Strongest storm ever recorded in the Midwest smashes all-time pressure records

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:09 PM GMT on October 27, 2010

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Tornadoes, violent thunderstorms, and torrential rains swept through a large portion of the nation's midsection yesterday, thanks to the strongest storm ever recorded in the Midwest. NOAA's Storm Prediction Center logged 24 tornado reports and 282 reports of damaging high winds from yesterday's spectacular storm, and the storm continues to produce a wide variety of wild weather, with tornado watches posted for Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia, a blizzard warning for North Dakota, high wind warnings for most of the upper Midwest, and near-hurricane force winds on Lake Superior.

The mega-storm reached peak intensity late yesterday afternoon over Minnesota, resulting in the lowest barometric pressure readings ever recorded in the continental United States, except for from hurricanes and nor'easters affecting the Atlantic seaboard. So far, it appears the lowest reading (now official) was a pressure of 28.21" (955.2 mb) reduced to sea level reported from Bigfork, Minnesota at 5:13pm CDT. Other extreme low pressures from Minnesota during yesterday's storm included 28.22" (956 mb) at Orr at 5:34pm CDT, 28.23" at International Falls (3:45pm), and 28.23" at Waskuh at 5:52pm. The 28.23" (956mb) reading from International Falls yesterday obliterated their previous record of 28.70" set on Nov. 11, 1949 by nearly one-half inch of mercury--a truly amazing anomaly. Duluth's 28.36" (961 mb) reading smashed their old record of 28.48" (964 mb) set on Nov. 11, 1998. Wisconsin also recorded its lowest barometric pressure in history yesterday, with a 28.36" (961 mb) reading at Superior. The old record was 28.45" (963.4 mb) at Green Bay on April 3, 1982. The previous state record for Minnesota was 28.43" (963 mb) at Albert Lea and Austin on Nov. 10, 1998.


Figure 1. Visible satellite image of the October 26, 2010 superstorm taken at 5:32pm EDT. At the time, Bigfork, Minnesota was reporting the lowest pressure ever recorded in a U.S. non-coastal storm, 955 mb. Image credit: NASA/GSFC.

Yesterday's records in context
Yesterday's 28.21" (955 mb) low pressure reading in Minnesota breaks not only the 28.28" (958 mb) previous "USA-interior-of-the-continent-record" from Cleveland, Ohio during the Great Ohio Storm of Jan. 26, 1978 (a lower reading in Canada during this event bottomed out at an amazing 28.05"/950 mb), but also the lowest pressure ever measured anywhere in the continental United States aside from the Atlantic Coast. The modern Pacific Coast record is 28.40" (962mb) at Quillayute, Washington on Dec. 1, 1987. An older reading, taken on a ship offshore from the mouth of the Umpqua River in Oregon during the famous "Storm King" event on January 9, 1880, was 28.20" (954.9 mb)--slightly lower than the 2010 storm.

The lowest non-hurricane barometric pressure reading in the lower 48 states is 28.10" (952 mb) measured at Bridgehampton, New York (Long Island) during an amazing nor'easter on March 1, 1914 (see Kocin and Uccellini, "Northeast Snowstorms; Vol. 2., p. 324, American Meteorological Society, 2004.) The lowest non-hurricane barometric pressure reading from anywhere in the United States was a 27.35" (927 mb) reading at Dutch Harbor, Alaska on Oct. 25, 1977. The lowest hurricane pressure reading was the 26.34" (892 mb) recorded in 1935 during the Great Labor Day Hurricane.


Figure 2. Storm reports received by NOAA's Storm Prediction Center from the October 26, 2010 superstorm.

