Storms of My Grandchildren by Dr. James Hansen

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 11:34 PM GMT on July 26, 2010

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"Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity" is NASA climate change scientist Dr. James Hansen's first book. Dr. Hansen is arguably the most visible and well-respected climate change scientist in the world, and has headed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City since 1981. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University. Dr. Hansen greatly raised awareness of the threat of global warming during his Congressional testimony during the record hot summer of 1988, and issued one of the first-ever climate model predictions of global warming (see an analysis here to see how his 1988 prediction did.) In 2009, Dr. Hansen was awarded the Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal, the highest honor bestowed by the American Meteorological Society, for his "outstanding contributions to climate modeling, understanding climate change forcings and sensitivity, and for clear communication of climate science in the public arena."

Storms of My Grandchildren focuses on the key concepts of the science of climate change, told through Hansen's personal experiences as a key player in field's scientific advancements and political dramas over the past 40 years. Dr. Hansen's writing style is very straight-forward and understandable, and he clearly explains the scientific concepts involved in a friendly way that anyone with a high school level science education can understand. I did not find any scientific errors in his book. However, some of his explanations are too long-winded, and the book is probably too long, at 274 pages. Nevertheless, Storms of My Grandchildren is a must-read, due to the importance of the subject matter and who is writing it. Hansen is not a fancy writer. He comes across as a plain Iowan who happened to stumble into the field of climate change and discovered things he had to speak out about. And he does plenty of speaking out in his book.

James Hansen vs. Richard Lindzen
Dr. Hansen's book opens with an interesting chapter on his participation in four meetings of Vice President Dick Cheney's cabinet-level Climate Task Force in 2001. It seems that the Bush Administration was prepared to let Dr. Hansen's views on climate change influence policy. However, Dr. Richard Lindzen, whom Hansen describes as "the dean of of global warming contrarians", was also present at the meetings. Dr.Lindzen was able to confuse the task force members enough so that they never took Dr. Hansen's views seriously. Hansen observes that "U.S. policies regarding carbon dioxide during the Bush-Cheney administration seem to have been based on, or at a minimum, congruent with, Lindzen's perspective." Hansen asserts that Lindzen was able to do this by acting more like a lawyer than a scientist: "He and other contrarians tend to act like lawyers defending a client, presenting only arguments that favor their client. This is in direct contradiction to...the scientific method." Hansen also comments that he asked Lindzen what he thought of the link between smoking and cancer, since Lindzen had been a witness for the tobacco industry decades earlier. Lindzen "began rattling off all the problems with the data relating smoking to health problems, which was closely analogous to his views of climate data."

Alarmism
Global warming contrarians often dismiss scientists such a Dr. Hansen as "alarmists" who concoct fearsome stories about climate change in order to get research funding. Dr. Lindzen made this accusation at Cheney's Climate Task Force in 2001. However, Dr. Hansen notes that "in 1981 I lost funding for research on the climate effects of carbon dioxide because the Energy Department was displeased with a paper, 'Climate Impact of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,' I had published in Science magazine. The paper made a number of predictions for the 21st century, including 'opening of the fabled Northwest Passage', which the Energy Department considered to be alarmist but which have since proven to be accurate." If you read Dr. Hansen's book and listen to his lectures, it is clear that he is not an alarmist out to get more research funding by hyping the dangers of global warming. Hansen says in his book that "my basic nature nature is very placid, even comfortably stolid", and that nature comes through very clearly in Storms of My Grandchildren. Hansen's writings express a quiet determination to plainly set forth the scientific truth on climate change. He has surprisingly few angry words towards the politicians, lobbyists, and scientists intent on distorting the scientific truth.

