Unprecedented Hurricane Tomas pounding the Lesser Antilles

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:38 PM GMT on October 30, 2010

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Hurricane Tomas, an unprecedented Lesser Antilles hurricane for so late in the season, is bearing down on the islands of St. Lucia and St. Vincent with Category 1 winds of 75 mph. Recent radar imagery from the Martinique radar shows that Tomas is still in the organizing stage, with an eyewall that just closed off, and a weak area of echoes on the south side, due to modest wind shear of 10 knots caused by southerly upper-level winds. The Hurricane Hunters reported top surface winds in the northern eyewall near 75 mph. St.Lucia figures to get the worst blow from Tomas, as this island will experience the strong right-front quadrant of the storm--the north eyewall. Winds on the island were sustained at 46 mph, gusting to 67 mph, at 11am EDT. Winds at Barbados peaked at 37 mph, gusting to 56 mph, early this morning, and the pressure bottomed out at 994 mb. Satellite loops of Tomas show a large and well-organized Cape Verdes-type hurricane, with good upper level outflow on all sides except the south, and an impressive amount of heavy thunderstorm activity. This is a very dangerous hurricane that is just beginning to get going. You can follow the progress of Tomas through the islands today with our wundermap zoomed in on St. Lucia.


Figure 1. Morning radar image from the Martinique radar shows the eye of Tomas moving between the islands of St, Lucia to the north and St. Vincent and the Grenadines to the south. The southern portion of the eyewall had just closed off with this image. Image credit: Meteo France.

Intensity forecast for Tomas
Now that the eyewall of Tomas has completely closed off, a period of steady and possibly rapid intensification lasting until Sunday afternoon is likely. The intensification rate may then be slowed by an increasing flow of southwesterly upper-level winds, which are expected to bring dry air and a moderate 15 - 20 knots of wind shear to Tomas Sunday through Tuesday, according to the latest SHIPS model forecast. Shear is then expected to relent, allowing more intensification on Wednesday. Water temperatures are a record warm 29.5°C and the Tropical Cyclone Heat Potential--a measure of the total heat content of the ocean--is a very high 100 kJ/cm^2, which is very favorable for rapid intensification. I expect the Tomas will strengthen to a Category 3 or 4 hurricane by Wednesday.


Figure 2. Hurricane specialists Robbie Berg (background) and Dan Brown (foreground) discuss the latest data on Tomas last night at the National Hurricane Center.

Track forecast for Tomas
The computer models have come into better agreement this morning that after Tomas reaches the central Caribbean 4 - 5 days from now, a turn to the north or northeast is likely, in response to a strong trough of low pressure expected to develop over the Eastern U.S. The exact timing of this turn to the north or northeast is difficult to predict at this time, as steering currents will be weak in the Caribbean after Tomas passes through the Lesser Antilles today and Sunday. At this time, is appears that the Dominican Republic and Haiti are most at risk from a strike by Tomas, though the storm could move as far west as Jamaica, or as far east as the northern Lesser Antilles Islands.


Figure 3. Hurricane specialist Dan Brown computes Tomas' radius of tropical storm force winds using the old-fashioned paper track plot and dividers technique. Hurricane specialists at NHC commonly use a paper track plot to mark all storm center fixes and compute the current motion of the storm. A storm's current heading and speed in NHC advisories is usually a 12-hour average of the motion up until the final fix position.

Tomas, Shary, and the 2010 hurricane season in perspective
Tomas' formation ties 2010 with 1995 and 1887 for 3rd place for most number of named storms in an Atlantic hurricane season. Only 2005 (28 named storms) and 1933 (21 named storms) were busier. Atlantic hurricane records go back to 1851, though there were likely many missed named storms prior to the beginning of satellite coverage in the mid-1960s. The intensification of Shary and Tomas into hurricanes today brings the total number of hurricanes this season to twelve, tying 2010 with 1969 and 1887 for second place for most hurricanes in a season. The record is held by 2005 with fifteen hurricanes, and I don't think we'll beat that record this year!