The six most intense storms in history to affect the Great Lakes
According to the Chicago branch of the National Weather Service and Christopher C. Burt, our Weather Records blogger, the following are the six lowest pressures measured in the U.S. Great Lakes region:

1. Yesterday's October 26, 2010 Superstorm (955 mb/28.20")
2. Great Ohio Blizzard January 26, 1978 (958 mb/28.28")
3. Armistice Day Storm November 11, 1940 (967 mb/28.55")
4. November 10, 1998 storm (967 mb/ 28.55")
5. White Hurricane of November 7 - 9, 1913 (968 mb/28.60")
6. Edmund Fitzgerald Storm of November 10, 1975 (980 mb/28.95")

So, the famed storm that sank the ore carrier Edmund Fitzgerald in 1974, killing all 29 sailors aboard, was weaker than the current storm. Indeed, I wouldn't want to be on a boat in Lake Superior today--sustained winds at the Rock of Ages lighthouse on Isle Royale were a sustained 68 mph, gusting to 78 mph at 3am EDT this morning!

Yet Another Remarkable Mid-latitude Cyclone so far this Year!
Yesterday's superstorm is reminiscent of the amazing low pressures reached earlier this year (Jan. 19-22) in the West, where virtually every site in California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, southern Oregon, and southern Idaho--about 10 - 15% of the U.S. land area--broke their lowest on record pressure readings. However, the lowest readings from that event fell well short of yesterday's mega-storm with 28.85" (977 mb) being about the lowest recorded at any onshore site.

Commentary
We've now had two remarkable extratropical storms this year in the U.S. that have smashed all-time low pressure records across a large portion of the country. Is this a sign that these type of storms may be getting stronger? Well, there is evidence that wintertime extratropical storms have grown in intensity in the Pacific, Arctic, and Great Lakes in recent decades. I discuss the science in detail in a post I did earlier this year. Here is an excerpt from that post:

General Circulation Models (GCMs) like the ones used in the 2007 IPCC Assessment Report do a very good job simulating how winter storms behave in the current climate, and we can run simulations of the atmosphere with extra greenhouse gases to see how winter storms will behave in the future. The results are very interesting. Global warming is expected to warm the poles more than the equatorial regions. This reduces the difference in temperature between the pole and Equator. Since winter storms form in response to the atmosphere's need to transport heat from the Equator to the poles, this reduced temperature difference reduces the need for winter storms, and thus the models predict fewer storms will form. However, since a warmer world increases the amount of evaporation from the surface and puts more moisture in the air, these future storms drop more precipitation. During the process of creating that precipitation, the water vapor in the storm must condense into liquid or frozen water, liberating "latent heat"--the extra heat that was originally added to the water vapor to evaporate it in the first place. This latent heat intensifies the winter storm, lowering the central pressure and making the winds increase. So, the modeling studies predict a future with fewer total winter storms, but a greater number of intense storms. These intense storms will have more lift, and will thus tend to drop more precipitation--including snow, when we get areas of strong lift in the -15°C preferred snowflake formation region.

Invest 90L
A low pressure system (Invest 90L) in the middle Atlantic Ocean has developed a broad circulation, but has very limited heavy thunderstorm activity. NHC is giving 90L a 10% of developing into a tropical depression by Friday. Another area of disturbed weather a few hundred miles west of 90L is disorganized, and is also being given a 10% chance of developing.

Next update
I'll have an update on Thursday morning. I'm at the National Hurricane Center in Miami this week, as part of their visiting scientist program, and hopefully the weather in the rest of the country will slow down enough so I can write about goings-on here at the Hurricane Center!

Christopher C. Burt is responsible for most of the content of this post, with the exception of the commentary, which I wrote.

Jeff Masters

The Big Blow! (pjpix)
This photo and the other in my series were both take from the same spot ... just different directions and just a representative scene mirroring so many others here in the midwest. These were taken yesterday morning right after the thunderstorm front had gone through but the winds continued to increase in intensity as the barometer dropped ... to a record low in some midwest spots. The big Blow was the equivlant of a Cat 2 or Cat 3 hurricane and indeed a very unusual storm in the upper midwest for this time of the year.
The Big Blow!
Cell Rotation Animation (SunsetSailor)
Gif Created on Make A Gif
Cell Rotation Animation
()
Disappearing Pier 5 (mactoot)
I posted a video of continuous hits at youtube: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ckrpWF-dXwU
Disappearing Pier 5
October Storm (cambuck1)
October Storm

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Quoting SuperTyphoonLionrock:
Coincidentally, today is Climate Fools Day.

