which employs 8 to 10 teachers with a salary of $400.00US for each teacher. The University is also facing difficult times as the entire University%u2019s buildings had been destroyed by the earthquake.


There is also a school on the outskirts of the city of Jacmel called Centre Educatif de Fond Jean-Noel that provides education for about 600 students from Kindergarten through High School; the students%u2019 ages vary from 5 to 18 years old. They even have a computer lab. That school was also supported by the efforts of the University Quisqueya and again, the funding has dried up. Soon, these 800 students will be without any opportunity for organized education unless we do something. These children are in desperate need of our help.


My dream is to be able to raise enough funds to pay for the salary of about 12 to 15 teachers for the next year. $5,000.00US a month for 12 months = $60,000.00US. In addition to the salaries for the staff, they need all kinds of school supplies; backpacks, pens, pencils, notepads and even lunch boxes. My further hope is to raise enough to buy some simple Christmas presents for about 800 students to bring a small ray of hope to these children whose lives have been forever changed by this tragedy.


Also, Haiti has been without electricity for about a month now. They need good quality flashlights, batteries and lanterns to sustain them. The kids are so desperate for a decent education that they are willing to learn with a lamp.


In the face of this devastation, we can make a difference. The key to the future of Haiti will be the children we educate today; these children are the future leaders of Haiti. They can lead these people to progress, democracy and a government without corruption but only if they receive the education that we in America take for granted.


I pray that we can find God%u2019s Grace and Blessing in this endeavor and accomplish this task. We have very little time to accomplish this task but if we give of ourselves, we can do it.


Thank you for all your support, love and caring. God bless Portlight and God Bless the United States of America.

Sincerely,

Richard Lumarque
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Can anyone help me with my filter. It is showing only average and I cant get it to stay on show all? TIA
"According to the financial information filed with this office, this organization devoted 100.0% of its total expenses to program services during the year reported."

Thats great guys, keep it up!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hurristat:


He's not wishing a cat 5 upon Florida, he's mocking those that always forecast Florida within the cone at the highest possible intensity for the longest time possible, who do in fact exist on this blog (sammywammybamy, I'm looking at you).


we call em floridacasters. relatives to the gomcasters
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting kmanislander:


Well, so far Tomas has defied the forecast track so let's see if he does it once again LOL
This is true.
Quoting largeeyes:
Portlight: Any recommendations on who can be donated to to help St. Lucia?

heartbreaking video: Link


If we can establish a contact relief org or person there,in Country,..a relief channel maybe could be arranged.

Ill pass the request on to Presslord.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
ok guys I am now home from working at the Met office long day from 8:35am -4:00pm anyway I see the Jamaican have their Hurricane Watches up I still think that it would make landfall on Jamaica or just pass West of them
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting roleli:
NHC puts Jamaica on a Hurricane Watch. Nothing officially from the Government of local met office..


NHC can't declare it for other nations.

"THE GOVERNMENT OF JAMAICA HAS ISSUED A HURRICANE WATCH FOR JAMAICA."

once that occurs the NHC is obligated to do IA's. im sure the NHC and Jamaican Gov't have been on the phone though.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
check it out
Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting roleli:
NHC puts Jamaica on a Hurricane Watch. Nothing officially from the Government of local met office..

"THE GOVERNMENT OF JAMAICA HAS ISSUED A HURRICANE WATCH FOR JAMAICA." The NHC cannot put us under anything, it's our govt.
Member Since: May 16, 2009 Posts: 1 Comments: 1231
Max Mayfield on channel 10 in fort lauderdale fl. just said that if this storm continuse west for 24 hours then south florida could be under the gun. its a wait and see situation. the northwest movement is supposed to start tonight and into tomorrow. if this does not happen , then again south florida could be in the cone
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting scott39:
Yes, I guess the next question is wouldnt Tomas have to start turning very soon, and slow down alot, to only go that 1 degree from the point he is at right now? It sped up from the 11am advisory and is still going due W. Your explanation was great by the way!


Well, so far Tomas has defied the forecast track so let's see if he does it once again LOL
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 15671

Tomas has a splitting headache.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Portlight: Any recommendations on who can be donated to to help St. Lucia?

heartbreaking video: Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WeatherNerdPR:

They were once a french territory, you'd think the Nation that let them go would help them in this situation.


Considering Haiti proclaimed its own independence in 1804 the French might need a lot of persuading about that.
Member Since: August 19, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 15671
NHC puts Jamaica on a Hurricane Watch. Nothing officially from the Government of local met office..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting kmanislander:


The problem you are having is thinking of a straight line motion only. Firstly, no tropical system ever travels in a straight line.

Tomas is forecasted to travel in a WNW direction between the two forecasted positions which likely explains why it seemingly takes so long to cover one degree. Think of it this way. If Tomas was on a NNW heading from 75 degrees just think how long it would take and how many miles it would travel to the NNW before hitting the 76 degree line. In a straight line to the West approximately 60 miles to be covered. On a NNW heading several times that.

Couple that with the fact that Tomas is expected to slow.

