Karl makes landfall near Veracruz; Igor slightly weaker

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 8:29 PM GMT on September 17, 2010

Share this Blog
5
+

Hurricane Karl made landfall on the Mexican coast ten miles north of Veracruz at 1pm EDT today as a Category 3 hurricane with 115 mph winds. Veracruz was on the weak (left) side of Karl's eyewall, and did not receive hurricane force winds, except perhaps at the extreme northern edge of the city. Winds at the Veracruz Airport, located on the west side of the city, peaked at sustained speeds of 46 mph, gusting to 58 mph, at 11:54am local time. Radar out of Alvarado shows that Karl has kept its eyewall intact well inland, even as the storm moves into the high mountains east of Mexico City. Karl was the first major hurricane on record in the Bay of Campeche--the region of the Gulf of Mexico bounded by the Yucatan Peninsula on the east. There were two other major hurricanes that grazed the northern edge of the Bay of Campeche, Hurricane Hilda of 1955 and Hurricane Charley of 1951, but Karl is by far the farthest south a major hurricane has been in the Gulf of Mexico. Hurricane records go back to 1851, but Karl is a small storm and could have gotten missed as being a major hurricane before the age of aircraft reconnaissance (1945).


Figure 1. Tracks of all major hurricanes since 1851 near Mexico's Bay of Campeche. Karl is most southerly storm on record in the Gulf of Mexico. Image credit: NOAA Coastal Services Center.

With Karl's ascension to major hurricane status, we are now ahead of the pace of the terrible hurricane seasons of 2004 and 2005 for number of major hurricanes so early in the year. In 2005, the fifth major hurricane (Rita) did not occur until September 21, and in 2004, the fifth major hurricane (Karl) arrived on September 19. Wunderblogger Cotillion has put together a nice page showing all the seasons with five or more major hurricanes. The last time we had five major hurricanes earlier in the season was in 1961, when the fifth major hurricane (Esther) arrived on September 13. This morning we continue to have three simultaneous hurricanes, Hurricanes Igor, Julia, and Karl. This is a rare phenomena, having occurred only eight previous years since 1851. The last time we had three simultaneous hurricanes in the Atlantic was in 1998. That year also had four simultaneous hurricanes--Georges, Ivan, Jeanne and Karl--for a brief time on September 25. There has been just one other case of four simultaneous Atlantic hurricanes, on August 22, 1893. The year 2005 came within six hours of having three hurricanes at the same time, but the official data base constructed after the season was over indicates that the three hurricanes did not exist simultaneously.

Also remarkable this year is that are seeing major hurricanes in rare or unprecedented locations. Julia was the strongest hurricane on record so far east, Karl was the strongest hurricane so far south in the Gulf of Mexico, and Earl was the 4th strongest Atlantic hurricane so far north. This unusual major hurricane activity is likely due, in part, to the record Atlantic sea surface temperatures this year.


Figure 2. Hurricane Karl as seen by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite at 12:20 pm CDT on Thursday, September 16, 2010. Image credit: NASA.


Figure 3. Radar image of Karl at landfall in Mexico. Image credit: Mexican Weather Service.

Impact of Karl on Mexico
Given that the Bay of Campeche coast has never experienced a hurricane as strong as Karl, its impact is likely to cause major damage to a 50-mile wide coastal area beginning ten miles north of Veracruz. Fortunately, the coast is not heavily populated there, and is not particularly low-lying, so the 12 - 15 foot storm surge will not be the major concern from Karl. The main concern will be flooding from Karl's torrential rains. The region has been hit by three Category 2 hurricanes over the past 55 years, and two of these storms caused flooding that killed hundreds. The strongest hurricanes in history to affect the region were Item in 1950, with 110 mph winds, Janet in 1955, with 100 mph winds, and Diana of 1990, with 100 mph winds. Flooding from Janet killed over 800 people in Mexico. and flooding from Diana killed at least 139 people. Karl's high winds are also a major concern, and these winds are likely to extensive damage.

Igor
The Hurricane Hunters just left Hurricane Igor, and found that the hurricane has continued to slowly weaken. On their last pass through the eye of Igor at 1:49 pm EDT, an Air Force hurricane hunter aircraft found a central pressure of 947 mb. The eyewall was missing a chunk on its southwest side. Top winds at the surface as seen by their SFMR instrument were barely Category 1 strength, 76 mph, though the aircraft did see 117 mph winds at 10,000 feet, which suggests the surface winds were probably of Category 2 strength, 105 mph.


Figure 4. Hurricane Igor as seen by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite at 10:50 am EDT on Thursday, September 16, 2010. Image credit: NASA.

