More pre-season predictions of a very active Atlantic hurricane season

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:02 PM GMT on July 12, 2010

Share this Blog
5
+

Hello again, it's Jeff Masters back again after a week away. Well, the past week was a wicked hot time to be in New England, where I was vacationing, and I certainly didn't expect to see 98° temperatures in Maine like I experienced! Fortunately, it's not hard to find cold water to plunge into in New England. Thankfully, the tropics were relatively quiet during my week away, and remain so today. There are no threat areas in the Atlantic to discuss at present, and none of the reliable computer models is forecasting tropical cyclone development over the next seven days. The NOGAPS model does show a strong tropical disturbance developing near the waters offshore of Nicaragua and Honduras this weekend, though. With not much to discuss in the present-day tropics, let's take a look at more pre-season predictions of the coming Atlantic hurricane season.

2010 Atlantic hurricane season forecast from Penn State
Dr. Michael Mann and graduate student Michael Kozar of Penn State University (PSU) issued their 2010 Atlantic hurricane season forecast on May 28. Their forecast utilizes a statistical model to predict storm counts, based on historical activity. Their model is predicting 19 to 28 named storms in the Atlantic, with a best estimate of 23 storms. The forecast assumes that record warm SSTs will continue in the Atlantic Main Development Region for hurricanes. Dr. Mann has issued two previous forecasts, in 2007 and 2009. The 2007 forecast was perfect--15 storms were predicted, and 15 storms occurred. The 2009 forecast called for 11.5 named storms, and 9 occurred (the 2009 forecast also contained the caveat that if a strong El Niño event occurred, only 9.5 named storms were expected; a strong El Niño did indeed occur.) So, the 2009 forecast also did well.


2010 Atlantic hurricane season forecast from the UK GloSea model
A major new player in the seasonal Atlantic hurricane season forecast game is here--the UK Met Office, which issued its first Atlantic hurricane season forecast in 2007. The UK Met Office is the United Kingdom's version of our National Weather Service. Their 2010 Atlantic hurricane season forecast calls for 20 named storms, with a 70% chance the number will range between 13 and 27. They predict an ACE index of 204, which is about double the average ACE index.

I have high hopes for the UK Met Office forecast, since it is based on a promising new method--running a dynamical computer model of the global atmosphere-ocean system. The CSU forecast from Phil Klotzbach is based on statistical patterns of hurricane activity observed from past years. These statistical techniques do not work very well when the atmosphere behaves in ways it has not behaved in the past. The UK Met Office forecast avoids this problem by using a global computer forecast model--the GloSea model (short for GLObal SEAsonal model). GloSea is based on the HadGEM3 model--one of the leading climate models used to formulate the influential UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report. GloSea subdivides the atmosphere into a 3-dimensional grid 0.86° in longitude, 0.56° in latitude (about 62 km), and up to 85 levels in the vertical. This atmospheric model is coupled to an ocean model of even higher resolution. The initial state of the atmosphere and ocean as of June 1, 2010 were fed into the model, and the mathematical equations governing the motions of the atmosphere and ocean were solved at each grid point every few minutes, progressing out in time until the end of November (yes, this takes a colossal amount of computer power!) It's well-known that slight errors in specifying the initial state of the atmosphere can cause large errors in the forecast. This "sensitivity to initial conditions" is taken into account by making many model runs, each with a slight variation in the starting conditions which reflect the uncertainty in the initial state. This generates an "ensemble" of forecasts and the final forecast is created by analyzing all the member forecasts of this ensemble. Forty-two ensemble members were generated for this year's UK Met Office forecast. The researchers counted how many tropical storms formed during the six months the model ran to arrive at their forecast of twenty named storms for the remainder of this hurricane season. Of course, the exact timing and location of these twenty storms are bound to differ from what the model predicts, since one cannot make accurate forecasts of this nature so far in advance.

The grid used by GloSea is fine enough to see hurricanes form, but is too coarse to properly handle important features of these storms. This lack of resolution results in the model not generating the right number of storms. This discrepancy is corrected by looking back at time for the years 1989-2002, and coming up with correction factors (i.e., "fudge" factors) that give a reasonable forecast.

