Storms of My Grandchildren by Dr. James Hansen

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 11:34 PM GMT on July 26, 2010

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"Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity" is NASA climate change scientist Dr. James Hansen's first book. Dr. Hansen is arguably the most visible and well-respected climate change scientist in the world, and has headed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City since 1981. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University. Dr. Hansen greatly raised awareness of the threat of global warming during his Congressional testimony during the record hot summer of 1988, and issued one of the first-ever climate model predictions of global warming (see an analysis here to see how his 1988 prediction did.) In 2009, Dr. Hansen was awarded the Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal, the highest honor bestowed by the American Meteorological Society, for his "outstanding contributions to climate modeling, understanding climate change forcings and sensitivity, and for clear communication of climate science in the public arena."

Storms of My Grandchildren focuses on the key concepts of the science of climate change, told through Hansen's personal experiences as a key player in field's scientific advancements and political dramas over the past 40 years. Dr. Hansen's writing style is very straight-forward and understandable, and he clearly explains the scientific concepts involved in a friendly way that anyone with a high school level science education can understand. I did not find any scientific errors in his book. However, some of his explanations are too long-winded, and the book is probably too long, at 274 pages. Nevertheless, Storms of My Grandchildren is a must-read, due to the importance of the subject matter and who is writing it. Hansen is not a fancy writer. He comes across as a plain Iowan who happened to stumble into the field of climate change and discovered things he had to speak out about. And he does plenty of speaking out in his book.

James Hansen vs. Richard Lindzen
Dr. Hansen's book opens with an interesting chapter on his participation in four meetings of Vice President Dick Cheney's cabinet-level Climate Task Force in 2001. It seems that the Bush Administration was prepared to let Dr. Hansen's views on climate change influence policy. However, Dr. Richard Lindzen, whom Hansen describes as "the dean of of global warming contrarians", was also present at the meetings. Dr.Lindzen was able to confuse the task force members enough so that they never took Dr. Hansen's views seriously. Hansen observes that "U.S. policies regarding carbon dioxide during the Bush-Cheney administration seem to have been based on, or at a minimum, congruent with, Lindzen's perspective." Hansen asserts that Lindzen was able to do this by acting more like a lawyer than a scientist: "He and other contrarians tend to act like lawyers defending a client, presenting only arguments that favor their client. This is in direct contradiction to...the scientific method." Hansen also comments that he asked Lindzen what he thought of the link between smoking and cancer, since Lindzen had been a witness for the tobacco industry decades earlier. Lindzen "began rattling off all the problems with the data relating smoking to health problems, which was closely analogous to his views of climate data."

Alarmism
Global warming contrarians often dismiss scientists such a Dr. Hansen as "alarmists" who concoct fearsome stories about climate change in order to get research funding. Dr. Lindzen made this accusation at Cheney's Climate Task Force in 2001. However, Dr. Hansen notes that "in 1981 I lost funding for research on the climate effects of carbon dioxide because the Energy Department was displeased with a paper, 'Climate Impact of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,' I had published in Science magazine. The paper made a number of predictions for the 21st century, including 'opening of the fabled Northwest Passage', which the Energy Department considered to be alarmist but which have since proven to be accurate." If you read Dr. Hansen's book and listen to his lectures, it is clear that he is not an alarmist out to get more research funding by hyping the dangers of global warming. Hansen says in his book that "my basic nature nature is very placid, even comfortably stolid", and that nature comes through very clearly in Storms of My Grandchildren. Hansen's writings express a quiet determination to plainly set forth the scientific truth on climate change. He has surprisingly few angry words towards the politicians, lobbyists, and scientists intent on distorting the scientific truth.

The science of climate change
The bulk of Storms of My Grandchildren is devoted to explanations of the science of climate change. Hansen's greatest concern is disintegration of the gerat ice sheets in Greenland and West Antarctica causing sea level rise: "Once the ice sheets begin to rapidly disintegrate, sea level would be continuously changing for centuries. Coastal cities would become impractical to maintain." Hansen is concerned that evidence from past climate periods show that the massive ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica can melt quickly, with large changes within a century. For example, sea level at the end of the most recent Ice Age, 13,000 - 14,000 years ago, rose at a rate of 3 - 5 meters (10 - 17 feet) per century for several centuries. Hansen is convinced that just a 1.7 -2°C warming, which would likely result if we stabilize CO2 at 450 ppm, would be a "disaster scenario" that would trigger rapid disintegration of the ice sheets and disastrous rises in sea level. Hansen advocates stabilizing CO2 at 350 ppm (we are currently at 390 ppm, with a rate of increase of 2 ppm per year.)

