Storms of My Grandchildren by Dr. James Hansen

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 11:34 PM GMT on July 26, 2010

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"Storms of My Grandchildren: The Truth About the Coming Climate Catastrophe and Our Last Chance to Save Humanity" is NASA climate change scientist Dr. James Hansen's first book. Dr. Hansen is arguably the most visible and well-respected climate change scientist in the world, and has headed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies in New York City since 1981. He is also an adjunct professor in the Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences at Columbia University. Dr. Hansen greatly raised awareness of the threat of global warming during his Congressional testimony during the record hot summer of 1988, and issued one of the first-ever climate model predictions of global warming (see an analysis here to see how his 1988 prediction did.) In 2009, Dr. Hansen was awarded the Carl-Gustaf Rossby Research Medal, the highest honor bestowed by the American Meteorological Society, for his "outstanding contributions to climate modeling, understanding climate change forcings and sensitivity, and for clear communication of climate science in the public arena."

Storms of My Grandchildren focuses on the key concepts of the science of climate change, told through Hansen's personal experiences as a key player in field's scientific advancements and political dramas over the past 40 years. Dr. Hansen's writing style is very straight-forward and understandable, and he clearly explains the scientific concepts involved in a friendly way that anyone with a high school level science education can understand. I did not find any scientific errors in his book. However, some of his explanations are too long-winded, and the book is probably too long, at 274 pages. Nevertheless, Storms of My Grandchildren is a must-read, due to the importance of the subject matter and who is writing it. Hansen is not a fancy writer. He comes across as a plain Iowan who happened to stumble into the field of climate change and discovered things he had to speak out about. And he does plenty of speaking out in his book.

James Hansen vs. Richard Lindzen
Dr. Hansen's book opens with an interesting chapter on his participation in four meetings of Vice President Dick Cheney's cabinet-level Climate Task Force in 2001. It seems that the Bush Administration was prepared to let Dr. Hansen's views on climate change influence policy. However, Dr. Richard Lindzen, whom Hansen describes as "the dean of of global warming contrarians", was also present at the meetings. Dr.Lindzen was able to confuse the task force members enough so that they never took Dr. Hansen's views seriously. Hansen observes that "U.S. policies regarding carbon dioxide during the Bush-Cheney administration seem to have been based on, or at a minimum, congruent with, Lindzen's perspective." Hansen asserts that Lindzen was able to do this by acting more like a lawyer than a scientist: "He and other contrarians tend to act like lawyers defending a client, presenting only arguments that favor their client. This is in direct contradiction to...the scientific method." Hansen also comments that he asked Lindzen what he thought of the link between smoking and cancer, since Lindzen had been a witness for the tobacco industry decades earlier. Lindzen "began rattling off all the problems with the data relating smoking to health problems, which was closely analogous to his views of climate data."

Alarmism
Global warming contrarians often dismiss scientists such a Dr. Hansen as "alarmists" who concoct fearsome stories about climate change in order to get research funding. Dr. Lindzen made this accusation at Cheney's Climate Task Force in 2001. However, Dr. Hansen notes that "in 1981 I lost funding for research on the climate effects of carbon dioxide because the Energy Department was displeased with a paper, 'Climate Impact of Increasing Carbon Dioxide,' I had published in Science magazine. The paper made a number of predictions for the 21st century, including 'opening of the fabled Northwest Passage', which the Energy Department considered to be alarmist but which have since proven to be accurate." If you read Dr. Hansen's book and listen to his lectures, it is clear that he is not an alarmist out to get more research funding by hyping the dangers of global warming. Hansen says in his book that "my basic nature nature is very placid, even comfortably stolid", and that nature comes through very clearly in Storms of My Grandchildren. Hansen's writings express a quiet determination to plainly set forth the scientific truth on climate change. He has surprisingly few angry words towards the politicians, lobbyists, and scientists intent on distorting the scientific truth.

