Causes of the Russian heat wave and Pakistani floods

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:56 PM GMT on August 13, 2010

Share this Blog
4
+

The Great Russian Heat Wave of 2010 is one of the most intense, widespread, and long-lasting heat waves in world history. Only the European heat wave of 2003, which killed 35,000 - 50,000 people, and the incredible North American heat wave of July 1936, which set all-time extreme highest temperature records in fifteen U.S. states, can compare. All of these heat waves were caused by a highly unusual kink in the jet stream that remained locked in place for over a month. The jet stream is an upper-level river of air, between the altitudes of about 30,000 - 40,000 feet (10,000 - 12,000 meters). In July over Europe and Asia, the jet stream has two branches: a strong southern "subtropical" jet that blows across southern Europe, and a weaker "polar" jet that blows across northern Europe. The polar jet stream carries along the extratropical cyclones (lows) that bring the mid-latitudes most of their precipitation. The polar jet stream also acts as the boundary between cold, Arctic air, and warm tropical air. If the polar jet stream shifts to the north of its usual location, areas just to its south will be much hotter and drier than normal. In July 2010, a remarkably strong polar jet stream developed over northern Europe. This jet curved far to the north of Moscow, then plunged southwards towards Pakistan. This allowed hot air to surge northwards over most of European Russia, and prevented rain-bearing low pressure systems from traveling over the region. These rain-bearing low pressure systems passed far to the north of European Russia, then dove unusually far to the south, into northern Pakistan. The heavy rains from these lows combined with Pakistan's usual summer monsoon rains to trigger Pakistan's most devastating floods in history.


Figure 1. Winds of the jet stream at an altitude of 300 millibars (roughly 30,000 feet high). Left: Average July winds from the period 1968 - 1996 show that a two-branch jet stream typically occurs over Europe and Asia--a northern "polar" jet stream, and a more southerly "subtropical" jet stream. Right: the jet stream pattern in July 2010 was highly unusual, with a very strong polar jet looping far to the north of Russia, then diving southwards towards Pakistan. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL.

What caused this unusual jet stream pattern?
The unusual jet stream pattern that led to the 2010 Russian heat wave and Pakistani floods began during the last week of June, and remained locked in place all of July and for the first half of August. Long-lived "blocking" episodes like this are usually caused by unusual sea surface temperature patterns, according to recent research done using climate models. For example, Feudale and Shukla (2010) found that during the summer of 2003, exceptionally high sea surface temperatures of 4°C (7°F) above average over the Mediterranean Sea, combined with unusually warm SSTs in the northern portion of the North Atlantic Ocean near the Arctic, combined to shift the jet stream to the north over Western Europe and create the heat wave of 2003. I expect that the current SST pattern over the ocean regions surrounding Europe played a key role in shifting the jet stream to create the heat wave of 2010. Note that the SST anomaly pattern is quite different this year compared to 2003, which may be why this year's heat wave hit Eastern Europe, and the 2003 heat wave hit Western Europe. Human-caused climate change also may have played a role; using climate models, Stott et al. (2004) found it very likely (>90% chance) that human-caused climate change has at least doubled the risk of severe heat waves like the great 2003 European heat wave.


Figure 2. A comparison of the departure of sea surface temperature (SST) from average just prior the the start of the great European heat waves of 2003 and 2010. Temperatures in the Mediterranean Sea were up to 4°C above average in 2003, which has been implicated as a major cause of the Western European heat wave of 2003. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS.

References
Feudale, L., and J. Shukla (2010), "Influence of sea surface temperature on the European heat wave of 2003 summer. Part I: an observational study", Climate Dynamics DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0788-0

Stott, P.A., Stone, D.A., and M.R. Allen (2004), "Human contribution to the European heatwave of 2003", Nature 432, 610-614 (2 December 2004) | doi:10.1038/nature03089. (Here is a free version of the paper, presented at a conference.)

The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has posted an analysis of the recent extreme weather events, concluding, "the sequence of current events matches IPCC projections of more frequent and more intense extreme weather events due to global warming."

See also my posts, The Great Russian Heat Wave of 2010: 102°F in Moscow and, Over 15,000 likely dead in Russian heat wave; Asian monsoon floods kill hundreds more.