Igor's impact on Bermuda
Hurricane warnings are now flying for Bermuda, and tropical storm force winds will arrive at the island late Saturday night. Igor is a huge storm, and tropical storm force winds extend out 290 miles to the north of its center. As the hurricane moves north, it will expand in size, as it takes advantage of the extra spin available at higher latitudes due to Earth's rotation. By Saturday night, Igor's tropical storm force winds are expected to extend outwards 320 miles from the center. Igor will be moving at about 11 - 13 mph during the final 24 hours of its approach to Bermuda, so the island can expect a period of 39+ mph tropical storm force winds to begin near midnight Saturday night--a full 24 hours before the core of Igor arrives. Igor will speed up to about 15 mph as it passes the island near midnight Sunday night, and Bermuda's battering by tropical storm force winds will not be as long as Igor moves away, perhaps 10 hours long. Hurricane force winds will probably extend out about 70 miles from the center when the core of Igor reaches Bermuda, and the island can expect to be pounded by hurricane force winds for up to 6 - 8 hours. In all, Bermuda is likely to suffer a remarkably long 36-hour period of tropical storm force winds, with the potential for many hours of hurricane force winds. Long duration poundings like this are very stressful for buildings, and there is the potential for significant damage on Bermuda. However, buildings in Bermuda are some of the best-constructed in the world, and if Igor weakens to Category 2 strength, as appears likely, damage on the island may be just a few million dollars. According to AIR Worldwide, "Homes in Bermuda are typically one or two stories and constructed of 'Bermuda Stone,' a locally quarried limestone, or of concrete blocks. Roofs are commonly made of limestone slate tiles cemented together. Commercial buildings, typically of reinforced concrete construction, rarely exceed six stories. In both residential and commercial buildings, window openings are generally small and window shutters are common. These features make Bermuda's building stock quite resistant to winds, and homes are designed to withstand sustained winds of 110 mph and gusts of up to 150 mph."

Bermuda's hurricane history
Igor is similar in strength and projected track to Hurricane Fabian of 2003. Fabian hit Bermuda as a Category 3 hurricane with 120 mph winds. It was the most damaging hurricane ever to hit the island, with $355 million in damage. Fabian's storm surge killed four people crossing a causeway on the island. These were the first hurricane deaths on Bermuda since 1926. The most powerful hurricane on record to strike Bermuda was the Category 4 Havana-Bermuda Hurricane, which hit on October 22, 1926, with 135 mph winds. The hurricane sank two British warships, claiming 88 lives, but no one was killed on the island. The deadliest hurricane to affect the island occurred on September 12, 1839, when a Category 3 hurricane with 125 mph winds and an 11-foot storm surge hit, tearing off the roofs of hundreds of buildings and wrecking several ships. An estimated 100 people were killed (source: Encyclopedia of Hurricanes, Typhoons, and Cyclones, by David Longshore.)

Elsewhere in the tropics
A tropical wave off the coast of Africa, a few hundred miles south of the Cape Verdes Islands, is disorganized, but has the potential for some slow development over the next few days. The NOGAPS model develops this wave into a tropical depression 4 - 5 days from now. NHC is giving the wave a 10% of developing into a tropical depression by Sunday.

I'll have a new post on Saturday.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 298 - 248

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45Blog Index

Quoting P451:


If he did it would be minimal followed by more slow weakening.

He also continues to pose almost zero threat to anyone other than Bermuda and the north atlantic shipping lanes.

P451, my paranoia re: any TC S of 30N and E of 70W is well documented in this blog.... lol I'm well aware my locale is not w/in the forecast zone; I just wish Igor would get gone, is all, before that high changes its mind.....

Quoting loessiowa:
My first post here, and I have a question for you smart folks. Well, sortof two related questions:
1., is it possible for a tropical system to cross the Central American land mass and emerge on the pacific side to reorganize and reach tropical storm or greater strength, and
2. Has it ever happened?

I guess it could work the other way too, Pacific to Gulf, but it seems more likely to me to go east to west.

Thanks from this guy from tornado alley.
Both are possible and have happened. Most recent well known one that I recall off the bat is Hurricane Cesar in the Caribbean which became another hurricane in the EPac... and of course many TCs from the EPac basin are formed from Twaves that originated of the WAfrican coast... in fact IMO one reason why the season here has been so slow is that all the AEWs have been developing into long-range CV storms instead of crossing Central America...