The science of climate change
The bulk of Storms of My Grandchildren is devoted to explanations of the science of climate change. Hansen's greatest concern is disintegration of the gerat ice sheets in Greenland and West Antarctica causing sea level rise: "Once the ice sheets begin to rapidly disintegrate, sea level would be continuously changing for centuries. Coastal cities would become impractical to maintain." Hansen is concerned that evidence from past climate periods show that the massive ice sheets that cover Greenland and Antarctica can melt quickly, with large changes within a century. For example, sea level at the end of the most recent Ice Age, 13,000 - 14,000 years ago, rose at a rate of 3 - 5 meters (10 - 17 feet) per century for several centuries. Hansen is convinced that just a 1.7 -2°C warming, which would likely result if we stabilize CO2 at 450 ppm, would be a "disaster scenario" that would trigger rapid disintegration of the ice sheets and disastrous rises in sea level. Hansen advocates stabilizing CO2 at 350 ppm (we are currently at 390 ppm, with a rate of increase of 2 ppm per year.)

Another of Hansen's main concerns is the extinction of species. He notes that studies of more than 1,000 species of plants, animals, and insects have found an average migration rate towards the poles due to climate warming in the last half of the 20th century to be four miles per decade. "That is not fast enough. During the past thirty years the lines marking the regions in which a given average temperature prevails (isotherms) have been moving poleward at a rate of about thirty-five miles per decade. If greenhouse gases continue to increase at business-as-usual rates, then the rate of isotherm movement will double in this century to at least seventy miles per decade."

Hansen's other main concern is the release of large amounts of methane gas stored in sea-floor sediments in the form of methane hydrates. If ocean temperatures warm according to predictions, the higher temperatures at the sea floor may be enough to destabilize the methane hydrate sediments and release huge quantities of methane into the atmosphere. Methane is a greenhouse gas 20 - 25 times more potent than carbon dioxide.

Solutions to the climate change problem
Dr. Hansen is a controversial figure, since he has stepped outside his field of expertise and become an activist in promoting solutions to the climate change problem. He devotes a chapter called "An Honest, Effective Path" in the book to this. His main theme is that we need to tax fossil fuels using a "fee-and-dividend" approach. All of the tax money collected would be distributed uniformly to the public. This carbon tax would gradually rise, giving people time to adjust their lifestyle, choice of vehicle, home insulation, etc. Those who do better at reducing their fossil fuel use will receive more in the dividend than they will pay in the added costs of the products they buy. The approach is straightforward and does not require a large bureaucracy, but currently has little political support. Hansen is vehemently opposed to the approach that has the most political support, "Cap-and-trade": "Cap-and-trade is what governments and the people in alligator shoes (the lobbyists for special interests) are trying to foist on you. Whoops. As an objective scientist I should delete such personal opinions, to at least flag them. But I am sixty-eight years old, and I am fed up with the way things work in Washington." Hansen also promotes an overlooked type of nuclear power, "fast" reactors with liquid metal coolant that produce far less nuclear waste and are much more efficient than conventional nuclear reactors.

Quotes from the book
"Humanity treads today on a slippery slope. As we continue to pump greenhouse gases into the air, we move onto a steeper, even more slippery incline. We seem oblivious to the danger--unaware how close we may be to a situation in which a catastrophic slip becomes practically unavoidable, a slip where we suddenly lose all control and are pulled into a torrential stream that hurls us over a precipice to our demise."

"In order for a democracy to function well, the public needs to be honestly informed. But the undue influence of special interests and government greenwash pose formidable barriers to a well-informed public. Without a well-informed public, humanity itself and all species on the planet are threatened."

"Of course by 2005 I was well aware that the NASA Office of Public Affairs had become an office of propaganda. In 2004, I learned that NASA press releases related to global warming were sent to the White House, where they were edited to appear less serious or discarded entirely."

"If we let special interests rule, my grandchildren and yours will pay the price."

"The role of money in our capitals is the biggest problem for democracy and for the planet."

"The problem with asking people to pledge to reduce their fossil fuel use is that even if lots of people do, one effect is reduced demand for fossil fuel and thus a lower price--making it easier for someone else to burn...it is necessary for people to reduce their emissions, but it is not sufficient if the government does not adopt policies that cause much of the fossil fuels to be left in the ground permanently."

"I have argued that it is time to 'draw a line in the sand' and demand no new coal plants."

"The present situation is analogous to that faced by Lincoln with slavery and Churchill with Nazism--the time for compromises and appeasement is over."

"Humans are beginning to hammer the climate system with a forcing more than an order of magnitude more powerful than the forcings that nature employed."

"Once ice sheet disintegration begins in earnest, our grandchildren will live the rest of their lives in a chaotic transition period."