Another of Hansen's main concerns is the extinction of species. He notes that studies of more than 1,000 species of plants, animals, and insects have found an average migration rate towards the poles due to climate warming in the last half of the 20th century to be four miles per decade. "That is not fast enough. During the past thirty years the lines marking the regions in which a given average temperature prevails (isotherms) have been moving poleward at a rate of about thirty-five miles per decade. If greenhouse gases continue to increase at business-as-usual rates, then the rate of isotherm movement will double in this century to at least seventy miles per decade."

Hansen's other main concern is the release of large amounts of methane gas stored in sea-floor sediments in the form of methane hydrates. If ocean temperatures warm according to predictions, the higher temperatures at the sea floor may be enough to destabilize the methane hydrate sediments and release huge quantities of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas 20 - 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

Solutions to the climate change problem
Dr. Hansen is a controversial figure, since he has stepped outside his field of expertise and become an activist in promoting solutions to the climate change problem. He devotes a chapter called "An Honest, Effective Path" in the book to this. His main theme is that we need to tax fossil fuels using a "fee-and-dividend" approach. All of the tax money collected would be distributed uniformly to the public. This carbon tax would gradually rise, giving people time to adjust their lifestyle, choice of vehicle, home insulation, etc. Those who do better at reducing their fossil fuel use will receive more in the dividend than they will pay in the added costs of the products they buy. The approach is straightforward and does not require a large bureaucracy, but currently has little political support. Hansen is vehemently opposed to the approach that has the most political support, "Cap-and-trade": "Cap-and-trade is what governments and the people in alligator shoes (the lobbyists for special interests) are trying to foist on you. Whoops. As an objective scientist I should delete such personal opinions, to at least flag them. But I am sixty-eight years old, and I am fed up with the way things work in Washington." Hansen also promotes an overlooked type of nuclear power, "fast" reactors with liquid metal coolant that produce far less nuclear waste and are much more efficient than conventional nuclear reactors.

Quotes from the book
"Humanity treads today on a slippery slope. As we continue to pump greenhouse gases into the air, we move onto a steeper, even more slippery incline. We seem oblivious to the danger--unaware how close we may be to a situation in which a catastrophic slip becomes practically unavoidable, a slip where we suddenly lose all control and are pulled into a torrential stream that hurls us over a precipice to our demise."

"In order for a democracy to function well, the public needs to be honestly informed. But the undue influence of special interests and government greenwash pose formidable barriers to a well-informed public. Without a well-informed public, humanity itself and all species on the planet are threatened."

"Of course by 2005 I was well aware that the NASA Office of Public Affairs had become an office of propaganda. In 2004, I learned that NASA press releases related to global warming were sent to the White House, where they were edited to appear less serious or discarded entirely."

"If we let special interests rule, my grandchildren and yours will pay the price."

"The role of money in our capitals is the biggest problem for democracy and for the planet."

"The problem with asking people to pledge to reduce their fossil fuel use is that even if lots of people do, one effect is reduced demand for fossil fuel and thus a lower price--making it easier for someone else to burn...it is necessary for people to reduce their emissions, but it is not sufficient if the government does not adopt policies that cause much of the fossil fuels to be left in the ground permanently."

"I have argued that it is time to 'draw a line in the sand' and demand no new coal plants."

"The present situation is analogous to that faced by Lincoln with slavery and Churchill with Nazism--the time for compromises and appeasement is over."

"Humans are beginning to hammer the climate system with a forcing more than an order of magnitude more powerful than the forcings that nature employed."

"Once ice sheet disintegration begins in earnest, our grandchildren will live the rest of their lives in a chaotic transition period."

"After the ice is gone, would Earth proceed to the Venus syndrome, a runaway greenhouse effect that would destroy all life on the planet, perhaps permanently? While that is difficult to say based on present information, I've come to conclude that if we burn all reserves of oil, gas, and coal, there is a substantial chance we will initiate the runaway greenhouse. If we also burn the tar sands and tar shale, I believe the Venus syndrome is a dead certainty."