The formation of Tomas so far south and east this late in the season is unprecedented in the historical record; no named storm has ever been present east of the Lesser Antilles (61.5°W) and south of 12°N latitude so late in the year. Hurricane Six of 1896 came close--it was also a tropical storm south of 12°N and east of 61.5°W on October 29, but nine hours earlier in the day. That storm recurved to the north and missed the Lesser Antilles. Tomas' track through the southern Lesser Antilles so late in the year is unprecedented. There have been only two other tropical storms that formed after October 15 south of 12°N and east of 61.5°W: Hurricane Jose, which was a tropical storm in that region on October 18, 1999, and Tropical Storm Nicolas, on October 16, 2003. Tomas most reminds me of a storm I flew into with the Hurricane Hunters--Hurricane Joan of 1988, which was a tropical storm on October 14 near Tomas' current location, and later strengthened into a Category 4 hurricane that hit Nicaragua. According to Chenoweth (2008), Tomas is the first tropical storm to cross through the Lesser Antilles Islands south of 16°N this late in the year since 1724. In that year, a tropical storm on 12 November crossed the islands at 13.7°N 61.5°W, and later became a hurricane that affected Jamaica. There was also a hurricane on 30 October 1671 that crossed 61.5°W at 13.3°N, and did damage on Barbados.

Another unusual aspect of Tomas' formation is that we now have two simultaneous hurricanes in the Atlantic Ocean on October 30. There has been only one hurricane season since 1851 that had had two simultaneous hurricanes later in the year--1932, when Hurricane Ten and Hurricane Eleven both existed November 7 - 10. Today is also the 5th latest date in the season that there have been two simultaneous named storms in the Atlantic. The record was set way back in 1887, when Hurricane Eighteen and Tropical Storm Nineteen were both active on December 8. There were three years that had simultaneous November named storms: 1932, 1961, and 2001.

References
Chenoweth, M. and D. Divine (2008), "A document-based 318-year record of tropical cyclones in the Lesser Antilles, 1690-2007", Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems, 9, doi:10.1029/2008GC002066.

Next update
I'll have more on Sunday by 3pm EDT. I'm headed home to Michigan today, after a very valuable week here at the National Hurricane Center. The experience gave me a new appreciatation for just how good the forecasters are at what they do. NHC's hurricane experts are truly world-class, and we are very fortunate to have such a talented group of hard-working forecasters keeping us informed on the dangers we face from Atlantic hurricanes.

Jeff Masters

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943. JRRP
Quoting sunlinepr:
Dr. Masters usually refers to RD highest mountains effect on Hurricanes....

The 15 Highest Major Mountain Peaks of the Caribbean Rank?
1 Pico Duarte[1] PB Dominican Republic Island of Hispaniola 3098.0003098 m
10,164 feet


2 Loma Alto de la Bandera PB Dominican Republic Island of Hispaniola 2842.0002842 m
9,324 feet

3 Pic la Selle[2] PB Haiti Island of Hispaniola 2680.0002680 m
8,793 feet 2650.0002650 m

4 Pic Macaya PB Haiti Island of Hispaniola 2347.0002347 m
7,700 feet 2087.0002087 m

5 Loma Gajo en Medio PB Dominican Republic Island of Hispaniola 2279.0002279 m
7,477 feet 1779.0001779 m

6 Blue Mountain Peak[3] PB Jamaica Island of Jamaica 2256.0002256 m
7,402 feet 2256.0002256 m

7 Pico Real del Turquino[4] PB Cuba Island of Cuba 1974.0001974 m
6,476 feet 1974.0001974 m

8 La Grande Soufrière[5] PB Guadeloupe île de Basse-Terre 1467.0001467 m
4,813 feet 1467.0001467 m

9 Morne Diablotins[6] PB Dominica Island of Dominica 1447.0001447 m
4,747 feet 1447.0001447 m

10 Montagne Pelée[7] PB Martinique Island of Martinique 1397.0001397 m
4,583 feet 1397.0001397 m

11 Cerro de Punta[8] PB Puerto Rico Island of Puerto Rico 1338.0721338 m
4,390 feet 1338.0721338 m

12 Gran Piedra PB Cuba Island of Cuba 1249.0001249 m
4,098 feet

13 La Soufrière[9] PB Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Island of Saint Vincent 1234.0001234 m
4,049 feet


14 Mount Liamuiga[10] PB Saint Kitts and Nevis Island of Saint Kitts 1156.0001156 m
3,793 feet

15 Pico San Juan PB Cuba Island of Cuba 1140.0001140 m
3,740 feet

Loma Nalga de Maco tambn sobre los 2000 metros de altura
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 5681
Quoting tj175:


Why r u worried Tampa?


