Strongest storm ever recorded in the Midwest smashes all-time pressure records

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:09 PM GMT on October 27, 2010

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Tornadoes, violent thunderstorms, and torrential rains swept through a large portion of the nation's midsection yesterday, thanks to the strongest storm ever recorded in the Midwest. NOAA's Storm Prediction Center logged 24 tornado reports and 282 reports of damaging high winds from yesterday's spectacular storm, and the storm continues to produce a wide variety of wild weather, with tornado watches posted for Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia, a blizzard warning for North Dakota, high wind warnings for most of the upper Midwest, and near-hurricane force winds on Lake Superior.

The mega-storm reached peak intensity late yesterday afternoon over Minnesota, resulting in the lowest barometric pressure readings ever recorded in the continental United States, except for from hurricanes and nor'easters affecting the Atlantic seaboard. So far, it appears the lowest reading (now official) was a pressure of 28.21" (955.2 mb) reduced to sea level reported from Bigfork, Minnesota at 5:13pm CDT. Other extreme low pressures from Minnesota during yesterday's storm included 28.22" (956 mb) at Orr at 5:34pm CDT, 28.23" at International Falls (3:45pm), and 28.23" at Waskuh at 5:52pm. The 28.23" (956mb) reading from International Falls yesterday obliterated their previous record of 28.70" set on Nov. 11, 1949 by nearly one-half inch of mercury--a truly amazing anomaly. Duluth's 28.36" (961 mb) reading smashed their old record of 28.48" (964 mb) set on Nov. 11, 1998. Wisconsin also recorded its lowest barometric pressure in history yesterday, with a 28.36" (961 mb) reading at Superior. The old record was 28.45" (963.4 mb) at Green Bay on April 3, 1982. The previous state record for Minnesota was 28.43" (963 mb) at Albert Lea and Austin on Nov. 10, 1998.


Figure 1. Visible satellite image of the October 26, 2010 superstorm taken at 5:32pm EDT. At the time, Bigfork, Minnesota was reporting the lowest pressure ever recorded in a U.S. non-coastal storm, 955 mb. Image credit: NASA/GSFC.

Yesterday's records in context
Yesterday's 28.21" (955 mb) low pressure reading in Minnesota breaks not only the 28.28" (958 mb) previous "USA-interior-of-the-continent-record" from Cleveland, Ohio during the Great Ohio Storm of Jan. 26, 1978 (a lower reading in Canada during this event bottomed out at an amazing 28.05"/950 mb), but also the lowest pressure ever measured anywhere in the continental United States aside from the Atlantic Coast. The modern Pacific Coast record is 28.40" (962mb) at Quillayute, Washington on Dec. 1, 1987. An older reading, taken on a ship offshore from the mouth of the Umpqua River in Oregon during the famous "Storm King" event on January 9, 1880, was 28.20" (954.9 mb)--slightly lower than the 2010 storm.

The lowest non-hurricane barometric pressure reading in the lower 48 states is 28.10" (952 mb) measured at Bridgehampton, New York (Long Island) during an amazing nor'easter on March 1, 1914 (see Kocin and Uccellini, "Northeast Snowstorms; Vol. 2., p. 324, American Meteorological Society, 2004.) The lowest non-hurricane barometric pressure reading from anywhere in the United States was a 27.35" (927 mb) reading at Dutch Harbor, Alaska on Oct. 25, 1977. The lowest hurricane pressure reading was the 26.34" (892 mb) recorded in 1935 during the Great Labor Day Hurricane.


Figure 2. Storm reports received by NOAA's Storm Prediction Center from the October 26, 2010 superstorm.

The six most intense storms in history to affect the Great Lakes
According to the Chicago branch of the National Weather Service and Christopher C. Burt, our Weather Records blogger, the following are the six lowest pressures measured in the U.S. Great Lakes region:

1. Yesterday's October 26, 2010 Superstorm (955 mb/28.20")
2. Great Ohio Blizzard January 26, 1978 (958 mb/28.28")
3. Armistice Day Storm November 11, 1940 (967 mb/28.55")
4. November 10, 1998 storm (967 mb/ 28.55")
5. White Hurricane of November 7 - 9, 1913 (968 mb/28.60")
6. Edmund Fitzgerald Storm of November 10, 1975 (980 mb/28.95")

So, the famed storm that sank the ore carrier Edmund Fitzgerald in 1974, killing all 29 sailors aboard, was weaker than the current storm. Indeed, I wouldn't want to be on a boat in Lake Superior today--sustained winds at the Rock of Ages lighthouse on Isle Royale were a sustained 68 mph, gusting to 78 mph at 3am EDT this morning!