"One suggestion I have for now: Support Bill McKibben and his organization 350.org. It is the most effective and responsible leadership in the public struggle for climate justice."

Commentary
James Hansen understands the Earth's climate as well as any person alive, and his concern about where our climate is headed makes Storms of My Grandchildren a must-read for everyone who cares about the world their grandchildren will inherit. Storms of My Grandchildren retails for $16.50 at Amazon.com. Dr. Hansen's web site is http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/.

Jeff Masters

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1134. pub123
History shows that our current atmosphere has a substantial CO2 deficiency compared with historical levels.

Once scientists better understand the ocean and solar cycle's climate impacts, the sooner AGW alarmism shall pass.
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Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:


Guessing you lean to the Fascist or Communist thinking then.



One doesn't mean the other.
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I lean towards Republican values.. however I never take sides in the subject of Global warming.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24553
1129. Patrap
Quoting Floodman:


The biggest problem here is that the country is sharply divided along party lines and no one wants to agree even in part with the other side, regardless of the eventual cost...but on the other hand there are a lot of sheep out there who only want to believe the things that are least alarming, whether those things are true or not...


Party Lines are that..Lines.

Avoid them at all costs.

Well least the one that Leads to a Oilman as President or that Families.

Ya know the one..he was seen Kissing the Saudi's in the Rose Garden,,yeah the Same Saudi who's countrymen did in the Towers 9 years back.

What was that Guys name?

Fla and chads had something to do with it..if I recall.

pfffthhh
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 427 Comments: 129444
Quoting Orcasystems:
We are in DESPERATE need of a new Blog, this GW stuff is driving me nuts... and trust me...its a very short drive.


I agree. Politics = getting you no where.
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Quoting reedzone:


I'm a hardcore conservative Christian, I can't stand all the democratic convos in here..


Guessing you lean to the Fascist or Communist thinking then.

Member Since: September 23, 2005 Posts: 14 Comments: 11307
Quoting DestinJeff:
...here comes the list of different products that manufactured using petroleum


You betcha:

Petroleum Products Yielded from One Barrel of Crude, 2004

Product Gallons

Finished Motor Gasoline 19.65
Distillate Fuel Oil 10.03
Kero-Type Jet Fuel 4.07
Residual Fuel Oil 1.72
Still Gas 1.85
Petroleum Coke 2.18
Liquefied Refinery Gas 1.68
Asphalt and Road Oil 1.34
Naptha for Feedstocks 0.67
Other Oils for Feedstocks 0.55
Lubricants 0.46
Special Naphthas 0.13
Kerosene 0.17
Miscellaneous Products 0.17
Finished Aviation Gasoline 0.04
Waxes 0.04

http://www.eia.doe.gov/neic/infosheets/crudeproduction.htm
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We are in DESPERATE need of a new Blog, this GW stuff is driving me nuts... and trust me...its a very short drive.
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1122. CJ5
Quoting Patrap:
The warming has stopped..and the Co2 and Coal emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning is over..

Well..diddly doo dah.

Wheres da data on that?

I guess the post alone solved it ,eh?

LOL..pffftthhh.

There is never any data to support somes view, yet they cackle like chickens to slaughter seems.

Inhofe and Boehner would be proud of yas.

Tanning booth anyone?


It works both ways. Can you point to undisputed scientific data for YOUR case? I have not seen a scientific study of data that was undisputed yet.
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I will be so happy when there is a invest to blog about. This GW political crap is so boring. Guess ill have to turn on some the leader in news, That's FOX for all you dems out there. Love Beck, Bill and Mr. Hannity. Their the best
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Quoting Patrap:
Im a Human..on 3rd rock out.

Like the other 6-7 Billion.

Being an American from Florida and whining about more Oil is Like being from Mexico and hollering for Immigration Laws.

Pfffthh.