Look at the model above i just posted. That is a very reliable model. Tomas misses the Trough and high pressure sets back in sending Tomas toward Western Cuba then ......that would not be good for others and better for others.
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Quoting TampaSpin:


Just might miss it the way the model i just posted shows......NOT GOOD FOR YOU AT ALL MY FRIEND!


Still lots of liquid real estate to be covered before getting to me LOL
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940. SLU
Very disturbing news of possible loss of life starting to come out of St. Lucia.

Just got off the phone with my brother and the rain continues to hammer down in St. Lucia. This makes it about 5 hours of heavy and continuous rains on top of moderate and persistent rain from about 6 or 7am this morning.

He also told me that the Choc bridge, along the Castries/Gros Islet Highway, has collapsed with a vehicle on it trying to cross and the vehicle also fell into the river. And another vehicle got trapped under a bridge an it is believed to have had people onboard. Also a minibus caught fire and I was told that someone was also in the vehicle. All of this is not official since information coming out of St. Lucia is very, very limited given that all radio stations are off air and there is an islandwide power failure.
Member Since: July 13, 2006 Posts: 12 Comments: 5035
Quoting weatherwatcher12:
Anyone know why the models are showing a completely different solution than the NHC?


Yes the models will be trending more to the west as NHC shows. The models this time of year tend to overplay troughs and underplay High Pressure. Remember what the models did to Richard and where he ended up going. Same thing except just further North. They know this time of year what the model tendency is as some of us do as well this time of year.
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938. tj175
Quoting TampaSpin:
Evening everyone.....Kinda worried about some of these model trends tonite.


Why r u worried Tampa?
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Quoting Stormchaser2007:
A Halloween hurricane

Last one was Hurricane Noel in 2007




noel in 2007 was a big disaster here in Dominican Republic.... I see the same tragedy coming
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936. amd
Quoting weatherwatcher12:

Figured, just looked strange to me. Possibly the models overdoing the longwave.


Bolded the most important part. Since we are in a strong la nina, the longwave trough will not be as strong nor as deep as originally estimated by the models.

That's not to say that the system will not curve north, because if it interacts with Haiti/DR, then all bets are off in terms of future track, but IMO, it seems more likely that long term, the Euro model is handling the trough and the low pressure along the east coast like it should be handled during a strong la nina.
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Dr. Masters usually refers to RD highest mountains effect on Hurricanes.... Can they really degrade a Hurricane ?

The 15 Highest Major Mountain Peaks of the Caribbean Rank?
1 Pico Duarte[1] PB Dominican Republic Island of Hispaniola 3098.0003098 m
10,164 feet


2 Loma Alto de la Bandera PB Dominican Republic Island of Hispaniola 2842.0002842 m
9,324 feet

3 Pic la Selle[2] PB Haiti Island of Hispaniola 2680.0002680 m
8,793 feet 2650.0002650 m

4 Pic Macaya PB Haiti Island of Hispaniola 2347.0002347 m
7,700 feet 2087.0002087 m

5 Loma Gajo en Medio PB Dominican Republic Island of Hispaniola 2279.0002279 m
7,477 feet 1779.0001779 m

6 Blue Mountain Peak[3] PB Jamaica Island of Jamaica 2256.0002256 m
7,402 feet 2256.0002256 m

7 Pico Real del Turquino[4] PB Cuba Island of Cuba 1974.0001974 m
6,476 feet 1974.0001974 m

8 La Grande Soufrire[5] PB Guadeloupe le de Basse-Terre 1467.0001467 m
4,813 feet 1467.0001467 m

9 Morne Diablotins[6] PB Dominica Island of Dominica 1447.0001447 m
4,747 feet 1447.0001447 m

10 Montagne Pele[7] PB Martinique Island of Martinique 1397.0001397 m
4,583 feet 1397.0001397 m

11 Cerro de Punta[8] PB Puerto Rico Island of Puerto Rico 1338.0721338 m
4,390 feet 1338.0721338 m

12 Gran Piedra PB Cuba Island of Cuba 1249.0001249 m
4,098 feet

13 La Soufrire[9] PB Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Island of Saint Vincent 1234.0001234 m
4,049 feet