Yet Another Remarkable Mid-latitude Cyclone so far this Year!
Yesterday's superstorm is reminiscent of the amazing low pressures reached earlier this year (Jan. 19-22) in the West, where virtually every site in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, southern Oregon, and southern Idaho--about 10 - 15% of the U.S. land area--broke their lowest on record pressure readings. However, the lowest readings from that event fell well short of yesterday's mega-storm with 28.85" (977 mb) being about the lowest recorded at any onshore site.

Commentary
We've now had two remarkable extratropical storms this year in the U.S. that have smashed all-time low pressure records across a large portion of the country. Is this a sign that these type of storms may be getting stronger? Well, there is evidence that wintertime extratropical storms have grown in intensity in the Pacific, Arctic, and Great Lakes in recent decades. I discuss the science in detail in a post I did earlier this year. Here is an excerpt from that post:

General Circulation Models (GCMs) like the ones used in the 2007 IPCC Assessment Report do a very good job simulating how winter storms behave in the current climate, and we can run simulations of the atmosphere with extra greenhouse gases to see how winter storms will behave in the future. The results are very interesting. Global warming is expected to warm the poles more than the equatorial regions. This reduces the difference in temperature between the pole and Equator. Since winter storms form in response to the atmosphere's need to transport heat from the Equator to the poles, this reduced temperature difference reduces the need for winter storms, and thus the models predict fewer storms will form. However, since a warmer world increases the amount of evaporation from the surface and puts more moisture in the air, these future storms drop more precipitation. During the process of creating that precipitation, the water vapor in the storm must condense into liquid or frozen water, liberating "latent heat"--the extra heat that was originally added to the water vapor to evaporate it in the first place. This latent heat intensifies the winter storm, lowering the central pressure and making the winds increase. So, the modeling studies predict a future with fewer total winter storms, but a greater number of intense storms. These intense storms will have more lift, and will thus tend to drop more precipitation--including snow, when we get areas of strong lift in the -15°C preferred snowflake formation region.

Invest 90L
A low pressure system (Invest 90L) in the middle Atlantic Ocean has developed a broad circulation, but has very limited heavy thunderstorm activity. NHC is giving 90L a 10% of developing into a tropical depression by Friday. Another area of disturbed weather a few hundred miles west of 90L is disorganized, and is also being given a 10% chance of developing.

Next update
I'll have an update on Thursday morning. I'm at the National Hurricane Center in Miami this week, as part of their visiting scientist program, and hopefully the weather in the rest of the country will slow down enough so I can write about goings-on here at the Hurricane Center!

Christopher C. Burt is responsible for most of the content of this post, with the exception of the commentary, which I wrote.

Jeff Masters

The Big Blow! (pjpix)
This photo and the other in my series were both take from the same spot ... just different directions and just a representative scene mirroring so many others here in the midwest. These were taken yesterday morning right after the thunderstorm front had gone through but the winds continued to increase in intensity as the barometer dropped ... to a record low in some midwest spots. The big Blow was the equivlant of a Cat 2 or Cat 3 hurricane and indeed a very unusual storm in the upper midwest for this time of the year.
The Big Blow!
Cell Rotation Animation (SunsetSailor)
Gif Created on Make A Gif
Cell Rotation Animation
()
Disappearing Pier 5 (mactoot)
I posted a video of continuous hits at youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ckrpWF-dXwU
Disappearing Pier 5
October Storm (cambuck1)
October Storm

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Quoting Quadrantid:


Pretty much -- here's the Kepler home page. Dunno why I keep mispelling it :)

Anyways, if there are exoEarths out there, then Kepler should find loads (and likely already has detected some!). I don't think it'll find any close enough to study in any depth, but it'd still be awesome to have it confirmed that they're out there!


thats insane I was watching the show The Universe, I cant believe how sensitive it is. Im sure your telescope can take it ;) Ive been out at sea at night with a full moon. It was almost as bright as day. It is still the most beautiful sight ive ever seen.
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Some rain here in Caguas PR....

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Quoting Seastep:


You're right, it is worse for population centers, imo, but the planet comes first. Not an extremely small percentage of the earth's surface area.


Its a poisonous gas, carbon monoxide kills a lot of people now, even with them. anytime you drive down the road youd need to wear a gas mask...
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


Keplar is the one that measures the brightness of stars looking for planets that transit them right?