The science of climate change
The bulk of Storms of My Grandchildren is devoted to explanations of the science of climate change. Hansen's greatest concern is disintegration of the gerat ice sheets in Greenland and West Antarctica causing sea level rise: "Once the ice sheets begin to rapidly disintegrate, sea level would be continuously changing for centuries. Coastal cities would become impractical to maintain." Hansen is concerned that evidence from past climate periods show that the massive ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica can melt quickly, with large changes within a century. For example, sea level at the end of the most recent Ice Age, 13,000 - 14,000 years ago, rose at a rate of 3 - 5 meters (10 - 17 feet) per century for several centuries. Hansen is convinced that just a 1.7 -2°C warming, which would likely result if we stabilize CO2 at 450 ppm, would be a "disaster scenario" that would trigger rapid disintegration of the ice sheets and disastrous rises in sea level. Hansen advocates stabilizing CO2 at 350 ppm (we are currently at 390 ppm, with a rate of increase of 2 ppm per year.)

Another of Hansen's main concerns is the extinction of species. He notes that studies of more than 1,000 species of plants, animals, and insects have found an average migration rate towards the poles due to climate warming in the last half of the 20th century to be four miles per decade. "That is not fast enough. During the past thirty years the lines marking the regions in which a given average temperature prevails (isotherms) have been moving poleward at a rate of about thirty-five miles per decade. If greenhouse gases continue to increase at business-as-usual rates, then the rate of isotherm movement will double in this century to at least seventy miles per decade."

Hansen's other main concern is the release of large amounts of methane gas stored in sea-floor sediments in the form of methane hydrates. If ocean temperatures warm according to predictions, the higher temperatures at the sea floor may be enough to destabilize the methane hydrate sediments and release huge quantities of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas 20 - 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

Solutions to the climate change problem
Dr. Hansen is a controversial figure, since he has stepped outside his field of expertise and become an activist in promoting solutions to the climate change problem. He devotes a chapter called "An Honest, Effective Path" in the book to this. His main theme is that we need to tax fossil fuels using a "fee-and-dividend" approach. All of the tax money collected would be distributed uniformly to the public. This carbon tax would gradually rise, giving people time to adjust their lifestyle, choice of vehicle, home insulation, etc. Those who do better at reducing their fossil fuel use will receive more in the dividend than they will pay in the added costs of the products they buy. The approach is straightforward and does not require a large bureaucracy, but currently has little political support. Hansen is vehemently opposed to the approach that has the most political support, "Cap-and-trade": "Cap-and-trade is what governments and the people in alligator shoes (the lobbyists for special interests) are trying to foist on you. Whoops. As an objective scientist I should delete such personal opinions, to at least flag them. But I am sixty-eight years old, and I am fed up with the way things work in Washington." Hansen also promotes an overlooked type of nuclear power, "fast" reactors with liquid metal coolant that produce far less nuclear waste and are much more efficient than conventional nuclear reactors.

Quotes from the book
"Humanity treads today on a slippery slope. As we continue to pump greenhouse gases into the air, we move onto a steeper, even more slippery incline. We seem oblivious to the danger--unaware how close we may be to a situation in which a catastrophic slip becomes practically unavoidable, a slip where we suddenly lose all control and are pulled into a torrential stream that hurls us over a precipice to our demise."

"In order for a democracy to function well, the public needs to be honestly informed. But the undue influence of special interests and government greenwash pose formidable barriers to a well-informed public. Without a well-informed public, humanity itself and all species on the planet are threatened."

"Of course by 2005 I was well aware that the NASA Office of Public Affairs had become an office of propaganda. In 2004, I learned that NASA press releases related to global warming were sent to the White House, where they were edited to appear less serious or discarded entirely."

"If we let special interests rule, my grandchildren and yours will pay the price."

"The role of money in our capitals is the biggest problem for democracy and for the planet."

"The problem with asking people to pledge to reduce their fossil fuel use is that even if lots of people do, one effect is reduced demand for fossil fuel and thus a lower price--making it easier for someone else to burn...it is necessary for people to reduce their emissions, but it is not sufficient if the government does not adopt policies that cause much of the fossil fuels to be left in the ground permanently."

"I have argued that it is time to 'draw a line in the sand' and demand no new coal plants."

"The present situation is analogous to that faced by Lincoln with slavery and Churchill with Nazism--the time for compromises and appeasement is over."

"Humans are beginning to hammer the climate system with a forcing more than an order of magnitude more powerful than the forcings that nature employed."

"Once ice sheet disintegration begins in earnest, our grandchildren will live the rest of their lives in a chaotic transition period."