Moscow sees real relief from the Great Russian Heat Wave of 2010
For the first time in more than a month, temperatures at Moscow's Domodedovo airport failed to exceed 30°C (86°F) today. Clouds and thunderstorms blew into the city this morning, keeping the high temperature down to just 29°C (84°F). This breaks a string of 35 straight days when the temperature reached 30°C. At Moscow's official observing site, the Moscow Observatory, this string was 30 days. Moscow's average high temperature for August 13 is 20°C (68°F), so today's temperatures were still well above normal. However, today's cool-down marks the beginning of the end for Russia's great heat wave. The latest forecast for Moscow calls for high temperatures below 30°C for the coming week, and Moscow may not exceed that threshold for the remainder of summer. Long range forecasts from the ECMWF and GFS models continue to suggest that a series of troughs of low pressure will attack the ridge of high pressure anchored over Russia, bringing cooler temperatures just 5°C (8°F) above average to Russia late next week. By ten days from now, the ECMWF model shows a strong trough of low pressure over Moscow, and a end to the Great Russian Heat Wave of 2010. Moscow still has to concern itself with smoke from the wildfires burning southeast of the city; winds are expected to shift early next week and bring the smoke towards the city again. However, the cooler weather should aid fire-fighting efforts, so the smoke problems should not be as bad as last week's nightmare.


Figure 2. Image from NASA's Aqua satellite of smoke from wildfires burning to the southeast of Moscow yesterday, August 12, 2010. Northerly winds were keeping the smoke from blowing over the city. Image credit: NASA.

The tropics are quiet
The remnants of Tropical Depression Five continue to bring heavy rain to portions of Southeast Louisiana today. Up to five inches of rain has fallen in regions near New Orleans. The GFS model predicts that the remains of TD 5 could move off the coast of Mississippi by the middle of next week and regenerate, but none of the other models is making this forecast. Both the GFS and ECMWF models are predicting that a tropical storm will develop off the coast of Africa by next Friday, August 20.

Donations urgently needed in Pakistan
The devastation wrought by the worst flooding in Pakistan's history requires a huge response by the international community. Wunderblogger Dr. Ricky Rood, author of our Climate Change Blog, has a friend working in Pakistan who underscored the desperate situation there:

This is the worst natural disaster in the history of Pakistan in terms of number of people and area affected. Although not as many people have been killed as in the 2005 earthquake, we have already nearly 900,000 displaced persons thus far just in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Crops are destroyed; shops, hotels, and other business have simply been swept away in Swat, which had just this year been cleared of Taliban and was on the way to recovery; and districts closer to Peshawar and parts of Peshawar district are still, or perhaps again after yesterday/today, under water. After the immediate emergency response, it will be years of rebuilding to replace what has been lost and to start to develop again. I know you have the power to control the weather, so if you cold give us a week or two without more rain at least we could keep the helicopters flying and give people a chance to go to their homes, recover what might still be there, set up tents if we can get enough to them, and start to clean up."

She gave the following recommendations for charities that do work in the flood-ravaged zone, and are effective at getting aid to those who need it the most:

Doctors Without Borders

The International Red Cross

MERLIN medical relief charity

The mobile giving service mGive allows one to text the word "SWAT" to 50555. The text will result in a $10 donation to the UN Refugee Agency (UNHCR) Pakistan Flood Relief Effort.

She mentioned that it is better to send money to the organizations doing the relief work than to try to organize shipments of goods.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 3125 - 3075

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66Blog Index

Not syaing this will happen, but go to nhc homepage and pull up seasonal archive.Check out the detailed discussion of hurricane alicia.See what it came from where it started and how strong it got.Not saying by any means i hink this will happen with td5, but the possibility in the northern gulf in august with favorable conditions shows you what can happen.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CybrTeddy:


Its over land, a lot of times they don't look impressive but PGI30L has a potent MLC. That's all that matters once it reaches the water.
but keep in mind it LOOKED impressive through yesterday...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting DestinJeff:
I bet I know when things will start to pop in the Atlantic.

Next week.


Same as the sign in the local bar, "Free beer tomorrow"
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Here's the story for today. The ECMWF, GFS, CMC, and NOGAPS all redevelop TD5 and develop PGI30L which is currently over Africa. It looks pretty good that we might see 2 storms this week. Very good consistency and tight model support.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23484
3121. IKE
SHIPS has TD5 at 31.8N and 84.9W. Keeps it over land throughout the run...Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


HMMMM? Lol. I'm just sayin. :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Hhunter:
from crown weather

Tropical Weather Discussion
Issued: Sunday, August 15, 2010 620 am EDT/520 am CDT

Eastern Atlantic Development This Week Through Next Week With Up To Two To Three Named Storms Possible:
Looking at the long range prospects. If the model guidance is to be believed, we are looking at a very busy 10 to 15 days across the Atlantic Basin with up to 3 additional tropical cyclones forecast....I strongly believe that in just 7 to 10 days from now, we will be tracking and monitoring multiple tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Basin. Things are anticipated to get very busy by late this week right through at least the end of the month.