Does this help ?
Yes, I guess the next question is wouldnt Tomas have to start turning very soon, and slow down alot, to only go that 1 degree from the point he is at right now? It sped up from the 11am advisory and is still going due W. Your explanation was great by the way!
Quoting roleli:
Watching Tomas closely... get the feeling some shutters going up today in preparation....

levi32 analysis has been great. I must say I have enjoyed them.

We're under a hurricane watch so it would be wise to begin preps.
Member Since: May 16, 2009 Posts: 1 Comments: 1231
portlight.org

Hurricane Tomas



We are watching the forecasts for Hurricane Tomas in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The NHC gives the storm a chance at making landfall somewhere in Haiti; given that nearly a million and a half people are still living in tents a landfall would be a major catastrophe. Portlight is poised to respond to this situation if it happens and we are ready to commit our resources to provide any assistance that may be necessary.








Help Portlight with its push for "Xmas in Haiti"







CHRISTMAS IN HAITI

We began this year making a difference in Haiti in the months following the January 12 earthquake. Your contributions provided food, shelter, and water, as well as medical care, equipment and supplies for thousands of Haitians. We cut through bureaucratic red tape and made a significant direct impact.

But it's important to remember: there is still much suffering in Haiti. Over one million people, including tens of thousands of children, are still living in makeshift tent camps. Hope is scarce.

So...let's bring some Holiday Joy to Haiti's children. Let's end this year as we began it: making a difference in Haiti.

What: Christmas in Haiti It is a simple concept. We want to provide Christmas presents for Haitian children living in camps.

When: Over the next two months.

Where: Refugee camps in Haiti

Who: As many children in as many camps as we are able to serve.

How: Well...that's up to you. A contribution of $20 will provide a present for one child. The extent of our reach will depend upon the budget we raise. Our dream is to serve thousands. We'd love to arrange for Santa to visit some of the camps.

Please remember the children of Haiti this Christmas. Please support Christmas in Haiti with your thoughts, prayers...and, of course, your financial contribution.

You can use the PayPal button at www.portlight.org

Or you can make your check payable to: Portlight Strategies, Inc.

and send it to us at: 2043 Maybank Charleston SC 29412

Also....PLEASE share this message...forward it to your e-mail lists, post it to your Facebook page, Tweet it...whatever it takes to spread the story of our work.

Thank you for your faith in these efforts!!!!






A look back to Portlights 2008 Xmas Party for the Bridge City,Texas residents post Hurricane Ike.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bordonaro:

They are an independent country..

They were once a french territory, you'd think the Nation that let them go would help them in this situation.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting HurricaneDean07:
not to mention Haiti is a french territory and i dont think france has given them aid either.

Actually Haiti has been independent from France for about 200 years there's not really that much of a connection anymore
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Complete Update

Models are all updated... still calling for a CAT 3 on some of them.



AOI
AOI AOI AOI

AOI AOI AOI

TSPIN BUSTED FORECAST ALIBI
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26493
Quoting Bordonaro:

Haiti is in a state of mass chaos. Almost NONE of the promised billion plus USD have made it to Haiti. People are sick any dying, their nation is a literally hanging on by a thread.


itll be anarchy if a major goes through there, they need a leader
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting HurricaneDean07:
not to mention Haiti is a french territory and i dont think france has given them aid either.

They are an independent country..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
TAKE a look at his Gigantic Water spout in the Gom - will be declared an f50 Tornado when it hits land .....
:)

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bordonaro:

ALL OF IT..If any can donate PLEASE do so.


thank goodness, Ive donated before and will do it again.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bordonaro:

Haiti is in a state of mass chaos. Almost NONE of the promised billion plus USD have made it to Haiti. People are sick any dying, their nation is a literally hanging on by a thread.
not to mention Haiti is a french territory and i dont think france has given them aid either.
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
Quoting Inactivity:
What is keeping Tomas from Strengthening?

Per the NHC 5 PM Forecast Discussion:

OR AT LEAST LACK OF STRENGTHENING...OF
TOMAS IS LIKELY DUE TO MID-LEVEL DRY AIR...SOME WESTERLY
SHEAR...AND PERHAPS THE PROXIMITY TO SOUTH AMERICA.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Watching Tomas closely... get the feeling some shutters going up today in preparation....

levi32 analysis has been great. I must say I have enjoyed them.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:
So if Jamaica issues a Hurricane Watch, why not Haiti?!?! they need all the prep time they can get right? Its stupid... and then Haiti cries about things, I am sorry if they don't issue one by 11pm ill feel sorry for the people, but i wouldn't give a dime of aid to the government, give it directly to the people.

Haiti is in a state of mass chaos. Almost NONE of the promised billion plus USD have made it to Haiti. People are sick any dying, their nation is a literally hanging on by a thread.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
It seems to me that Tomas is building a new center on the east side right now. As he is very large he needs to "scale off" all extra weight he is carrying on right now before he can strengthens...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 408 - 358

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21Blog Index

Top of Page

About JeffMasters

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Overcast
48 °F
Overcast