Semper Fidelis,..first, to the Planet


Best post of day so far IMACO (in my arrogant and conceited opinion)
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Good morning guys I came back from Trinidad yesterday landed about 2 pm and slept for the rest of the day and night anyway we will very soon see a lot of blobs coming in the next several days models are showing something in the east-central atlantic and in the east-central caribbean so let us just watch
Member Since: June 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 12712
1118. zoic100
Dr. Hansen's Role as a climate activist
Andrew Freedman, an environmental journalist and columnist at the Washington Post, believes the American Meteorological Society erred in giving Hansen its 2009 Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal: "By citing his 'clear communication of climate science in the public arena,' they may have actually sanctioned his political advocacy. Such advocacy... threatens to paint the AMS as having a political agenda too." [87] Other AMS members have also criticized the award.[87][88]

Physicist Freeman Dyson is critical of Hansen's climate-change activism. "The person who is really responsible for this overestimate of global warming is Jim Hansen. He consistently exaggerates all the dangers... Hansen has turned his science into ideology.” [89] Dyson "doesn’t know what he’s talking about", Hansen responded. "He should first do his homework." [89] Dyson stated in an interview that the argument with Hansen was exaggerated by the New York Times, stating that he and Hansen are "friends, but we don't agree on everything." [90]

After Hansen's arrest in West Virginia, New York Times columnist Andrew Revkin wrote: "Dr. Hansen has pushed far beyond the boundaries of the conventional role of scientists, particularly government scientists, in the environmental policy debate." [85] In 2009, Hansen advocated the participation of citizens at a March 2 protest at the Capitol Power Plant in Washington, D.C. Hansen stated, "We need to send a message to Congress and the president that we want them to take the actions that are needed to preserve climate for young people and future generations and all life on the planet".[91]

New Yorker journalist Elizabeth Kolbert believes Hansen is "increasingly isolated among climate activists." [92] Eileen Claussen, president of the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, said that "I view Jim Hansen as heroic as a scientist.... But I wish he would stick to what he really knows. Because I don't think he has a realistic idea of what is politically possible..."[92]

New York Times climate columnist Christa Marshall asks if Hansen still matters in the ongoing climate debate, noting that he "has irked many longtime supporters with his scathing attacks against President Obama's plan for a cap-and-trade system."[93] "The right wing loves what he's doing," said Joseph Romm, a senior fellow at the Center for American Progress, a think tank.[93] Hansen said that he had to speak out, since few others could explain the links between politics and the climate models. "You just have to say what you think is right," he said.[93]

References
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OK, you didn't ask, but here's my take...

Either AGW is happening or it isn't.

However, for national security's sake, we had best kick our folks into high gear to develop locally produced non-fossil-fuel technology.

The argument that nothing is cheaper than oil and that it will take 20 years to convert our systems from oil based to something else is just nonsense. Had we started a conversion process back in 1973 - the first Arab oil embargo, we would be there now.

Think for a minute about how much it costs to keep an aircraft carrier task force on station in the Persian Gulf for a year. How about an armored division? A Marine Amphibious Group? An Air Force fighter wing? A Coast Guard task group?

Couldn't we spend that money better here?

And, why are we there? To protect our oil interests. You can tell me they are there to bring peace and democracy to these brutal kingdoms where they subjugate their women and you can lose a hand for shoplifting a loaf of bread, but it's really about the oil.

And, how much more expensive can you get than the cost of the irreplaceable life of a young American soldier, sailor, Marine, airman or Coastie?

{If it really was about bringing peace and democracy, wouldn't we be involved in the Congo - the site of the deadliest war since World War II?}

Also, where did the funding to conduct the 9/11 terror attacks and other operations against the west come from? Chinese manufacturers? Microsoft? Nope... Saudi princes and other rich oil sheiks who don't like the west. If we can create a home-grown fuel source, we can significantly reduce the possibility of a terrorist attack by cutting off its funding.

And, it's going to have to not be carbon-based, because the majority oil reserves are over there. If we don't wean ourselves, when we eventually run out we'll be back where we started.

Bloody expensive real estate to continue to pay for.

Every state has multiple colleges in it. There are multi-billion dollar corporations out there who have the brainpower and means to make this a reality.

It just takes the guts to say we can do better and make it happen.

Not liberal. Not conservative. Just pragmatic.
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.
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Quoting JFLORIDA:


Really what does that have to do with this discussion? How does it advance the science, or resolve solutions??

Honestly. This is the reason I flag posts.

BTW Christianity and the major churches of ALL RELIGIONS have come out in favor of responsible moves on climate and thoughtful stewardship of the planet and have made public statements to the effect.


Chill out, no reason to report me when I was just replying to Jeffs comment.
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Quoting JonasNJ:
"The present situation is analogous to that faced by Lincoln with slavery and Churchill with Nazism--the time for compromises and appeasement is over."