"After the ice is gone, would Earth proceed to the Venus syndrome, a runaway greenhouse effect that would destroy all life on the planet, perhaps permanently? While that is difficult to say based on present information, I've come to conclude that if we burn all reserves of oil, gas, and coal, there is a substantial chance we will initiate the runaway greenhouse. If we also burn the tar sands and tar shale, I believe the Venus syndrome is a dead certainty."

"One suggestion I have for now: Support Bill McKibben and his organization 350.org. It is the most effective and responsible leadership in the public struggle for climate justice."

Commentary
James Hansen understands the Earth's climate as well as any person alive, and his concern about where our climate is headed makes Storms of My Grandchildren a must-read for everyone who cares about the world their grandchildren will inherit. Storms of My Grandchildren retails for $16.50 at Amazon.com. Dr. Hansen's web site is http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting nyhurhunter:
WHY DOES DR MASTERS HAVE TO MAKE THIS A POLITICAL BLOG, I THOUGHT THIS WAS FOR TROPICAL WEATHER. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN HIM AND A PREACHER. THE CLIMATE IS OBVIOUSLY CHANGING, BUT HOW DO WE KNOW FOR SURE ITS MAN MADE AND NOT A SOLAR CYCLE OR A WHOLE DIFFERENT CYCLE WE DONT EVEN KNOW ABOUT YET. WE DONT EVEN COMPLETELY UNDERSTAND HURRICANES OR TORNADOES YET. DONT THEY KILL MORE THAN CLIMATE CHANGE, SHOULDNT WE FOCUS ON THINGS THAT DESTROY HOMES AND CAUSE MASS DESTRUCTION FIRST THEN MOVE ON TO OTHER THINGS. IT IS ABOUT MONEY, WHEN IS THE LAST TIME YOU HEARD THE WORD "GREEN" IN REFERENCE TO THE ENVIRONMENT. WHEN YOU HEAR THAT SOMEONE IS MAKING MONEY.


If you dont like science and reality you can go elsewhere.
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733. JLPR2
Quoting atmosweather:


That's just from the Eastern Pacific ITCZ extending into northern S America.


Even if its the ITCZ, if vorticity strengthens, followed by a Low it can turn into something.
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732. xcool
lickitysplit who ?
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
Quoting JLPR2:
I'm seeing something attempting something in the CATL, vorticity is currently weak, but at least it has convection.





That's just from the Eastern Pacific ITCZ extending into northern S America.
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Quoting MississippiWx:
If it weren't for all of the great tropical information I get from people on this blog, I would never visit this site. Dr. Masters has every right to blog on what he chooses, but blogging about stuff like this only makes people mad. He also chooses the side of AGW and strongly supports it, giving no credit to a non-AGW argument. How ignorant are we to believe we know everything about our planet's climate when we only have less than a hundred years of accurate data. Anyway, that's all I'm going to say about this topic. I'll come back when this talk is over.


He doesnt give it any credit because it doesnt deserve any.
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729. xcool
nice wave...
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
728. JLPR2
I'm seeing something attempting something in the CATL, vorticity is currently weak, but at least it has convection.



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727. xcool
lmao
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
726. JLPR2
Well the models are going nuts XD

Good to see some weather info in between all the GW stuff. -.-

I stay away from such discussions.
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725. xcool
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
Quoting MississippiWx:
If it weren't for all of the great tropical information I get from people on this blog, I would never visit this site. Dr. Masters has every right to blog on what he chooses, but blogging about stuff like this only makes people mad. He also chooses the side of AGW and strongly supports it, giving no credit to a non-AGW argument. How ignorant are we to believe we know everything about our planet's climate when we only have less than a hundred years of accurate data. Anyway, that's all I'm going to say about this topic. I'll come back when this talk is over.

He chooses the AGW "side" because he is a scientist who studies climate and sees the evidence as conclusive.
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Good evening folks!