Pretty much -- here's the Kepler home page. Dunno why I keep mispelling it :)

Anyways, if there are exoEarths out there, then Kepler should find loads (and likely already has detected some!). I don't think it'll find any close enough to study in any depth, but it'd still be awesome to have it confirmed that they're out there!
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Quoting sunlinepr:
that will be worst.... CO is poisonous to humans.... Imagine a 18 million pop. city with such emissions....


You're right, it is worse for population centers, imo, but the planet comes first. Not an extremely small percentage of the earth's surface area.
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Quoting PSLFLCaneVet:


I concur. Haven't spoken with you in a good bit. Glad to re-up. Some wild weather. Hope you and your's were spared.


Right now I will accept any weather that includes RAIN!!
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Quoting Quadrantid:


If I hadn't seen the Sky at Night when I was 5 (blame Patrick Moore for me being into Astronomy), I'd've likely tried to get into either Meteorology or Earthquakes/Volcanoes. Fortunately, I found my calling early enough that I could work my way to the job I've got now. It's awesome being able to do your hobby as a job :) Certainly made all the tedious physics I had to learn worthwhile ;)

The beauty of all the exoplanet/habitability stuff is that I can start to dabble and learn about things like tectonics and weather, and justify it as work related, it's perfect :)

Finding an exoEarth will be awesome, though I suspect Keplar has already found some, and are just waiting for more data to confirm/announce them. That's a hunch based on no information whatsoever, aside from knowing, vaguely, what spec Keplar has, and guessing how many exoEarths it could find :D


Keplar is the one that measures the brightness of stars looking for planets that transit them right?
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Quoting Skyepony:
I know I probably shouldn't~ but I couldn't help but draw all over the Graphical TWO...it's still their forecast.



Love it!
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Quoting pottery:

I did not know that.....
never thought about it, frankly.
What are catalytic converters for. then?


I actually mis-spoke and corrected. An internal combustion engine emits zero CO2 without a catalytic converter.
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


CO or Carbon Monoxide is a very toxic gas, those are made so the air quality is much better.


I agree 100%.
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Quoting traumaboyy:


Passing well!! How are you this early morning??


I concur. Haven't spoken with you in a good bit. Glad to re-up. Some wild weather. Hope you and your's were spared.
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


Alright, that sounds so sweet. I remember growing up I knew I either wanted to do Astronomy or Meteorology. Meteorology is just much more faster paced. I hope you find the next earth! make sure you tell the blog first though ;)


If I hadn't seen the Sky at Night when I was 5 (blame Patrick Moore for me being into Astronomy), I'd've likely tried to get into either Meteorology or Earthquakes/Volcanoes. Fortunately, I found my calling early enough that I could work my way to the job I've got now. It's awesome being able to do your hobby as a job :) Certainly made all the tedious physics I had to learn worthwhile ;)

The beauty of all the exoplanet/habitability stuff is that I can start to dabble and learn about things like tectonics and weather, and justify it as work related, it's perfect :)

Finding an exoEarth will be awesome, though I suspect Keplar has already found some, and are just waiting for more data to confirm/announce them. That's a hunch based on no information whatsoever, aside from knowing, vaguely, what spec Keplar has, and guessing how many exoEarths it could find :D
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Horsemen of the Apocalpse
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.
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Quoting PSLFLCaneVet:


Hey TB, what it is?


Passing well!! How are you this early morning??
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Quoting traumaboyy:


+100


Hey TB, what it is?
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Quoting Seastep:
Maybe we should get rid of the CO reduction of catalytic converters?

2 CO O2 = 2 CO2

Catalytic converters create CO2, using up O2 in the process and more O2 as a bonus.

CO is not a greenhouse gas that I am aware of.

Zero CO2 emission vehicles at relatively low cost and in a short period of time.


CO or Carbon Monoxide is a very toxic gas, those are made so the air quality is much better.
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Quoting capesanblas:
PotteryDude, you make me laugh, is a good thing. Stay true and put on clean underwear before the weekend.

Orca, your post are always valued, for weather inisight as well as humor.

Were is K'Man? I'm on the coast of FPH, his insight is ALWAYS valued.

JFlorida, DestinJeff may or MAY not have other login nics here, - I am NOT one of them.



On the GW debate - the human species is arrogant enough to think they are are a real player on the earths natural cycles, - and also greedy enough to make money off of being able to SCREEM about it in the media. God Bless Al Gore's Truth about making money.


Just another lurkers drive by post.


Drive by anytime. A good night to you.
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Quoting Skyepony:
I know I probably shouldn't~ but I couldn't help but draw all over the Graphical TWO...it's still their forecast.