How did I miss this?! Are you serious?

Statements like those are how you lose the smart, reasonable people in your movement. What an insult to the victims of the Nazi Holocaust.


Uhh...the analogy is to Churchill's and Lincoln's choices when confronted with the situations they faced. It has nothing to do with the victims of Nazism or Slavery other than the fact that those realities simply made clear for the 2 politicians how they should proceed. Faced with a clear and unacceptable danger, they made clear and forceful choices. GW is a clear and unacceptable danger. Hansen is simply saying action is imperative if we are to avoid the extinction of humanity. Try to read without a cognitive blinder, eh?
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Quoting Patrap:
Al Gore..always the default fallback for those who cant read a scientific paper nor discuss the matter on the data and merits.

Always a classy view here..


The biggest problem here is that the country is sharply divided along party lines and no one wants to agree even in part with the other side, regardless of the eventual cost...but on the other hand there are a lot of sheep out there who only want to believe the things that are least alarming, whether those things are true or not...
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Quoting Neapolitan:
I wish there were a way to jam all you oil-loving, anti-science deniers/contrarians onto a fleet of spaceships and send you to another earth-like planet so you could continue your ultimately catastrophic atmosphere modification experiments in a place that wouldn't affect me or those I care about (and those to come); it's not fair that we all have to suffer for the benefit of the relative few gorging themselves on petro-dollars. Unfortunately, that ain't gonna happen...so the next best thing is for me (and others of a sound and reasonable mind) to continue to rant and rave against the anti-science status quo until such time as needed change occurs. If that change never happens, well, at least we'll die with the truth in our mouths. So be it...


So lemme get this straight, you walk to work, dont use plastics in any of your daily life.... I could go on, but really, whats the point... aside from wondering why it isnt YOU that is sent somewhere else.
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1102. Patrap
Al Gore..always the default fallback for those who cant read a scientific paper nor discuss the matter on the data and merits.

Always a classy view here..
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 427 Comments: 129444
Quoting breald:


Chicklit, is there anything to that blob?

Hi breald,
The NHC gives it a passing reference at 8 a.m. Best watch the Tropical Weather Discussions here NHC.NOAA.GOV (located right side under the map). They post at 2 p.m. 8 p.m., 2 a.m., 8 a.m. Then if you click on Satellite on left side of page, there is an array of views there, if you're not already familiar with that site.
Off to work! Have a great day everyone.
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Quoting reedzone:


I'm a hardcore conservative Christian, I can't stand all the democratic convos in here..


I am far from that, but you don't see me involved with this sensitive topic. It's useless, the public is so split on it right now that all it creates is a hostile environment.

Back to the tropics. Yeah that thunderstorm blow up off of the Carolina's is very impressive indeed.
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Quoting Patrap:
The warming has stopped..and the Co2 and Coal emissions from Fossil Fuel Burning is over..

Well..diddly doo dah.

Wheres da data on that?

I guess the post alone solved it ,eh?

LOL..pffftthhh.

There is never any data to support somes view, yet they cackle like chickens to slaughter seems.

Inhofe and Boehner would be proud of yas.

Tanning booth anyone?
LOL, did you just offer to share a tanning booth? Why, that's not weird at all, is it?
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Quoting StormW:


I'm an American.
Hear! Hear!
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Hey StormW. Good Morning Sir. Looks like all is quiet on the Eastern Front. Nice and Calm. Are you monitoring anything at the time being.
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I wish there were a way to jam all you oil-loving, anti-science deniers/contrarians onto a fleet of spaceships and send you to another earth-like planet so you could continue your ultimately catastrophic atmosphere modification experiments in a place that wouldn't affect me or those I care about (and those to come); it's not fair that we all have to suffer for the benefit of the relative few gorging themselves on petro-dollars. Unfortunately, that ain't gonna happen...so the next best thing is for me (and others of a sound and reasonable mind) to continue to rant and rave against the anti-science status quo until such time as needed change occurs. If that change never happens, well, at least we'll die with the truth in our mouths. So be it...
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Quoting greentortuloni:


That's why I don't understand the anger from the people who do not believe that global warming is happening. It's an opportunity to make money and free America from foreign oil dependence. Personally I don't care what myth gets us free from oil.