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I was out most of the day. Got back and just read the last blog comment section from start to finish. Took a lot less time then usual.
.
.
Look back....there's apparantly some time delay before they fall......So many thoughts removed. I feel saddened that half the comments are removed now. The community here apparently has been split in half as well, or at the least there's a major rift. Some are for a stricter interpretation of the rules, a censorship level that we've never seen on this blog commentary section. And some are against the heightened censorship.
.
.
I'm not clear if it's ADMIN or fellow bloggers or some combination who are causing the mass removal and dump of someone's words and thoughts.
.
.
Seems to me that this IS the topic of discussion, until it's cleared up.
.
.
In my reading of the blog comments from the last blog I didn't learn anything new about the weather that was much beyond what I can read from the NHC, Dr. Master's words, or other supplemental sources. This means I'll be on the site less and the ads won't bother me.
.
.
Note to admin.....I'd like my money back. I don't need to be a paying member of a community here....if there is no community.
.
.
.
EDIT: I just read post #277. Excellent. I appreciate the time you took to write that. You have a 50/50 shot that your eloquent post will be censored.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
this may be come 94L



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting sailingallover:
If Igor is finishing up an EWRC and that Hot tower is the new eye it will be GINORMOUS!!!
http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic2/real-time/storm.php?&basin=atlantic&sname=11L&zoom=4 &img=1&vars= 11111000000000000000000&loop=0 mimic button on the left
Thanks Cotillio for the link.

Been my rave since dawn here in NM ...
The pic of visual pic of eye looks like yin-yang symbol below... that prolly covers the eye - was ellipse 2.5 to 3 dgrees this AM prolly tighter now but still bigger than Julia's entire active zone...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Here's a question from a beginner:


I understand about troughs and ridges (That one will force a Cane around it while the other creates a weak spot for a Cane to go through). However, how do you spot a trough and a ridge on a weather map?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting sailingallover:
If Igor is finishing up an EWRC and that Hot tower is the new eye it will be GINORMOUS!!!
http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic2/real-time/storm.php?&basin=atlantic&sname=11L&zoom=4 &img=1&vars= 11111000000000000000000&loop=0 mimic button on the left
Thanks Cotillio for the link.

I'll admit, I think Igor will be stronger when he effects Bermuda than most would think.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting PcolaDan:
Is Karl moving more south than predicted? If so, there might be a chance for him to survive the trek, across fewer mountains, and a narrower land mass, into the Pacific. Just a wild observation, mind you. But my guess is that Mexico has never been hit on three different coasts times by the same storm.
Already got 3 coasts (both sides of Yucatan), going for 4!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CajunTexan:
Wunderblog Tropical Poem Of The Day



A A Major Hurricane further south than ever,
Igor and Julia trying to merge together,
All of this record breaking tropical activity,
and I click on Wunderblog only to see,
The same ol' whining and bickering all day and night,
For the 4th straight day with no end in sight,
Igor is barreling on a south of NW destination,
while the folks in Bermuda make final preperations,
Protecting Property second and Life first,
Then hunker down and prepare for the worst,
Julia hasn't sang her last song yet,
while flooding in Mexico seems to be Karl's major threat,
All of a sudden good humor fallas deaf,
Which elimates great posters like DestinJeff,
With all of the bickering about "cliques" and taking sides,
I'm reminded of something I read one time,
Mother Nature knows no race, religion or creed,
It strikes every one of us equally,
So while on the blog today try to refrain,
From causing more problems and being a pain,
Let the humor flow as some like it the most,
And if you dont like it simply scroll past the post,
If we cant get past our little differences then take heed,
It'll be a sad day in wunderblog history indeed.




You have a wonderful way of making a point, humor and weather all in a joint. Kudos.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
18Z NOGAPS Joining CMC

Based on the overall pattern cyclogensis could be possible starting next week over the C/W Carib. Basically following climatology.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting sailingallover:
A few good cold fronts will take care of that..


That is exactly what this gulf coast resident is counting on!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
280. IKE
GFS not as aggressive with the GOM storm on this run. What it shows starts around 180 hours out.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
My first post here, and I have a question for you smart folks. Well, sortof two related questions:
1., is it possible for a tropical system to cross the Central American land mass and emerge on the pacific side to reorganize and reach tropical storm or greater strength, and
2. Has it ever happened?

I guess it could work the other way too, Pacific to Gulf, but it seems more likely to me to go east to west.

Thanks from this guy from tornado alley.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting sailingallover:
A few good cold fronts will take care of that..