"After the ice is gone, would Earth proceed to the Venus syndrome, a runaway greenhouse effect that would destroy all life on the planet, perhaps permanently? While that is difficult to say based on present information, I've come to conclude that if we burn all reserves of oil, gas, and coal, there is a substantial chance we will initiate the runaway greenhouse. If we also burn the tar sands and tar shale, I believe the Venus syndrome is a dead certainty."

"One suggestion I have for now: Support Bill McKibben and his organization 350.org. It is the most effective and responsible leadership in the public struggle for climate justice."

Commentary
James Hansen understands the Earth's climate as well as any person alive, and his concern about where our climate is headed makes Storms of My Grandchildren a must-read for everyone who cares about the world their grandchildren will inherit. Storms of My Grandchildren retails for $16.50 at Amazon.com. Dr. Hansen's web site is http://www.columbia.edu/~jeh1/.

Jeff Masters

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1533. cg2916
Quoting unf97:


I chatted with a South Carolina blogger on here yesterday. who lived in the midlands area of South Carolina. He stated he had very severe storms which produced hurricane force wind gusts with some of the intense storm cells. Yeah, yesterday was a rough day in that state.


I'm up in the upstate. The damage looks like a tornado went through the whole county. It's a miracle there were no tornados yesterday.
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Quoting Michale:


This is a SCIENTIST???

I can just picture it now. Hansen's editor is saying,

"James, com'on! You can't just say "a bunch of trains loaded with coal is bad" How scary is that!? We gotta make it scary! REALLY scary! I got it!! We'll call 'em 'DEATH TRAINS'! That's perfect!! We'll say, 'those coal trains will be death trains, no less gruesome than if they were boxcars headed to crematoria, loaded with uncountable irreplaceable species'... Yea! THAT's the ticket... THAT will scare the pants off of people!!"

Once again, I have to ask why the AGW crowd is so shocked when everyday Americans roll their eyes when confronted by this hyperbole, poorly disguised as 'scientific fact'??




Fear-mongering, like sex, sales.
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1529. Michale
Quoting PRweathercenter:
The day after tommorrow


That would be Thursday. :D

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Quoting uptxcoast:
The world runs on oil, come up with a better mousetrap is all...

I really dislike Global Warming Blogs. Its like watching Fox News on Sunday Morning...lots of yelling and its all static....


I generally dislike Fox News's constant yelling, lame and poor taste jokes and sad attempt at satire at major events and I'm a right winger. This blog, if you listen to the right people, is a very informative source of information when it comes to the way tropical cyclones work.. so much that when the weather anchors on Fox News totally screw up the tropics we can feel satisfactory inside.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24574
1527. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
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Quoting uptxcoast:
The world runs on oil, come up with a better mousetrap is all...

I really dislike Global Warming Blogs. Its like watching Fox News on Sunday Morning...lots of yelling and its all static....

Or NPR..let me whisper in you ear about....
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1525. Michale
Quoting hcubed:
Well, after reading all the quotes from the "respected" Dr Hansen, let me add one more quote of his:

"If we cannot stop the building of more coal-fired power plants, those coal trains will be death trains, no less gruesome than if they were boxcars headed to crematoria, loaded with uncountable irreplaceable species."


This is a SCIENTIST???

I can just picture it now. Hansen's editor is saying,

"James, com'on! You can't just say "a bunch of trains loaded with coal is bad" How scary is that!? We gotta make it scary! REALLY scary! I got it!! We'll call 'em 'DEATH TRAINS'! That's perfect!! We'll say, 'those coal trains will be death trains, no less gruesome than if they were boxcars headed to crematoria, loaded with uncountable irreplaceable species'... Yea! THAT's the ticket... THAT will scare the pants off of people!!"

Once again, I have to ask why the AGW crowd is so shocked when everyday Americans roll their eyes when confronted by this hyperbole, poorly disguised as 'scientific fact'??
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1524. unf97
Quoting CybrTeddy:


Andrea's formation was certainly interesting.


Andrea's formation was indeed very unique, epecially considering it was early May 2007. That storm caused some considerable beach erosion along the SE Atlantic coast. Obviously, if we get development with this new area, it certainly will be fully tropical in nature for sure with those bath water temps in the Gulf Stream currently.
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If it weren't for BP, this might be news.
Link
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Quoting EnergyMoron:


Yes... just keep on thinking that way. I work for a major energy firm and I can tell you all of them KNOW we have a problem with supply/demand coming up.