CybrTeddy there are a few models calling for huge activity in 7-10 days now...the Euro and GFS have been consistent for 6-8 runs in a row...that usually screams trouble this time of year.
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722. xcool


new cmc oz .cv stomrs just like gfs




240hr

Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
Quoting CybrTeddy:
There's not only no activity in the Atlantic.. there is no named tropical cyclone on Earth right now, and 3 invests. 99L, 91W and 92W.
well Let's check Venus that way the right wingers here stop complaining about DR.MASTER,'S interesting GWA information. At least in Venus GWA is a reality...
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717. xcool



GFS CV STORMS
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
716. xcool
CybrTeddy OLD ECMWF
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
715. Asta
re:
Global warming and climate change..
Is Mother Nature having "hot flashes?"
She's always aging..
It is normal?
Maybe she shouldn't smoke so much-( coal,gas, Co2)
it may prolong her life...
:)
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00z GFS para 192 hours out, look just south of Cuba.


18z CMC shows it at 144
Link

12z ECMWF of course as you know shows 2 systems


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I was a fellow follower and supporter of the GW issue that then made it's transition to climate change idea who is doubting now if this change is turning more of an icy situation. To ironically heat up this stuff JB:



ADDRESSING NOAA'S PROPAGANDA CAMPAIGN ON GLOBAL WARMING

The end of the global warming debate (among the rational) is near.

The coming drop of global temperatures over the next year, to levels not seen since the 1990s, should put to an end to the AGW argument for good except for the most radical elements. The fact is that CO2 levels have increased by 5% over the past 10 years, while global temperatures have essentially held steady. The El Nino spike of the past year, which was forecast by me over a year ago, is now being used as evidence of global warming and of course the heat waves are being used. This was also something I said back in March, that the least the people blaming global warming for snow could wait until the hot summer and big hurricane season that I was forecasting came (which they are). However, also coming is major drop of .5 to .7C in the global temps which will take us below normal for a time. The disconnect with CO2 will be obvious to anyone that looks. In addition, the reason for the drop will easily be linked with the cooling of the Pacific, which will remain in its cool stage for the next 30 years. Once the Atlantic, still warm, goes into its cool stage in 10-15 years, global temps will fall even further, back to where they were in the 1970s.

The recovery of the northern ice caps will become more obvious in a two-steps-up, one-step-back fashion, but the Southern Hemisphere ice will retreat back to near normal. Overall global ice is right on top of normal and has had no change in the past 30 years.

Let's see who is right on this. Check out the video on the dramatic drop showing up on other climate models now.

Ciao for now.




Let's wait for time to come...
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Quoting canehater1:
NO SIGNIFICANT WEATHER IS OCCURRING ACROSS THE ATLC BASIN.A
SURFACE RIDGE DOMINATES THE ATLC ANCHORED BY A 1025 MB HIGH NE
OF THE AZORES AND A 1022 MB HIGH IN THE W ATLC NEAR 27N72W.
VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGERY SHOWS DRY SAHARAN AIR ACROSS THE
TROPICAL ATLC INTO THE CARIBBEAN

Sort of sums it up succintly...a typical July
lull in the basin...I believe we are in for a
late season surge of CV storms once dry air subsides..at least the ingredients are there..
warm SST's and low westerly shearing..


Your absolutely correct..
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look at artic ice cores if you wanna see climate change....now i am ready for some freaking hurricanes...not that damage or kill but just to get off this stuff...i get very frustrated with this *&^%
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to storm W...last ice age ended by solar irradiation increase and or earth axis tilt change. either way i now it was not fossil fuel burning...heheh
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706. xcool
LMAO
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
If it weren't for all of the great tropical information I get from people on this blog, I would never visit this site. Dr. Masters has every right to blog on what he chooses, but blogging about stuff like this only makes people mad. He also chooses the side of AGW and strongly supports it, giving no credit to a non-AGW argument. How ignorant are we to believe we know everything about our planet's climate when we only have less than a hundred years of accurate data. Anyway, that's all I'm going to say about this topic. I'll come back when this talk is over.
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 17 Comments: 10284
Quoting StSimonsIslandGAGuy:
The Recovery Act intends to achieve those goals by:

* Providing $288 billion in tax cuts and benefits for millions of working families and businesses