14 Mount Liamuiga[10] PB Saint Kitts and Nevis Island of Saint Kitts 1156.0001156 m
3,793 feet

15 Pico San Juan PB Cuba Island of Cuba 1140.0001140 m
3,740 feet
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Quoting mbjjm:
Trinidad never really has to worry about hurricanes, they are outside of the hurricane zone ,too far south to get the spin going.


Its the rain am worried about, we cant take another drop,15 minutes of rain and its water everywhere, I think people are just about fed up with cleaning their homes, just to be flooded out again in a weeks time, so I do hope that Tomas tail floats away just like he did and not bring us any rain
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Quoting kmanislander:


Trough heading ENE near the four corners region. Needs to start digging to the SE soon

West coast WV loop


Just might miss it the way the model i just posted shows......NOT GOOD FOR YOU AT ALL MY FRIEND!
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Hello all! I have been reading this blog for months now to learn more about weather patterns and anomalies and thought that I should join in. At the moment my question is- Does FL have a good chance of seeing something from Tomas? I live in central Fl and we have been fairly lucky for 2 years now, but it seems as though our luck might run out with this one. Any thoughts?
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Some seriously high hot towers near the center of Tomas now, expect 100 to 105 MPH at the next advisory.
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
Quoting DontAnnoyMe:


Because NHC has years of experienced human input?

Figured, just looked strange to me. Possibly the models overdoing the longwave.
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Quoting weatherwatcher12:
Anyone know why the models are showing a completely different solution than the NHC?


Because NHC has years of experienced human input?
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927. KRL
Seems unbelievable that Haiti is going to get whacked once again if Tomas stays on the current track projection. Geez it's like a horrific curse with one natural disaster after another down there.

:(
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Anyone know why the models are showing a completely different solution than the NHC?
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Quoting TampaSpin:
Evening everyone.....Kinda worried about some of these model trends tonite.


Trough heading ENE near the four corners region. Needs to start digging to the SE soon

West coast WV loop
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Quoting JLPR2:


Why?
because my predictions were,
18,11,6
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
Member Since: July 12, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 6004
Evening everyone.....Kinda worried about some of these model trends tonite.
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Complete Update



AOI
AOI AOI AOI

AOI AOI AOI

TS BUSTED FORECAST ALIBI
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:
My thinking is that these names will be retired...
Tomas, Igor?, and Shary. So Far At least

I'm having to update my predictions. :o(

21 Named Storms
13 Hurricanes
6 Major Hurricanes


Six lists are used in rotation.

Again I repeat:

"The only time that there is a change in the list is if a storm is so deadly or costly that the future use of its name on a different storm would be inappropriate for reasons of sensitivity" - NHC
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Pretty sure atleast Karl will be retired and I heard that Newfoundland requested the retirement of Igor for the damage it did there right before it went extra-tropical.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23849
918. JLPR2
Quoting amd:


could be a tail. It could also be a combination of low-level easterlies east of the tail and westerlies from Tomas plus possible drier air from south america adding to the overall instability. If Tomas can begin to absorb this tail, the core will strengthen even more.

The latest satellite imagery suggests that Tomas is actually pulling away from those thunderstorms instead of absorbing them, so I think those thunderstorms in a couple of hours will probably begin to collapse. IMHO.


Reminds me of Otto's huge tail.
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8641
917. Gorty
Nah I think Alex, Karl and Tomas will be retired. And maybe, a small chance, Paula will be retired as well. But this list could be incomplete.
Member Since: November 8, 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 1058
Quoting HurricaneDean07:
he's going to have to loose that tail of his if he wants to go through any rapid deepening.


I think that is happening. If you look at the dvorak imagery it appears as if Tomas is in the process of shedding it.