The anger comes from the fact that instead of admitting that companies and everyone IS looking for ways to use less oil the Greenies keep screwing things up and going about it in a negative backwards fashion..
Just who did it help to shutdown all the BP stations in London?? Everyone already know about the mess in the Gulf and BP Solar has been making panels for years....
I'm in the Solar business in ST Thomas..
Why don't the activist work then use the money to buy panels or grow coconuts for bio diesel???
Cap and trade is a way to put the final nail in the coffin for what little is left of US industry. Obviously the sun puts out enough energy that we don't need to use oil IF we had the technology to harness it and use it. Current solar technology is totally inadequate to do that..oh yes you can read about all these great nano paint on thin film advances but you can't ever seem to find the commercial product. So why are these activist going to school to get material engineering degrees with their time or better volunteering in BP Solar labs to actually make something POSITIVE happen instead of continually doing negative things????
You cannot legislate your way out of industrial heating and it's to late to going back to living in caves...
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1092. Patrap
Im a Human..on 3rd rock out.

Like the other 6-7 Billion.

Being an American from Florida and whining about more Oil is Like being from Mexico and hollering for Immigration Laws.

Pfffthh.


Semper Fidelis,..first, to the Planet


Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 427 Comments: 129444
1091. jpsb
Quoting Neapolitan:


[snip] China is spending far more at this moment developing alternate sources of energy; [snip] Would that we here in America had such foresight...
We had the foresight back in the 1970, but then environmentalist killed the nuclear power industry in the USA so we are stuck with fossil fuels for most of our energy needs. An apology would be nice.

The earth has been gradually warming for the last 12,000 years, something about an ice age ending. In the recent past (last 2,000 years) the Earth has been warmer then it is today. While I agree pollution is bad and we should try hard not to be polluters, the link between man made CO2 and global warming is tenuous at best.

I am very leery of politicians (Al Gore) that “invent” problems that both enrich and enpower politicians, I suspect AWG is much more about power and money then AGW. However I do enjoy and follow the debate with interest and keep my personal carbon foot print as small as possible, mostly for economic reasons. Lol.

Rain, rain and more rain in SE Texas.
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Quoting StormW:


I'm an American.


It's great to be an American StormW!! :)
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1087. CJ5
Quoting Michale:


I already have the perfect idea.

A small box shaped device, based on Lantean technology. It draws power from sub-space and can generate all power for a 22-room mansion for 89.26 thousand years..

I just haven't worked out the details yet. :D


LOL...I want one when you have it perfected!
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1086. angiest
Quoting Michale:


I already have the perfect idea.

A small box shaped device, based on Lantean technology. It draws power from sub-space and can generate all power for a 22-room mansion for 89.26 thousand years..

I just haven't worked out the details yet. :D


A know you are being facetious (thanks Storm with the Word of the Day) but that is precisely the problem. Obviously in the long term we cannot continue to use fossil fuels because, in human time scales, they are non-renewable. That is not really something that reasonable people argue with (there are still people who think the earth is flat but they are not reasonable). But it is what we have available *now*. With the exception of nuclear fission, there aren't really any other sources of energy that are both plentiful and that can be used to provide the type of power that modern civilization requires.

What to do? Stop using fossil fuels immediately? Certainly not, people will start consuming even more wood for fuel than they currently do. Yeah, that will work. Use wind? Great, except it is currently not feasible for the amounts of energy we need, and of course people don't want wind farms near them, and those huge windmills have a tendency to be bad for words. Use water? Great, environmentalists won't let us dam rivers because it is bad for something else. Geothermal has promise, but since most of the world isn't like Iceland it has not proven to be practical thus far. Of the different types of geothermal available, tapping hydrothermal systems is the easiest but they are not plentiful. Hot dry rocks has better geographic spread but current technology appears to make it close to prohibitively expensive.

In the short term, nuclear fission is probably the best option, and when treated with the proper care it is clean, but you have to store the waste somewhere eventually and no one wants nuclear waste in their backyards. In the short to medium term geothermal may become a viable energy source for much of human population. But the simple fact of the matter is we are not yet ready to end our dependence on fossil fuels.

How much oil is present in the computers you are using to say we should stop using oil?
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1080. Jeff9641 2:40 PM GMT on July 27, 2010
Quoting reedzone:


I'm a hardcore conservative Christian, I can't stand all the democratic convos in here..


Same here buddy!



YEPPERS!
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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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