The Obama tax cuts saved my butt this year. That is all the proof i need. Alas, i've been lured out of lurking to comment on tax policy...argggh!
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I have great respect for Dr. Masters. But, I am sorry just can't buy global warming. I just don't see the expected relationship between steady co2 increase and temperature increase. In fact we are going into a period of global temperature decrease. The artic ice melt is not as dramatic as it has been. Our history of accurate global temps by sattelite only goes back 30 years. There are lots of fun an games with temperature stations being put in hotter locations in the US the last few years. I am disappointed to not see a more unbiased discussion of "global warming" discussed here by powers that be. I believe it is by Ice that our biggest danger lies. in 30 years we will know.
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NO SIGNIFICANT WEATHER IS OCCURRING ACROSS THE ATLC BASIN.A
SURFACE RIDGE DOMINATES THE ATLC ANCHORED BY A 1025 MB HIGH NE
OF THE AZORES AND A 1022 MB HIGH IN THE W ATLC NEAR 27N72W.
VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGERY SHOWS DRY SAHARAN AIR ACROSS THE
TROPICAL ATLC INTO THE CARIBBEAN

Sort of sums it up succintly...a typical July
lull in the basin...I believe we are in for a
late season surge of CV storms once dry air subsides..at least the ingredients are there..
warm SST's and low westerly shearing..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CybrTeddy:
Guess I'll check the weather on other planets. Yessir.. check out these Atmospheric 'vortex's on Venus's northern Hemisphere by ESA's Venus Express.



Looks to be heading.. er.. west.



no way. that is so cool!
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Guess I'll check the weather on other planets. Yessir.. check out these Atmospheric 'vortex's on Venus's northern Hemisphere by ESA's Venus Express.



Looks to be heading.. er.. west.
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There's not only no activity in the Atlantic.. there is no named tropical cyclone on Earth right now, and 3 invests. 99L, 91W and 92W.
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...heya CT.
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Climatologist James Hansen discusses his new book "Storms Of My Grandchildren"

http://www.stormsofmygrandchildren.com/

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Question: Just what is it that lead you to Dr. Master's WeatherUnderground Blog? Is it to be ahead of the curve when it comes to what is happening in the Tropics? Is it because you can find what weather is happening where you live and where you want to go? Or just because HERE you find other's with the same interest?

WOW look at the time.. If I want to be a productive American Citizen I better get to bed.

Please share on my blog if you'd like!

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Hello Pat.
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Oklahoma Severe Storms, Tornadoes, Straight-line Winds, and Flooding



Declared July 26, 2010

N
Map of Declared Counties for Disaster 1926

* Federal Aid Programs For State Of Oklahoma Disaster Recovery, Jul 26 New
* President Declares Major Disaster For Oklahoma, Jul 26 New

* More News for This Declaration
* Designated Counties
* Disaster Federal Register Notices
* Individual Assistance FOIA
* Recent FEMA Press Releases

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NMFC Norfolk Tropical Feed
No Active Tropical Warnings in the Atlantic, Caribbean, or Gulf of Mexico
By Maritime.CDO@navy.mil (NMFC CDO) from Naval Maritime Forecast Center Norfolk Virginia. Published on .

As of Tue 27 Jul 2010 04:00:02Z


2010 Storms
All Active Year


Atlantic

East Pacific

Central Pacific

West Pacific
91W.INVEST
92W.INVEST
Indian Ocean

Southern Hemisphere
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Quoting atmoaggie:
No one knows climate like Hansen? Wool. Eyes.

And we haven't the data quality to determine any trend effectively over the last 100 years. Nor do we currently have surface data of decent enough quality.

So, with only the satellites we measured one part of a collection of variable regimes over 30 years and claim we know enough the know exactly how the planet's climate works. Bull$#*%.

We don't know all that we think we do.

I'll not comment further on this, except to say I'll miss our relevant, on-topic discussions on tropical weather.

With that, WU shall not garner any hits from myself or my posts for at least 3 months, maybe much longer if gulfcoastwx.com grows on me. Yes, I am banning WU.

Nice to know some of you. Others, I'll not miss terribly.