Interesting, to say the least...and pretty much in parallel with my own thoughts...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Gearsts:
poor wave


Its over land, a lot of times they don't look impressive but PGI30L has a potent MLC. That's all that matters once it reaches the water.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23484
Quoting JBirdFireMedic:


Thank you for the explanation. Should I assume unless it reached TD status, that Wu site will not have it on the Tropical page?


Not sure about that, I've never been able to figure out how different websites stop and then resume displaying ATCF data.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Nevertheless the odds of this season producing substantially more than normal hurricane activity are clearly falling, and that's not a bad thing at all.
Link

While the odds of more then a normal activity might be less, the blogger does not touch really where the storms may go based on the NAO and while yes the number may not be excessive where the storms do go could cancel out the amount of storms.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Beautiful morning over the Atlantic as seen by the GV forward camera.


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:


In the ATCF system, all storms are an invest which are then classified according to their highest level of tc development. Currently xTD05 is designated as:
08/15/2010 07:06AM 3,778 invest_al052010.invest
With the level of development as a low


Thank you for the explanation. Should I assume unless it reached TD status, that Wu site will not have it on the Tropical page?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3110. Hhunter
from crown weather

Tropical Weather Discussion
Issued: Sunday, August 15, 2010 620 am EDT/520 am CDT

Would you like this tropical weather discussion e-mailed to you each day? If so, just send an e-mail to: crownweatherservices-subscribe@yahoogroups.com and you will be added to our mailing list.

Discussion
Ex-Tropical Depression #5:
Of most importance this morning is Ex-Tropical Depression #5 which is located over southeastern Alabama this morning. This system is forecast to track to the south and reach the coastal portions of the Florida Panhandle by later today and then reach the waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico late tonight or Monday morning. The latest model guidance is more aggressive with strengthening over the northern Gulf of Mexico because the guidance is now forecasting a further south course which would create some additional extra time over the waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico. The guidance this morning ranges from a 60 to 70 mph tropical storm (GFS and NAM model) to a low end Category 1 hurricane (Canadian model) to a tropical depression or a borderline tropical storm (European model).

I agree with the idea that Ex-Tropical Depression #5 will make it into the northern Gulf of Mexico waters just south of the western Florida Panhandle during the predawn hours of Monday morning. After that, I believe that you will see this system reacquire tropical depression status and likely tropical storm status during Monday and Monday night as it tracks westward across the northern Gulf of Mexico waters. I think the ultimate track will lie somewhere between the GFS model which brings into the central Louisiana coast on Tuesday afternoon and Tuesday night and the NAM model which brings it onshore on the upper Texas coast on Wednesday morning. So, I am going to go with a track that takes it westward just south of the Louisiana coast during Tuesday and then inland into southwestern Louisiana during Tuesday night.

As for strength based on my thinking for a forecast track: I think we are looking at something that is somewhat stronger than what I was thinking yesterday. At this point, I am going with strengthening during the day Tuesday to a 50 to 70 mph tropical storm when it comes ashore in southwestern Louisiana on Tuesday night.

Heavy rain with the threat for flooding will continue for at least the next 3 days across the northern Gulf coast. Additional rainfall totals across coastal southeast Louisiana, coastal Mississippi, coastal Alabama and the extreme western Florida Panhandle are expected to exceed 5 more inches. This is on top of the heavy rainfall that has already accumulated across this area. So, flooding is a significant concern and those of you in this area should monitor local flood watches and warnings and take appropriate action if necessary.

All interests along the Louisiana coast, the Mississippi coast and the Alabama coast should keep close tabs on this system. Needless to say, I will be monitoring Ex-Tropical Depression 5 very closely and will keep you all updated.