Happy Climate Fools' Day!



Delingpole's been making up both his own "science" and his own facts for a long time, so making up his own holiday isn't really a very big deal...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789
Quoting AEKDB1990:

There's nothing in that article about building being uncovered by retreating ice VABeachHurricanes. You must be mistaken.

The Norse did erect some big buildings in Greenland like Hvalsey church. But they were never covered by glaciers.


Hvalsey Church. The last contemporary account of the Greenland Norse told of a marriage here in September 1410.






It has been proven the Norse reached at least 75N and today that is hard to do even with our modern technology. Its just one of those things, they grew their own crops there at one point, as stories tell on runic stones found all the way back to 1135. So there is much supporting evidence that it has been warmer before.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
So, are we prepared to maintain the status quo, on the possible chance that the people who argue for a reduction in emissions are wrong?
Or do we attempt to reduce emissions, in case they are right?

Before you answer the above, know that it is possible that it may be more difficult to correct the situation later, rather than sooner, if correction is needed.

The fact that some areas of the Earth were once warmer than they are now, is, frankly, a ridiculous argument in any discussion about anything to do with current GW.
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 24869
The latest from ATCF:

90L: 30 knots | 1008 mb | 26.9N / 40.9W
91L: 25 knots | 1008 mb | 06.0N / 44.7W
92L: 25 knots | 1010 mb | 22.9N / 55.3W
------------------------------
I just noticed that cell rotation animation above. Amazing!
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789
Quoting Neapolitan:

How so? I listed the number of highs and the number of lows using current data from a very reputable source. Nevermind; I promised myself I'd only converse with those being intellectually honest, so I have to let you go for now...


right, cause i'm lying now... I never accused you of lying get over yourself
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had 3 tornadoes touchdown in the Richmond metro area this evening.
Member Since: September 2, 2006 Posts: 110 Comments: 6878
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


you didnt lie, you just didnt state all the facts

How so? I listed the number of highs and the number of lows using current data from a very reputable source. Nevermind; I promised myself I'd only converse with those being intellectually honest, so I have to let you go for now...
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789
I haven't looked at the models yet but I've heard rumors on Accuweather that they want to blow-up a similar storm up the east coast next week from the GOM! That would be wild to have two Superstorms in just 2 weeks time(1993 anybody?)!
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434. walfa
Impressive storm. Unaware that this kind of explosive extra-tropical
cyclogenesis could occur over land, but apparently the Great Lakes have
some role on what has happened

40 hours HD satellite loop:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GnQIsz-D07Y&hd=1
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Quoting scott39:
Ok-- I get it The planet is warming--How long do we have, because man is not going to change the way we are doing things on Earth. Also the Earth was rockin and rollin long before man was here. So with all the scientific evidence we have on global warming, what is the expiration date on man and will the Earth continue to go on or will it expire with man also?


Few are talking about mankind completely dying off because of runaway global warming; the consensus is that things would just get bad...very bad, but not so bad as to be considered an ELE. (In fact, if we do off our own species, it'll likely be something else.) And that's not what most GW theorists are even worried about. So as for mankind's shelf life, I'm not sure; we may be here for hundreds of thousands or even millions of years more--or we could be gone in a month as a result of a super-massive CME, or a strike by a ten-mile wide asteroid.