Here is the loop
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915. amd
Quoting mbjjm:
Tail of Tomas,outer bands are a better word.


could be a tail. It could also be a combination of low-level easterlies east of the tail and westerlies from Tomas plus possible drier air from south america adding to the overall instability. If Tomas can begin to absorb this tail, the core will strengthen even more.

The latest satellite imagery suggests that Tomas is actually pulling away from those thunderstorms instead of absorbing them, so I think those thunderstorms in a couple of hours will probably begin to collapse. IMHO.
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914. JLPR2
Quoting HurricaneDean07:
My thinking is that these names will be retired...
Tomas, Igor?, and Shary. So Far At least

I'm having to update my predictions. :o(

21 Named Storms
13 Hurricanes
6 Major Hurricanes


Why?
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8641
913. mbjjm
Trinidad never really has to worry about hurricanes, they are outside of the hurricane zone ,too far south to get the spin going.
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Quoting kmanislander:
Good evening

Tomas is in the process of another round of deepening. The eye is now embedded in the very deep convection

he's going to have to loose that tail of his if he wants to go through any rapid deepening.
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
Quoting mbjjm:
Tail of Tomas....outer bands are a better word.


My lord am looking at some animation and the tail looks just as ,menacing as the top of this storm
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Quoting HurricaneDean07:
My thinking is that these names will be retired...
Tomas, Igor?, and Shary. So Far At least

I'm having to update my predictions. :o(

21 Named Storms
13 Hurricanes
6 Major Hurricanes


why the heck would shary be retired?
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Good evening

Tomas is in the process of another round of deepening. The eye is now embedded in the very deep convection

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My thinking is that these names will be retired...
Tomas, Igor?, and Shary. So Far At least

I'm having to update my predictions. :o(

21 Named Storms
13 Hurricanes
6 Major Hurricanes
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
907. JLPR2
16N, 63W
Member Since: September 4, 2007 Posts: 7 Comments: 8641
Quoting HurricaneDean07:
well the reason why they would retire Tomas is because it's been on the naming list 6 times and hasnt been used so that is one reason why. when a storm name has never been used in whole time the naming list has existed then it's retired. we saw that with Roxanne of 1995 because she had never been used and she made it to major hurricane status, as well as Stan of 2005 because he had never been used and made it to hurricane Status.


Names are not retired just because they don't get used within a certain period of time. Both Roxanne and Stan were retired because of their extensive damage.
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905. mbjjm
Tail of Tomas....outer bands are a better word.
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904. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Tropical Cyclone Warning Center Perth
Tropical Cyclone Advice #5
TROPICAL CYCLONE 01U
9:00 AM WST October 31 2010
======================================

At 8:00 am WST Tropical Cyclone 01U, Category 1 (998 hPa) located at 8.1S 96.1E or about 460 km north of Cocos Island has 10 minute sustained winds of 35 knots with gusts of 50 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving south southeast at 2 knots.

Dvorak Intensity: T3.0/3.0/D0.5/24HRS

Gale Force Winds
=================
50 NM from the center in northeastern sector
80 NM from the center in northwestern sector
50 NM from the center in southeastern sector
80 NM from the center in southwestern sector

The system has reached tropical cyclone intensity and is expected to continue to intensify during Sunday as it moves southwards towards the Cocos Islands. Gales are not expected on the islands during Sunday, but may develop during Monday as the system moves closer and intensifies. The period of greatest risk will commence on Monday evening, with the system likely to pass close to the islands during Tuesday.

Conditions are favorable for intensification and there is a significant risk that people on the Cocos Islands will experience VERY DESTRUCTIVE wind gusts.

Tropical Cyclone Warnings
=========================
A Cyclone WARNING has been declared for the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.

Forecast and Intensity
======================
12 HRS: 8.9S 96.3E - 45 knots (CAT 1)
24 HRS: 9.9S 96.9E - 60 knots (CAT 2)
48 HRS: 11.7S 97.5E - 80 knots (CAT 3)
72 HRS: 13.2S 97.1E - 80 knots (CAT 3)

Additional Information
=======================
The system was located using the available IR, NIR and microwave imagery, with one visible image available. The system was difficult to locate overnight with some navigation issues evident on the available microwave imagery. The deep convection continues to be displaced to the west of the LLCC under moderate
vertical shear.