Eastern Atlantic Development This Week Through Next Week With Up To Two To Three Named Storms Possible:
Looking at the long range prospects. If the model guidance is to be believed, we are looking at a very busy 10 to 15 days across the Atlantic Basin with up to 3 additional tropical cyclones forecast. The latest GFS model is forecasting the following: A major hurricane to track out into the open Atlantic in about 8 to 10 days. A second major hurricane to impact the northern Leeward Islands around August 27th and then impact the Bahamas and threaten Florida around August 30th. The GFS model is also forecasting a third tropical cyclone to form around August 25th and impact the Windward Islands and Barbados around August 30th.

As for the other model guidance, the latest European model is forecasting tropical cyclone formation in the eastern Atlantic around August 19th with a second tropical cyclone forming in the far eastern Atlantic around August 24th. Looking at the setup based on the European model, I would suspect that the first tropical cyclone would track out into the open Atlantic, however, the second tropical cyclone forecast would need to be really monitored closely.

So, here are my thoughts: I strongly believe that in just 7 to 10 days from now, we will be tracking and monitoring multiple tropical cyclones in the Atlantic Basin. Things are anticipated to get very busy by late this week right through at least the end of the month. Personally, I wouldn’t concentrate on exact storm forecast details, but instead look at the overall pattern forecast to setup and the idea of at least two tropical cyclones forming in the eastern Atlantic seems quite possible. I also wanted to note that the European model ensemble guidance continues to be further south and west with the first tropical cyclone and it’s 10 day forecast is showing a strong ridge of high pressure across much of the Atlantic and this could mean we could see the first system track further west than what is currently being forecast by the model guidance.

So, needless to say, I will be watching this closely over the coming days and probably weeks and will keep you all updated on the latest.

The next tropical weather discussion will be issued by 7 am EDT/6 am CDT Monday morning
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormW:


I wouldn't be so sure about that.
come on now, you are gonna burst our future NHC director's bubble :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting JBirdFireMedic:
Forgive my lack of knowledge, but when you have a situation like Ex TD5, and it becomes a risk again over water, is it renumbered as an invest or is that not needed as the resources are already available because it was previously assigned?

Basically what is the technical name for it now according to NOAA? Like on the ftp site.

I notice we have nothing on this weather on the Tropical page of WU where we normally have WU model runs displayed, ect. All I see is invest90 in the epac.


In the ATCF system, all storms are an invest which are then classified according to their highest level of tc development. Currently xTD05 is designated as:
08/15/2010 07:06AM 3,778 invest_al052010.invest
With the level of development as a low
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
hey Gearsts the wave that we are still watching is still there but it is abit under the blues and it needs to get it self over water

here this is a sat that you can see it better look closely on the west coast you can see something of a well define spin but is in need of convection



Link
Member Since: June 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 10852
Quoting StormSurgeon:


That thing just won't go away will it....

Off topic, but I wish they's hurry up and open the Gulf waters for commercial fishing, shrimping and oystering. I'm ready to make some gumbo without paying 100 bucks for imported junk. The waters off D. Island are as clean as a whistle.


Morning all

No offense SS...But I'm not eating anything out of the Gulf for a few years...They can open it all they want, I'm not convinced that a month after the oil stopped flowing that everything is "safe"
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wayne0224:
I guess for me it would b walking outside in charlys eye after 150mph winds took half the roof


For me it would being without power and water for at least a week as a result of strong winds/floods.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3104. Gearsts
Quoting IKE:


Looks like it dried up...

poor wave
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Gearsts:
Where's the wave in africa that everyone is watching?


The one with the vigorous MLC at about 10W. Remember, it's not going to look too impressive as its over land but once it emerges things will get interesting.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23484
Quoting homelesswanderer:


Thanks for the tip. Haven't used my Mother's Day Booksamillion gift card yet. Maybe they'll have them. I'll look at BN too. :)
Just saw it yesterday at the one at Bay Area Blvd....Had lots of copies on a table just inside the door.....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3101. IKE
Quoting Gearsts:
Where's the wave in africa that everyone is watching?


Looks like it dried up...

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3100. oakland
Quoting StormSurgeon:


For me it's no power and the cranking of a chainsaw......and generator


Me too- especially no power! When it's out for more than a few days, ie-Andrew (2 weeks), Wilma (1 week), it really wears a person down.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting beeleeva:
Mentioned this before,,but after Issacs Storm,,read Infinite Monster,,,,,now available at Barnes and Nobel, at least in the Bay Area,,,!