Doesn't even require AGW acceptance (although once again I accept the science)

Also, ADAPTATION is a legitimate position (which is politically incorrect, granted, in the current administration) that argues do nothing but does not deny the science. I do not support the position but at least respect the integrity of those scientists who propose the position


Uhhh, it appears from your response and my post that we agree...
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Quoting CybrTeddy:


Andrea's formation was certainly interesting.
Indeed. All that dry air also played a role in it being subtropical, also the lack of convection.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1519. Tango01
Quoting ACEhigh:


Carl Sagan is "wrong about everything"?! Gee, here I was under the impression that he was one of the most respected astrophysicists of all time, and a man who has done more to raise the public understanding of science than perhaps any other person in history.


I have a strong physics background and Carl Sagan was indeed wrong in about everything related with astrophysics. His simplified analogies that tend to help common people "understand" the universe are mostly wrong and lead to misconceptions. However, although he had degrees both in astronomy and astrophysics his research was for most of his career on planetary science. During his years cosmology and astrophysics experienced important changes in which he was not part of (even discoveries leading to the fact that Einstein was wrong in dismissing important components needed to calculate the cosmological constant). So in practice he moved away from astrophysics to focus on planetary science. As a consequence, most of the cosmological and astrophysical theories he discussed in his books during his career were wrong because he had quite an old perspective on them. Yet, since there are important differences between astrophysics and planetary science so both of your comments are unfair and incorrect. Carl Sagan's contribution to planetary science are undeniable.
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Quoting robj144:


Hurricanes remove excess heat from the tropics, but don't transfer it to temperate locations. When was the last time a hurricane went north, and warmed say New England when it went north? So as long as tropics are warm enough there will be hurricanes independent of the temperature gradient. After all hurricanes are merely heat engines.
Quoting greentortuloni:


I knew it! All along I've been saying that Hispanola had weapons of mass distruction and no body listened to me, probably had me on ignore!

Yep...now I think it would be best for them if we invaded and took them over and started planting...
Oh and here in the VI's sugar cane to make ethanol with the added benefit of Rum..
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The world runs on oil, come up with a better mousetrap is all...

I really dislike Global Warming Blogs. Its like watching Fox News on Sunday Morning...lots of yelling and its all static....
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Thats a really cool loop CT!
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1514. 7544
something will pop up keep your shirts on tropics always surprise us look close to home
Member Since: May 6, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 6874
1513. unf97
Quoting cg2916:
Hey guys! You know that disturbance off the Carolinas? I got that yesterday. Pebble-sized hail, heavy winds. And rain so thick I couldn't see my neighbor's house. I just went outside. Two big trees and one little tree fell, branches and leaves everywhere, and two branches (don't ask me how) stuck 3 inches in the ground standing upright.


I chatted with a South Carolina blogger on here yesterday. who lived in the midlands area of South Carolina. He stated he had very severe storms which produced hurricane force wind gusts with some of the intense storm cells. Yeah, yesterday was a rough day in that state.
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Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Yep, me too. Andrea however was subtropical, at this time of the year we have much warmer SSTs (especially along the Gulf stream) to support a fully tropical warm core system. Will definitely be interesting if this lil' guy makes an attempt to develop.


Andrea's formation was certainly interesting.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24574
The day after tommorrow
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Quoting muddertracker:
Cool, thanks, always happy to learn :)
From the AMS glossary:

"outflow boundary—A surface boundary formed by the horizontal spreading of thunderstorm-cooled air.
Outflow boundaries may intersect with each other or with other features (fronts, low-level jets) and act to focus new convection. Outflow boundaries may be short-lived, or last for longer than a day.See gust front."