The earth would definitely go on without man if we were to suddenly vanish, or succeed in wiping ourselves out through our foolishness. Remember, the planet spun around the sun for billions of years before our first ancestors crawled from some steamy pond, and there's little reason to doubt it would be here for billions more if we left. Anyway, there are several excellent books on the subject, but my favorite is The World Without Us.
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789
"Two Smithsonian scientists, Charles Schuchert and David White, have just returned from the wilds of west Greenland, bringing back valuable collections. In a region of everlasting ice and snow they have been exploring luxuriant tropical forests. Far to the north of the Arctic circle they have been studying a flora consisting of palms, tree ferns, and other plants belonging properly to the neighborhood of the equator. These forests, however, and the trees and varied forms of plant life which compose them are exceedingly ancient. In fact, they disappeared from the face of the earth several millions of years ago, and only their fossil remains are found buried in the strata of the rocks. It was these remains that Messrs, Schuchert and White went to investigate. They wanted to get specimens for the National Museum, and other objects of a geological nature were in view.

Greenland was once upon a time a tropical country. That is proved absolutely by the remains of an extensive tropical flora which are found there. Where now a sheet of solid ice over a mile thick covers mountain and valley, and mighty frozen rivers called glaciers make their way to the sea and hatch icebergs, there was in earlier days a verdure-clad wilderness of luxuriant vegetation. Together with the palms and tree ferns, there were trees related to the giant sequoias of our own west coast; also representatives of the "gingko," the sacred tree of Japan and of the Eucalyptus family, which today is restricted to Australia. Climbing vines festooned the trunks of these monarchs of an ancient forest with draperies of foliage, while close to the ground grew those curious dwarf trees called "cycads," somewhat resembling palms in miniature, in the midst of a tangled undergrowth of ferns and other flowerless plants that carpted the densely wooded areas."
Link
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Quoting pottery:

Doing Excellent.
Who needs teeth? LOL


LMAO. Nice comeback.
Member Since: July 23, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 12414
Quoting aquak9:
(lifts one eyelid long anough to wink at pottery- he makes me see ALL STARS!)

heheheh
Greetings, Fair Lady.
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 24869
Quoting PSLFLCaneVet:


I like "smarties". Not great for one's teeth, however. Evening, Pottery. How goes it?

Doing Excellent.
Who needs teeth? LOL
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 24869
(lifts one eyelid long anough to wink at pottery- he makes me see ALL STARS!)
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Quoting pottery:
Good evening again.
Some nutty stuff going on in here, while the Tropical Atlantic is Swarming with Invests like somebody dropped the box of 'smarties', all pretty colours and all.

That area approaching 50w, around 7n, is pretty nice!
Maybe rainy season is coming back....


I like "smarties". Not great for one's teeth, however. Evening, Pottery. How goes it?
Member Since: July 23, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 12414
Quoting bcycsailor:


Check out the link I posted at # 405 and I'd appreciate your thoughts as well. tia

Where are my manners! Good Evening to you.
Thanks I look foward to the read.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good evening again.
Some nutty stuff going on in here, while the Tropical Atlantic is Swarming with Invests like somebody dropped the box of 'smarties', all pretty colours and all.

That area approaching 50w, around 7n, is pretty nice!
Maybe rainy season is coming back....
Member Since: October 24, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 24869
uhm...uhm...invests?

None of the invests will amount to anything. Florida is gonna dry up really bad this winter. If you think we're in a rain deficit now...just wait...gonna get ugly.

Cologne? Oh my...he acknowledges me, and I'm supposed to be coherent?

swooning again...kerthunk. Lights out.
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Quoting scott39:
407? Im not being Sarcastic. I want to hear some ideas on this.


Check out the link I posted at # 405 and I'd appreciate your thoughts as well. tia

Where are my manners! Good Evening to you.
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Quoting Neapolitan:

Wow. Again, please tell me where I lied, or where I've attempted to mislead. I merely pointed out the straight, unadulterated facts, which are that record highs have outnumbered record lows by a wide margin over the past 24 hours. (Had you read with an objective eye, you might have noticed that I mentioned the record lows; it's not my fault that they have been so badly outnumbered for the past seven months or so.)