Thanks for the tip. Haven't used my Mother's Day Booksamillion gift card yet. Maybe they'll have them. I'll look at BN too. :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3098. Gearsts
Where's the wave in africa that everyone is watching?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting heretolearninPR:
Storms I have been through

1996 Hurricane Bertha
1996 Hurricane Hortense
1998 Hurricane Georges
2004 Tropical storm Jeanne

Not too many. I moved to Puerto Rico in 1996 and thought that was a typical year. We have been blessed since Georges, although Jeanne knocked out water and power for a week. It was a very strong tropical storm when it hit us.


Storms/hurricanes I have been through: Hurricanes Hugo, Georges, Hortense, and Bertha; Tropical Storm Jeanne. All were bad in one way or another, especially with the lack of power and water for weeks.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Forgive my lack of knowledge, but when you have a situation like Ex TD5, and it becomes a risk again over water, is it renumbered as an invest or is that not needed as the resources are already available because it was previously assigned?

Basically what is the technical name for it now according to NOAA? Like on the ftp site.

I notice we have nothing on this weather on the Tropical page of WU where we normally have WU model runs displayed, ect. All I see is invest90 in the epac.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting IKE:
Speed up the loop...you can kind of see a spin over SW Georgia...Link



Looks to me like it's on top of you about to slip in to the Gulf...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting msphar:
Speaking of time, there are 4 weeks to the climatological center point, and 15.5 weeks to the end of November. We have 108 days left till Nov 30th. That converts to about 36 more waves.


True. And since about 60% of all TCs are birthed from TWs, if all those waves turn into something, we could end up with 50 more TCs!!!

Yes, I'm kidding...but I still feel the final numbers are going to be higher than many are calling for...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
wow was anyone expecting this to happen


Member Since: June 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 10852
Quoting homelesswanderer:


Thanks. Been wanting to read that. I was thinking that we still have so much to learn too.
Mentioned this before,,but after Issacs Storm,,read Infinite Monster,,,,,now available at Barnes and Nobel, at least in the Bay Area,,,!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3089. IKE
Speed up the loop...you can kind of see a spin over SW Georgia...Link

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting homelesswanderer:


Thanks. Been wanting to read that. I was thinking that we still have so much to learn too.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3087. IKE
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting heretolearninPR:


It began as a subtropical storm north of Puerto Rico on December 10. After hitting the Dominican Republic it transitioned to a tropical storm and exited Hispaniola. It was the deadliest post season storm killing 40 people (this is aaccording to Wikipedia)


Thanks, that what I get for jumping blindly in to the blog.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wayne0224:
I guess for me it would b walking outside in charlys eye after 150mph winds took half the roof


For me it's no power and the cranking of a chainsaw......and generator
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormSurgeon:


??


It began as a subtropical storm north of Puerto Rico on December 10. After hitting the Dominican Republic it transitioned to a tropical storm and exited Hispaniola. It was the deadliest post season storm killing 40 people (this is aaccording to Wikipedia)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3083. msphar
Speaking of time, there are 4 weeks to the climatological center point, and 15.5 weeks to the end of November. We have 108 days left till Nov 30th. That converts to about 36 more waves.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting FLWeatherFreak91:
For the people posting their storm experiences: What are your criteria for determining which storms you've been through? Tropical storm winds? Damage? Proximity to center?

I guess for me it would b walking outside in charlys eye after 150mph winds took half the roof
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting IKE:


That reads like an honest..straight-forward synopsis of what was called for..what has happened up til now...and what could happen the remainder of the season.


Yes. He could be right. But he was going by what had happened up til his article about Ike (climatology) too. We'll see in the end. Hope he's right. I love my A/C too. Lol. That's why I run. :D
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CybrTeddy:



What's left of the COC isn't far from IKE.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3079. Gearsts
Olga in 07
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Gearsts:


??
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CybrTeddy:


Funny how now there model support for 4 systems over the next few weeks.


I know! The downcasting will come to a halt its just a matter of time.....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting LoneStarWeather:

Great post! A perfect reminder for everyone, especially the model worshipers, of how little we know and how unpredictable the weather still is. Hurricane season is no time to be smug with your science. By the way, I'm finishing up reading "Issac's Storm" by Eric Larson. It's a very good account of the great 1900 storm that hit Galveston. I highly recommend it!


Thanks. Been wanting to read that. I was thinking that we still have so much to learn too.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23484

Viewing: 3125 - 3075

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Partly Cloudy
71 °F
Partly Cloudy