I agree that few GOOD cold front will alleviate the SST problems in the GOM. My understanding is that the SST in the GOM run deep this year. How much do you think it will take in the way of cold fronts to knock down the current SST levels in the GOM to where this is no longer a concern?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
OK Igor is becomeing a little anyoing now  i  oder him too go a way so we can track some new storms
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting BahaHurican:
several good points in here.... however, like "regular" seasons, I think we're likely to see a vigorous secondary peak in October, and I expect we'll see another 4 storms associated with that [from about 10 - 30 Oct, maybe?] Given the lack of activity in the CAR up to this point, I've a feeling that whatever does eventually get to hurricane status there is going to get real bad real fast. [Not like THAT would be a surprise.... lol] But two more major storms before the end of the season seem quite possible.

As to Julia, wasn't this the storm that was forecast to head north relatively early and never get much beyond cat 1? Weak cat 2 is what I recall they were thinking. There was a lot more of a forecast error there than with Igor, at any rate....


Yes, I agree with that secondary peak. I think probably 3 storms in that time frame, possibly seeing Paula by the end of October (which then carries into November - Richard'll be one of those late November stragglers if he pops up).

I think 2 majors will be the maximum (which is already crazy numbers). I don't think this season will reach 1950 major hurricane quantity (we've got that season yet to come - what fun that'll be....). Already been on record saying no Cat 5 this year, though another Cat 4 wouldn't be a surprise at all - could even be considered to be likely.

Karl won't be the last big hit, either, sadly.

Julia, yes, it took until the 7th discussion before they'd even go beyond the 65kt to 70kt. She was briefly thought to reach 85kt before being revised downward.

In the end she reached 115kts. As the forecasters say, intensity forecasting is still very hard (though, the Euro did a very good job with Julia initially - blowing it up outta all proportion in a weird area.).
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hydrus:
And look at the Bermuda High.

Yep..west they will go! I guess we'll have to hope for high sheer. Sheer usually increases in October, right?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting cctxshirl:
I'm not sure if what's off the TX Gulf Coast has anything to do with Karl, but we are getting pounded. Looks like a lot of moisture out in the GOM.
VERY disturbed weather in the Western Gulf:
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Is Karl moving more south than predicted? If so, there might be a chance for him to survive the trek, across fewer mountains, and a narrower land mass, into the Pacific. Just a wild observation, mind you. But my guess is that Mexico has never been hit on three different coasts times by the same storm.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
from nothing it will come and leave nothing behind

Mi Amigo -- please be kind lol, ACTUALLY *nervous giggle*.... you're giving me the jeeper-creepers ALREADY!!! -- the gomex is my backyard..remember ...?

let's hope this is a figment that evaporates ,last thing we need is for the Gulf to belch up all that oil sitting on the bottom.... oil in your yard is considered HazMAT by insurance companies & then they won't pay : (
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hydrus:
And look at the Bermuda High.
uh oh!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting sailingallover:
A few good cold fronts will take care of that..
I hope so..:)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
julia is approaching big brother igor at a lot slower rate now: Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting muddertracker:


The end of that run looks terrible for the GOMEX...No thanks!
And look at the Bermuda High.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hydrus:
I am afraid there will be more where that came from. It is only my prediction, The Gulf of Mexico region will have two hits in October and one in November. Of course I do not want it to happen. But the ingredients are there.
A few good cold fronts will take care of that..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting HadesGodWyvern:
TY ファナピ (T1011)
================================

SUBJECT: Category Three Typhoon In Sea South Of Okinawa

At 21:00 PM UTC, Typhoon Fanapi (950 hPa) located at 23.3N 126.4E has 10 minute sustained winds of 80 knots with gusts of 115 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving west at 9 knots

Dvorak Intensity:

Storm Force Winds
=================
85 NM from the center

Gale Force Winds
================
180 NM from the center

Forecast and Intensity
=======================
24 HRS: 24.0N 122.2E - 85 knots (CAT 4/Very Strong Typhoon)
45 HRS: 23.8N 118.4E - 55 knots (CAT 2/Severe Tropical Storm)
69 HRS: 24.2N 114.1E - Tropical Depression
Getting stronger as it approaches Taiwan.... Thanks for the update, HGW...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I'd just like to thank whoever posted the Hurricane Donna videos a couple of days ago. Donna is from my childhood mythology, and her name was always spoken softly, as if it might attract another storm like her...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
I'm not sure if what's off the TX Gulf Coast has anything to do with Karl, but we are getting pounded. Looks like a lot of moisture out in the GOM.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
If Igor is finishing up an EWRC and that Hot tower is the new eye it will be GINORMOUS!!!
http://cimss.ssec.wisc.edu/tropic2/real-time/storm.php?&basin=atlantic&sname=11L&zoom=4&img=1&vars= 11111000000000000000000&loop=0 mimic button on the left
Thanks Cotillio for the link.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Cotillion:


Hey Baha.