"gust front—The leading edge of a mesoscale pressure dome separating the outflow air in a convective storm from the environmental air.
This boundary, which is marked by upward motion along it and downward motion behind it, is followed by a surge of gusty winds on or near the ground. A gust front is often associated with a pressure jump, wind shift, temperature drop, and sometimes with heavy precipitation. Gust fronts are often marked by arcus clouds."
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1509. jpsb
Quoting angiest:


What area(s) of earth are likely to warm the most and fastest?
It is my understanding that colder climates would feel the effects of GW first. That is why so much attention is focus on the Earth's poles. But sadly for the AGW folks the Earth's poles are doing fine. It fact the South Pole is reaching record breaking extent. Mean while at the north pole the northwest passage is still closed. I enjoyed reading about those folks trying show the warming by hiking to the north pole having to be rescued because of the intense cold. lol, talk about stupid!
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Seems another leak has sprung in your backyard Pat.
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Quoting CJ5:


Again, you seem to be the one holding a party line. I asked you to produce something in favor of your postion that has not be scientifically questioned. am still waiting.

Your condecension makes for good fodder with your like minded peeps but it really doesn't add to the dicussion.


I don't think i have ever seen so many fangs and claws drawn....gheez can't someone just post some radar or model runs?

Oh never mind...I think ya'll are hilarious..keep up the in-fighting it makes for a great laugh
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Quoting angiest:


What area(s) of earth are likely to warm the most and fastest?

The urban areas...
I would like to see a study on how the fact that the NE US has become one giant heat source and how that has affected the intensity of Low pressure systems coming off the US. We all know when you add heat to a Low it intensifies. How much? It is easy to take broad theory like green house gases and play with the data and scenarios but what is the real effect? Do Lows intensify and use that extra energy? Are we seeing the large swings in temperature because of it as the earth atmospheric systems try to maintain balance? What effect does that have?

Take ocean acidification.. the GW crowd says they are getting more acidic but they don't ever mention the fact that huge sections of the Ocean floor are calcium deposited limestone which should act as a buffer and easily balance any amount of carbonic acid we could possibly add to the ocean in the form of calcium bicarbonate
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Quoting JFLORIDA:
Well Ive been coming here longer than any of you so that is ridiculous. I post on anything I am interested in.

RESPECT the blogs author and post relevant material if you discus GW. IF not you are the problem. Right?

We are guests here.


Good point, in fact so good that I feel compelled to add the following:-

If you are a guest in my house, you behave, or out you go!

This would apply to you without a shadow of a doubt, so be careful what you propose.
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1503. robj144
Quoting angiest:


My understanding, and it would seem to make sense, is that the poles (followed by the temperate latitudes) would feel effects of warming climate first (regardless of the cause). Tropical cyclones ultimately serve to move excess heat out of the tropics to more temperate locations, correct? So if the temperature gradient between the tropics and the temperate and polar latitudes was less, would the atmospheric conditions necessary for tropical cyclones be present?


Hurricanes remove excess heat from the tropics, but don't transfer it to temperate locations. When was the last time a hurricane went north, and warmed say New England when it went north? So as long as tropics are warm enough there will be hurricanes independent of the temperature gradient. After all hurricanes are merely heat engines.
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Quoting unf97:


Everytime I see scenarios like the tail end of frontal boundries or large deep layered torughs in the SW Atlantic, I always think back on the unique Subtropical Storm Andrea in 2007. Andrea was the first named system of that particular season, and it developed off the Mid-Atlantic coast at first, drifted SE for a while, then drifted W-SW before it stalled about 100-150 miles off the NE FL coast.
Yep, me too. Andrea however was subtropical, at this time of the year we have much warmer SSTs (especially along the Gulf stream) to support a fully tropical warm core system. Will definitely be interesting if this lil' guy makes an attempt to develop.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1500. cg2916
Hey guys! You know that disturbance off the Carolinas? I got that yesterday. Pebble-sized hail, heavy winds. And rain so thick I couldn't see my neighbor's house. I just went outside. Two big trees and one little tree fell, branches and leaves everywhere, and two branches (don't ask me how) stuck 3 inches in the ground standing upright.
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Quoting StormW:
We are guests here.

I guest at something once...got it wrong though.
Senior! You're inner smarta$$ is escaping today...well done!
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1498. Michale
Quoting StSimonsIslandGAGuy:
I like this video.




So THAT's what hundreds of billions of dollars went to...

Think how many houses that money would equip with solar power...

But I guess it's more important to make Gore, Branson, hack scientists, lobbyists, lawyers and PR firms richer than it is to actually do something that will help the planet..

:^/

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Quoting PensacolaDoug:


Means it got a looonnggg way to go .....