(While we're at it, record highs have outnumbered record lows by to 830 to 102 over the past week. Toasty...)


you didnt lie, you just didnt state all the facts
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Quoting snowboy:


Pretty much the nuttiest post I've seen on here, and that's saying a lot. Where are on earth are you reading this stuff, or are you just making it up?


what are you talking about? Ice has melted in greenland revealing buildings, they were obviously built when no ice was there, therefore it has been warmer before.
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Quoting aquak9:
hi neapolitan...

...swoon....

(thunk as body hits floor)

Hiya, water dog! Swooning? Must be this new cologne... ;-)

Any bets on which, if any, of the current invests will get called up?


Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


And the fact they are finding stone buildings that are under the glaciers, after they melted away, obviously meaning there was no ice there before. They choose to ignore that, and choose to ignore why deserts such as the middle east and northern alaska have oil. Oil only comes from organic material, meaning a much different climate in the past, humans must have changed that too.


Pretty much the nuttiest post I've seen on here, and that's saying a lot. Where are on earth are you reading this stuff, or are you just making it up?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
407? Im not being Sarcastic. I want to hear some ideas on this.
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Quoting Neapolitan:

...says the fellow with 2000 posts. ;-)


Wow, where does that put me? LOL
Member Since: July 23, 2010 Posts: 1 Comments: 12414
Quoting wial:


Yes, using tachyons, somehow? What on Earth are you talking about? Oil comes from the Carboniferous Period, 359 - 299 million years ago. That's long before the dinosaurs. Long before the last great extinction event caused by the kinds of processes we're setting in motion, which was precipitated by a meteor hitting the Antarctic and causing the Siberian Traps to spew lava, eventually leading to a sea floor clathrate (frozen methane) meltdown and massive climate change, and the death of nearly all higher life, 250 million years ago. The dinosaurs, mammals and birds came along after that, and then mammals took over, of course, after the great extinction event of 65 million years ago. (It should be noted what we're facing is more like the 250 million year old event, because the one that wiped out the dinosaurs didn't set off the clathrates and caused less warming than what's in the cards for us).

Hominids have been around for about 14 million years, modern humans a tiny fraction of that time. They couldn't be responsible for the oil unless future humans somehow engineered it using some kind of tachyon ray or maybe a wormhole.

Please tell me you're joking and that living people don't actually believe what you just said.

As for those who think it's better to die individualist than live socialist, so we shouldn't fix climate change even if it means some amazing massive geo-engineering project, may I point out, no pun intended, that humans are the social ape, precisely because we can understand pointing, (as dogs can, also being social), and thus can teach each other, whereas apes can only imitate each other.

Are those of you who claim that we shouldn't be social (I've seen that in the past day or so) saying you think apes are better? I'm sure they are in some ways, but really?

In what way is selfish individualism better than the Golden Rule, again?

Personally, call me a crazy commie, but I want the Earth to survive and to be a lot less polluted and wrecked than it is now, because I love it.

Also, given Dr. Masters' sensible views on this subject, I can't quite grasp why AGW deniers would want to be here. Isn't there some revealed_meteorology.com or faith_based_forecasting.com site you can use?

Simply awesome. +10^100
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789
just get there already.
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 2146
Oh I might as well.....
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 2146
Quoting Neapolitan:

...says the fellow with 2000 posts. ;-)


You have almost as many as me and you just started posting a couple of months ago. I have been posting since I joined 5 years ago. Do the math.
EDIT LOL :)
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 0 Comments: 2146
410. WXTXN
Quoting jasoniscoolman2010xo:
Link good video to watch

Jason your rich!
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Quoting Grothar:

Well that's certainly a low-roller if I ever saw one!
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Ok-- I get it The planet is warming--How long do we have, because man is not going to change the way we are doing things on Earth. Also the Earth was rockin and rollin long before man was here. So with all the scientific evidence we have on global warming, what is the expiration date on man and will the Earth continue to go on or will it expire with man also?
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Quoting Grothar:


Nice looking wave, ain't it?
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Quoting Neapolitan:

Well, Dr. Masters opened the door for the current GW talk in his commentary today...and he's actually at the NHC the week so I think we're on pretty solid ground here... ;-)


Greetings! I've enjoyed your posts as they always point to the need for balanced discourse.