Yeah, it'll be close, but after Igor departs stage right, things might calm down a little. Lisa might form (though whether it's a CV storm or a Caribbean issue remains to be seen) before the end of September. Hints are we won't see Nicole at least until next month. Matthew may be seen before the end of the month, but wouldn't be surprised if we didn't, either.

After such a frenetic period, things might chill a touch. Most seasons have that lull. 1998 is frequently held up as an example for this season (although, the figures will be different) and after that hectic timeframe, things cooled. After Karl, there was only one storm for 3 weeks - Lisa, which was fairly shortlived.

It's much more of a classic season, in my opinion, than a 1995 or 2005. A different atmosphere to it. Those were relentless from day one.

I do agree that another major hurricane is likely to be seen yet, though. (Personally, despite the time differences over sea, Julia was much more of a surprise to reach major status than Karl was. As soon as Karl immediately went to 50mph after leaving the Yucatan, you just had that sinking feeling...)
several good points in here.... however, like "regular" seasons, I think we're likely to see a vigorous secondary peak in October, and I expect we'll see another 4 storms associated with that [from about 10 - 30 Oct, maybe?] Given the lack of activity in the CAR up to this point, I've a feeling that whatever does eventually get to hurricane status there is going to get real bad real fast. [Not like THAT would be a surprise.... lol] But two more major storms before the end of the season seem quite possible.

As to Julia, wasn't this the storm that was forecast to head north relatively early and never get much beyond cat 1? Weak cat 2 is what I recall they were thinking. There was a lot more of a forecast error there than with Igor, at any rate....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
from nothing it will come and leave nothing behind

Ahhhh...Keeper is Back!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Levi, will that surface low head west with Karl? Or could it be picked up and pushed back east by a trough. I'm begging for rain in south MS.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Local forecasters said the storm dumped 8 inches (215 millimeters) of rain in the city in the first 90 minutes. Flights into Veracruz were cancelled, and public transit was shut down.


Link

A stretch of coastal road farther north in Nautla was also washed out.

The storm was expected to steadily weaken as it moved inland, but was still a Category 1 hurricane as it passed over the state capital of Jalapa, 60 miles (100 kilometers) from the coast.

It was projected to slog across central Mexico, drenching Mexico City, after dumping 5 to 10 inches (254 millimeters) of rain across the central and southern Gulf coast region. Up to 15 inches (381 millimeters) was expected in parts of the flood-prone mountains of Veracruz, where a storm killed more than 300 people in 1999.

Rains in the mountain regions could cause flash floods and mudslides, the Hurricane Center said.

"We are releasing more water from the reservoirs, which could be overwhelmed by the rain," said Veracruz state Gov. Fidel Herrera.

Mexico City officials put crews on alert and began preparing for Karl, which they said could still have the strength of a tropical storm for its forecast arrival at the capital Saturday.



Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting muddertracker:

I don't think anyone needs to unbuckle their seatbelt yet. A few on here have been suggesting that the season's over. Not smart, imho. Things tend to happen in a hurry this time of year, especially when the storms are "home grown," so to speak. Heads up!
Yeah I was saying that same thing last night. Can't remember who it was that was saying the season is over. I made the comment that there is alot of time between now and December 1st and at this point in the season that is definitely the wrong way to be thinking. Agree with ya on the "home grown" issue...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
KARL MADE LANDFALL JUST NORTH-NORTHWEST OF VERACRUZ MEXICO AT
ABOUT 1630Z. BEFORE LANDFALL...THE CENTRAL PRESSURE RAPIDLY ROSE
FROM 957 MB TO 976 MB OVER A 4.5 HOUR PERIOD FOR REASONS THAT ARE
NOT READILY APPARENT.
DESPITE THIS...THE AIRCRAFT-REPORTED WINDS
SUPPORTED MAJOR HURRICANE INTENSITY UNTIL LANDFALL.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting KATRINABILOXIGIRL:
Not what I wanted to hear either...The set up that StormW has been talking about looks like it may be coming into play now...YIKES!
from nothing it will come and leave nothing behind
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hydrus:
I am afraid there will be more where that came from. It is only my prediction, The Gulf of Mexico region will have two hits in October and one in November. Of course I do not want it to happen. But the ingredients are there.

Agreed. I think we're just getting started. The High saved us Texas this time, but it's not hanging out much longer.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 298 - 248

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Mostly Cloudy
75 °F
Mostly Cloudy