+100
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Quoting Quadrantid:


Am working at the University of New South Wales, in Australia, at the moment -- moved out here just over a month ago from the UK. Academic all the way -- so my post is government, rather than private, funded... but you don't get much in the way of private funding for Solar system dynamics and planet search work :)


Alright, that sounds so sweet. I remember growing up I knew I either wanted to do Astronomy or Meteorology. Meteorology is just much more faster paced. I hope you find the next earth! make sure you tell the blog first though ;)
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675. JRRP
Quoting Skyepony:
I know I probably shouldn't~ but I couldn't help but draw all over the Graphical TWO...it's still their forecast.


omg jajajajaja
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 6213
Aren't you clever Ms. Skyepony.
Halloween is my birthday.
Trick or Treat.
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Quoting Quadrantid:


I'm with you on that :) Problem is that it is an easy/quiet cut... if you cut military spending, the conservative politicians will kick up a fuss, and everyone will panic that it means you'll get invaded or there'll be huge job losses. If you cut benefits, then people will complain about children being put into poverty. If you put taxes up, people complain...

If you cut science budgets, people don't really notice (apart from the scientists). Particularly for the kind of work I do (astronomy) -- there are no direct, immediate, obvious benefits to the general public, so they don't really care if, for example, the UK is no longer able to use the Gemini telescopes.

The media, and much of the general public, really struggle to think much into the future -- I've actually had people tell me "Well, yes, ok, science gave us all the cool/useful things I enjoy today. But what will it give me tomorrow? You can't say, 'cos it hasn't been invented yet? Well, we clearly don't need it then! I'd rather have lower taxes, than have some ivory-tower scientist looking into something irrelevent, thankyou!". Or at least, words to that effect...


Sad but true. Esoteric breakthroughs that take a while to impact the populace, are difficult to fund.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
PotteryDude, you make me laugh, is a good thing. Stay true and put on clean underwear before the weekend.

Orca, your post are always valued, for weather inisight as well as humor.

Were is K'Man? I'm on the coast of FPH, his insight is ALWAYS valued.

JFlorida, DestinJeff may or MAY not have other login nics here, - I am NOT one of them.



On the GW debate - the human species is arrogant enough to think they are are a real player on the earths natural cycles, - and also greedy enough to make money off of being able to SCREEM about it in the media. God Bless Al Gore's Truth about making money.


Just another lurkers drive by post.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Seastep:
Maybe we should get rid of the CO reduction of catalytic converters?

2 CO O2 = 2 CO2

Catalytic converters create CO2, using up O2 in the process and more O2 as a bonus.

CO is not a greenhouse gas that I am aware of.

Zero CO2 emission vehicles at relatively low cost and in a short period of time.
that will be worst.... CO is poisonous to humans.... Imagine a 18 million pop. city with such emissions....
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


do you work for nasa? or a private firm?


Am working at the University of New South Wales, in Australia, at the moment -- moved out here just over a month ago from the UK. Academic all the way -- so my post is government, rather than private, funded... but you don't get much in the way of private funding for Solar system dynamics and planet search work :)
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Quoting Skyepony:
I know I probably shouldn't~ but I couldn't help but draw all over the Graphical TWO...it's still their forecast.

to me it's more like 3 tropical storms likely during halloween
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


Thank you very much! You aren't around here often, you should more, very good to debate with, learned a lot :)


I've lurked for a long time, but never really joined in 'till lately :) It's good fun to have a nice debate -- I've learned so much about climate and weather from this blog, it's nice to be able to chip in when things (occasionally) drift to my kind of work :) Has been a fun afternoon discussing things with you all, while I wait for my new boss to finish building my new work computer... :D
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Quoting pottery:

I did not know that.....
never thought about it, frankly.
What are catalytic converters for. then?


They reduce NOx and CO. "Smog" basically.

I, personally thank those that got them mandated.

Introduced only in 1975.
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Quoting Quadrantid:


I'm with you on that :) Problem is that it is an easy/quiet cut... if you cut military spending, the conservative politicians will kick up a fuss, and everyone will panic that it means you'll get invaded or there'll be huge job losses. If you cut benefits, then people will complain about children being put into poverty. If you put taxes up, people complain...

If you cut science budgets, people don't really notice (apart from the scientists). Particularly for the kind of work I do (astronomy) -- there are no direct, immediate, obvious benefits to the general public, so they don't really care if, for example, the UK is no longer able to use the Gemini telescopes.