I rarely post, but I was doing some recent research regarding clathrate emissions, and the influence of geothermal "warming" with regard to a changing climate, and I found this article in the New Scientist, to which I subscribe...the publication, I mean.

http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg20126971.700-how-to-survive-the-coming-century.html?full=true

If you had a leisurely moment to read this, I'd appreciate your thoughts :)

FWIW, I am not in a position to challenge anyone here simply because of my limited post-grad education, which included such courses as "The History of Geography", and therefore precludes any real participation on my part.

Carry on, as you all will...off to vote in a mayoral election. Civic rights!




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Member Since: Posts: Comments:
403. wial
Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:


And the fact they are finding stone buildings that are under the glaciers, after they melted away, obviously meaning there was no ice there before. They choose to ignore that, and choose to ignore why deserts such as the middle east and northern alaska have oil. Oil only comes from organic material, meaning a much different climate in the past, humans must have changed that too.


Yes, using tachyons, somehow? What on Earth are you talking about? Oil comes from the Carboniferous Period, 359 - 299 million years ago. That's long before the dinosaurs. Long before the last great extinction event caused by the kinds of processes we're setting in motion, which was precipitated by a meteor hitting the Antarctic and causing the Siberian Traps to spew lava, eventually leading to a sea floor clathrate (frozen methane) meltdown and massive climate change, and the death of nearly all higher life, 250 million years ago. The dinosaurs, mammals and birds came along after that, and then mammals took over, of course, after the great extinction event of 65 million years ago. (It should be noted what we're facing is more like the 250 million year old event, because the one that wiped out the dinosaurs didn't set off the clathrates and caused less warming than what's in the cards for us).

Hominids have been around for about 14 million years, modern humans a tiny fraction of that time. They couldn't be responsible for the oil unless future humans somehow engineered it using some kind of tachyon ray or maybe a wormhole.

Please tell me you're joking and that living people don't actually believe what you just said.

As for those who think it's better to die individualist than live socialist, so we shouldn't fix climate change even if it means some amazing massive geo-engineering project, may I point out, no pun intended, that humans are the social ape, precisely because we can understand pointing, (as dogs can, also being social), and thus can teach each other, whereas apes can only imitate each other.

Are those of you who claim that we shouldn't be social (I've seen that in the past day or so) saying you think apes are better? I'm sure they are in some ways, but really?

In what way is selfish individualism better than the Golden Rule, again?

Personally, call me a crazy commie, but I want the Earth to survive and to be a lot less polluted and wrecked than it is now, because I love it.

Also, given Dr. Masters' sensible views on this subject, I can't quite grasp why AGW deniers would want to be here. Isn't there some revealed_meteorology.com or faith_based_forecasting.com site you can use?
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Quoting JupiterFL:
Some people really have absolutely nothing to do all day long.

...says the fellow with 2000 posts. ;-)
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789
Does anyone know if Tornadodude was chasing yesterday or today? I like when he posts about his chases. Interesting stuff.
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Quoting VAbeachhurricanes:
Don't mention all the facts though.

Wow. Again, please tell me where I lied, or where I've attempted to mislead. I merely pointed out the straight, unadulterated facts, which are that record highs have outnumbered record lows by a wide margin over the past 24 hours. (Had you read with an objective eye, you might have noticed that I mentioned the record lows; it's not my fault that they have been so badly outnumbered for the past seven months or so.)

(While we're at it, record highs have outnumbered record lows by to 830 to 102 over the past week. Toasty...)
Member Since: November 8, 2009 Posts: 4 Comments: 13789

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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