Yep, its going to be interesting to watch however. I will be interested if it can take advantage of the semi-favorable conditions and attempt to get a warm-core. Its over the Gulf Stream, so that might help it some. I don't really expect development out of this system, because there is so much for it to do and absolutely no model support whatsoever. However, I have eyes on the wave emerging off Africa currently. That will be by the Caribbean in 240 hours and take a guess what yesterdays 12z and this morning's 00z ECMWF shows by the Caribbean at 240 hours?
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24574
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Nope, it means that thunderstorms are collapsing. Gimme a second and I'll give you a longer explanation.
Cool, thanks, always happy to learn :)
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 2351
1495. unf97
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Note the low level outflow (arc clouds) in the southern quadrant. First person to tell me what this means gets a cyber-cookie.



Outflow boundry.
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If we cannot stop the building of more coal-fired power plants, those coal trains will be death trains � no less gruesome than if they were boxcars headed to crematoria, loaded with uncountable irreplaceable species."


More fear-mongering..
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Quoting muddertracker:
tail end of a front? (guess)
Nope, it means that thunderstorms are collapsing. Gimme a second and I'll give you a longer explanation.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1492. hcubed
Well, after reading all the quotes from the "respected" Dr Hansen, let me add one more quote of his:

"Coal will determine whether we continue to increase climate change or slow the human impact. Increased fossil fuel CO2 in the air today, compared to the pre-industrial atmosphere, is due 50% to coal, 35% to oil and 15% to gas. As oil resources peak, coal will determine future CO2 levels. Recently, after giving a high school commencement talk in my hometown, Denison, Iowa, I drove from Denison to Dunlap, where my parents are buried. For most of 20 miles there were trains parked, engine to caboose, half of the cars being filled with coal. If we cannot stop the building of more coal-fired power plants, those coal trains will be death trains no less gruesome than if they were boxcars headed to crematoria, loaded with uncountable irreplaceable species."
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1490. 7544
island wave is firing some nice convection at this hour if it holds we can see a new invest in 24 anyone agree

congrades on your cookie lol
Member Since: May 6, 2007 Posts: 0 Comments: 6874
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Note the low level outflow (arc clouds) in the southern quadrant. First person to tell me what this means gets a cyber-cookie.



Means it got a looonnggg way to go .....
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Quoting sailingallover:
YEP..
Well kind of actually most plastics. fuels etc have biological substitutes but it's so energy cost inefficient as to make it currently impractical..
I remember working with a scientist at VA Tech who made plastic from the steam explosion of wood chips that extracted the cellulouse and lignin. Oil is a product of organic matter and energy. It is just a matter of replicating that.
I did calulate one time if we covered the entire island of Hispanola with African Oil palms we could produce enough biofuel to supply the US with car fuel..start with the assumption of 700Gal per acre per year..


I knew it! All along I'ìve been saying that Hispanola had weapons of mass distruction and no body listened to me, probably had me on ignore!
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1487. unf97
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
This disturbance is drifting off towards the SSW, might bring a rainy and gusty day to Florida if it doesn't stall and rush off towards the east.



Everytime I see scenarios like the tail end of frontal boundries or large deep layered troughs in the SW Atlantic, I always think back on the unique Subtropical Storm Andrea in 2007. Andrea was the first named system of that particular season, and it developed off the Mid-Atlantic coast at first, drifted SE for a while, then drifted W-SW before it stalled about 100-150 miles off the NE FL coast. Andrea finally accelerated E-Ne out to sea afterwards, but it caused considerable beach erosion all along the SE Atlantic coast. That was an intersting system being that it formed in early May that year.
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1485. angiest
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Glaciers?


My understanding, and it would seem to make sense, is that the poles (followed by the temperate latitudes) would feel effects of warming climate first (regardless of the cause). Tropical cyclones ultimately serve to move excess heat out of the tropics to more temperate locations, correct? So if the temperature gradient between the tropics and the temperate and polar latitudes was less, would the atmospheric conditions necessary for tropical cyclones be present?
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Quoting CybrTeddy:


Collapsing thunderstorms.
Correct! CybrTeddy winds a CybrCookie! Sorry I can't post one, got banned last time for doing so.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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Lake Effort Snow Shower Over Windsor, Ontario
Sunset on Dunham Lake
Pictured Rocks Sunset
Sunset on Lake Huron