The media, and much of the general public, really struggle to think much into the future -- I've actually had people tell me "Well, yes, ok, science gave us all the cool/useful things I enjoy today. But what will it give me tomorrow? You can't say, 'cos it hasn't been invented yet? Well, we clearly don't need it then! I'd rather have lower taxes, than have some ivory-tower scientist looking into something irrelevent, thankyou!". Or at least, words to that effect...



do you work for nasa? or a private firm?
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nite all, today 3 invests, tomorrow/today shary and 2 invests.
basically, today we will be saying and then there was two.
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Quoting PSLFLCaneVet:


Science is not where budgets should be cut. My 2 cents.


I'm with you on that :) Problem is that it is an easy/quiet cut... if you cut military spending, the conservative politicians will kick up a fuss, and everyone will panic that it means you'll get invaded or there'll be huge job losses. If you cut benefits, then people will complain about children being put into poverty. If you put taxes up, people complain...

If you cut science budgets, people don't really notice (apart from the scientists). Particularly for the kind of work I do (astronomy) -- there are no direct, immediate, obvious benefits to the general public, so they don't really care if, for example, the UK is no longer able to use the Gemini telescopes.

The media, and much of the general public, really struggle to think much into the future -- I've actually had people tell me "Well, yes, ok, science gave us all the cool/useful things I enjoy today. But what will it give me tomorrow? You can't say, 'cos it hasn't been invented yet? Well, we clearly don't need it then! I'd rather have lower taxes, than have some ivory-tower scientist looking into something irrelevent, thankyou!". Or at least, words to that effect...

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660. Skyepony (Mod)
I know I probably shouldn't~ but I couldn't help but draw all over the Graphical TWO...it's still their forecast.

Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 224 Comments: 39368
Quoting Quadrantid:


Sounds a good plan :) It's a pretty good time to be doing an undergrad or postgrad degree -- the huge cuts in science funding have made postdoc life obscenely competative -- but hopefully the upswing will come fairly soon (couple of years) -- then there'll be loads of new jobs/phd places for people (as the squeeze on postdocs now means there'll be few people around of my generation competing for that money).

The net result for me is that I have to publish, publish, publish... which I guess means I should really be working at the moment, rather than bouncing ideas around here. Such is life!

Good luck with the exam :D


Thank you very much! You aren't around here often, you should more, very good to debate with, learned a lot :)
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Anyway, it's tomorrow here already.
See what the Weather brings, with the sunrise...
Stay safe, all.
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Which one is more active???

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Science is not where budgets should be cut. My 2 cents.
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Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56002
Quoting Seastep:
Maybe we should get rid of the CO reduction of catalytic converters?

2 CO + O2 = 2 CO2

Catalytic converters doubles the CO2 output of internal combustion engines.

We could cut CO2 emissions in half tomorrow. And get more O2 in the atmosphere to boot.

I did not know that.....
never thought about it, frankly.
What are catalytic converters for. then?
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


Right now im, a physics, and meteorology double major so that would be amazing. Im hoping to do a research project with NASA soon, and if it turns out it is AGW ill be the first to say I was wrong, and will be all for taking drastic measures.


Sounds a good plan :) It's a pretty good time to be doing an undergrad or postgrad degree -- the huge cuts in science funding have made postdoc life obscenely competative -- but hopefully the upswing will come fairly soon (couple of years) -- then there'll be loads of new jobs/phd places for people (as the squeeze on postdocs now means there'll be few people around of my generation competing for that money).

The net result for me is that I have to publish, publish, publish... which I guess means I should really be working at the moment, rather than bouncing ideas around here. Such is life!

Good luck with the exam :D
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Maybe we should get rid of the CO reduction of catalytic converters?

2 CO O2 = 2 CO2

Catalytic converters create CO2, using up O2 in the process and more O2 as a bonus.

CO is not a greenhouse gas that I am aware of.

Zero CO2 emission vehicles at relatively low cost and in a short period of time.
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Quoting Orcasystems:


Sure.. gimme rain... umm oh... can you hold it off a day or two.

It's all my wife's fault!
You KNOW I would never flipflop like that.
(this is just between us, OK?)
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


Since we havent been through a cycle as a human race, im not quite sure we can definitely say that it is happening too quickly we just don't know that for sure. Another thing is that its funny how we are so worried about the warming, yet I believe one volcano eruption can take us back to below average temperatures in the blink of an eye. There are so many things that can happen that im not sure anyone really can grasp all the different variables that have occurred on this planet to get the climate to where it is, and what variables in the future can possibly do.



+10000
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Quoting pottery:

Good luck with the Exam, hope it goes well.


should be fine, thanks pottery :)
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


doing his, and studying for a physics exam tomorrow, sorry.

Good luck with the Exam, hope it goes well.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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