Wow, on a night filled with juvenile, vitriolic posts, yours managed to be the most reactionary and petty. Congratulations. I am quite shocked that there are so many AGW deniers posting on the good doctor's blog, but that doesn't mean that I'm going to go on some peurile tirade and swear the thing off. I greatly respect levi and storm's tropical analysis and that won't change because we disagree on climatology- hell, I even enjoy Bastardi when he's not on a rant. I just find it strange that the AGW denier position has shifted from "there is no GW" to "its not anthropogenic" to "it might even be good for us." Reminds me of the "god of the gaps."
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Exactly, finding the truth is tricky but I don't trust this current elitist aristocratic puppet Govt. one bit.

Quoting JeffMasters:


Hansen's other main concern is the release of large amounts of methane gas stored in sea-floor sediments in the form of methane hydrates. If ocean temperatures warm according to predictions, the higher temperatures at the sea floor may be enough to destabilize the methane hydrate sediments and release huge quantities of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas 20 - 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide.


BP and others are doing a fine job of that already, potentially in places as far away as Alaska, the Red Sea, China and Australia...and methane is shown to be a greater catalyst for global warming than innocent ole' CO2.
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What I see happening in the tropics:


The main feature that is dominating the entire Atlantic right now is the Saharan Air Layer, which has infiltrated the entire tropical Atlantic with dry, stable air. There is no shortage of tropical waves, but all of them are encountering unfavorable conditions.

Trop726

Tropical Wave 1: Dying wave, killed by dry air, devoid of convection and with only light surface winds left.

Tropical Wave 2: A healthy-looking wave with widely-scattered strong winds at 850 mb. Wind shear over it is a light 10 kts, but it is also about to hit a huge line of dry air, as seen on the map, which will severely inhibit it from developing.

Tropical Wave 3: About to emerge off of Africa, this one is in a similar situation as TW2. It's well-organized, but is surrounded on almost all sides by dry, stable air.

AOI: This is the wave that MiamiHurricanes was talking about earlier. And although it is surrounded by very moist air and high SST's, and does have some solid 850 mb winds associated with it, there is something else that will inhibit it. Take a look at the ULL just to its north. This low is bringing 20-30 kts of wind shear over it, and this ULL has not only barely moved, it has also gotten a bit stronger over the last 12 hours. So the high wind shear is going to continue. This will make it extremely difficult for this wave to turn into anything.

So to sum it up, nothing's going to be happening in the tropics for quite some time. The only places in the entire Atlantic conductive for development moisture-wise are the western Caribbean and GOM, but both are presently mostly taken up by high wind shear, with only one or two small patches where anything could develop. So until something changes, we're not going to see anything for quite a while IMO.
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Quoting Levi32:


The climate models that can go out 1-2 years into the future are predicting a dramatic cool-down worldwide, which should result in a great uptick in global sea ice, which those of us watching knew was coming because of the decadal oceanic cycles beginning to reverse. Ice-free arctic by 2013 doesn't look likely if the models verify, and these are the same models whose cousins are predicting the never-ending warm-up with pretty much no blips in it where we go back below normal. We're not even close to going down below 2007 when the death spiral was being preached. And I will point out again, globally, we're already at normal....what's the worry? If anything we'll go slightly above-normal globally in sea-ice if both poles experience well-below normal temperatures, along with the equator.


Levi, let's actually read what I wrote. I'll put things in caps to make it easy for you. Once again, I'll ask you: WHICH climate model are you referring to? Or did you just read some blog and take what they said as gospel without bothering to find out the details for yourself? The models that can go out "1-2 years"? It's NOT CLIMATE if it only goes out 1-2 years. Climate models predict WEATHER WHICH DOES NOT MATCH WHAT WILL ACTUALLY HAPPEN, but which AVERAGES OUT OVER TIME to reflect the climate state.

I hope the caps will help you in your next response which, I hope, will actually address what I wrote.

And I will point out again, globally, we're already at normal


Nurse: "Doctor! I have a patient with a 93.6F degree body temperature and another with a 103.6F degree body temperature!"

Doctor: "Great! They average out to normal!"
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Quoting SavannahStorm:




+1 haha
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Quoting StormW:


I just wanted to know what melted the last Ice Age.


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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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