A shear pattern consistently gives a DT of T3.0. The MET is 3.0 based on a 24 hour trend of D-. Pattern matching does not indicate any adjustment to the MET and hence both DT and MET are 3.0. There are no FT constraints to assigning 3.0 hence FT and CI are set at 3.0. The 1518Z ASCAT pass indicates 25-30 knots in the northeast quadrant, outside the deep convection. Given the tendency for stronger winds to occur under the deep convection and for ASCAT to produce wind estimates that are slightly low [in this range], it is likely that winds in the deep convection are between 30 to 40 knots. The final wind intensity estimate is assigned at 35 knots. Conditions are forecast to become more favorable during Sunday with shear forecast to diminish and an outflow channel likely to become better established to the south.

Based on the expected conditions, and in general agreement with the trend in NWP and STIPS intensity guidance it is forecast to reach hurricane force on Monday.

The spread of model guidance indicates the Cocos Islands have a high risk of impact from hurricane force winds.

As the system passes south of 12S the ocean heat content becomes marginal. The system is also likely to encounter more stable boundary layer air in the wake of the mid latitude system. Hence the system is expected to weaken as it moves off to the southwest on Wednesday. STIPS is consistent with this but some NWP guidance does not weaken the system until later
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Quoting DontAnnoyMe:


Anomalous low pressure on the East Coast and anomalous high pressure over the GOM. Each deflects storms away from the US. What happens next year remains to be seen - La Nina is forecast to last well into spring.
yep, im think more of a weak la nina for the season.
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
Thanks


Quoting SLU:


It's the tail of Tomas.



The tail can produce heavy thunderstorms and gusty winds so it is certainly something to be concerned about.
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Thank you mbjjm, I am a bit concerned about it we have had so much rain in Trinidad lately the ground cannot hold much water now and we have been having lots of floods and landslips, so any great amounts of rain for us now can mean a big headache, and possibly loss of life with so many homes perched on the hill side, so I do hope Tomas tail is not going to have an impact on us that is why I am asking, to get a heads up as to what I can expect.
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Quoting SLU:


It's the tail of Tomas.



The tail can produce heavy thunderstorms and gusty winds so it is certainly something to be concerned about.
tails in that part of the world lead to training of thunderstorms with very heavy rainfall notice the euro does not really intensify it over the central carib. instead the energy becomes part of a large neaster
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Quoting troy1993:
Could someone please explain why despite the extremely active 2010 Atlantic Hurricane Season that virtually no storms have made landfall in the United States


Anomalous low pressure on the East Coast and anomalous high pressure over the GOM. Each deflects storms away from the US. What happens next year remains to be seen - La Nina is forecast to last well into spring.
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
how many you want 100,000 200,000 300,000 or more
well the reason why they would retire Tomas is because it's been on the naming list 6 times and hasnt been used so that is one reason why. when a storm name has never been used in whole time the naming list has existed then it's retired. we saw that with Roxanne of 1995 because she had never been used and she made it to major hurricane status, as well as Stan of 2005 because he had never been used and made it to hurricane Status.
Member Since: October 3, 2010 Posts: 40 Comments: 4129
Quoting Gorty:
Dang, 31 friend requests at one time all from here!?! Thank you all!!


kinda creepy...
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Hurricane Statement Puerto Rico
Blog Update
Link
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:
Twin Russian eruptions, and Indonesian Eruptions, possibly effect climate?


Depending upon the amount of ejecta. It is a possibility.
Member Since: July 23, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 12414
894. SLU
Quoting juniort:
What about this heavy convection east of Barbados now?


It's the tail of Tomas.

Quoting Cocotrini:
Can someone explain what is that weather as if its Tomas tail that is close to Trinidad and Tobago, is that something to be concerned about?


The tail can produce heavy thunderstorms and gusty winds so it is certainly something to be concerned about.
Member Since: July 13, 2006 Posts: 12 Comments: 5035
893. Gorty
Dang, 31 friend requests at one time all from here!?! Thank you all!!
Member Since: November 8, 2008 Posts: 12 Comments: 1058

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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