The future of seasonal hurricane forecasts using global dynamical computer models is bright. Their first three forecasts have been good. Last year the Met Office forecast was for 6 named storms and an ACE index of 60. The actual number of storms was 9, and the ACE index was 53. Their 2008 forecast called for 15 named storms, and 15 were observed. Their 2007 forecast called for 10 named storms in July - November, and 13 formed. A group using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecasting (ECWMF) model is also experimenting with some promising techniques using that model. Models like the GloSea and ECMWF will only get better as increased computer power and better understanding of the atmosphere are incorporated, necessitating less use of "fudge" factors based on historical hurricane patterns. If human-caused climate change amplifies in coming decades, statistical seasonal hurricane forecasts like the CSU's may be limited in how much they can be improved, since the atmosphere may move into new patterns very unlike what we've seen in the past 100 years. It is my expectation that ten years from now, seasonal hurricane forecasts based on global computer models such as the UK Met Office's GloSea will regularly out-perform the statistical forecasts issued by CSU.

2010 Atlantic hurricane season forecast from Florida State University
Last year, another group using dynamical computer forecast models entered the seasonal hurricane prediction fray. A group at Florida State University led by Dr. Tim LaRow introduced a new model called COAPS, which is funded by a 5-year, $6.2 million grant from NOAA. This year, the COAPS model is calling for 17 named storms and 10 hurricanes. Last year's prediction by the COAPS model was for 8 named storms and 4 hurricanes, which was very close to the observed 9 named storms and 3 hurricanes.

Summary of 2010 Atlantic hurricane season forecasts
Here are the number of named storms, hurricanes, and intense hurricanes predicted by the various forecasters:

23 named storms: PSU statistical model
20 named storms: UKMET GloSea dynamical model
18.5 named storms, 11 hurricanes, 5 major hurricanes: NOAA hybrid statistical/dynamical model technique
18 named storms, 10 hurricanes, 5 intense hurricanes: CSU statistical model (Phil Klotzbach/Bill Gray)
17.7 named storms, 9.5 hurricanes, 4.4 intense hurricanes: Tropical Storm Risk (TSR), hybrid statistical/dynamical model technique
17 named storms, 10 hurricanes: FSU dynamical model
10 named storms, 6 hurricanes, 2 intense hurricanes: climatology

Only four hurricane seasons since 1851 have had as many as nineteen named storms, so 5 out of 6 of these pre-season forecasts are calling for a top-five busiest season in history. One thing is for sure, though--this year won't be able to compete with the Hurricane Season of 2005 for early season activity--that year already had five named storm by this point in the season, including two major hurricanes (Dennis and Emily.)

Tropical Storm Conson threatens the Philippines
Weather456 has an interesting post on why the Western Pacific typhoon season has been exceptionally inactive this year. It looks like we'll have out first typhoon of the Western Pacific season later today, since Tropical Storm Conson appears poised to undergo rapid intensification, and should strike the main Philippine island of Luzon as a Category 1 or 2 typhoon.

Next post
I'll have an update Wednesday.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 814 - 764

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61Blog Index

813. JLPR2
Dry air in the CATL



Good evening everyone! =)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wxvoyeur:


I remember Doria, it was doing a Fujiwara dance with Chloe as I recall..

No wonder why we had 4+ hrs of 70-90MPH winds, with the brightest lightning & loudest thunder I have EVER heard.

And my barometer was at 28.65" and on the rise about 2 hours AFTER the center passed by. And yes, the barometer was very accurate.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting LoneStarWeather:

Just about everyone who has commented on this season, including the NHC. Hype doesn't necessarily mean something is untrue, but rather, significantly played up. All of the excitement, fear and panic in the discussions of what this season could be, however correct those statements might prove to be, still set the stage for a certain level of expectation. That's all I meant.

:)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting NCHurricane2009:


When you say SAL, does that stand for Saharan Air Layer (dry air that prevents tropical waves from developing)? If so, I have to say that it looks gone to me already on this image:

http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/eumet/eatl/wv-l.jpg

Whites, blues, and purples are moist air. Don't see dry air in the eastern Atlantic tropical latitudes except
a pocket between 30 and 40W.


Yes, that is what I am talking about :o)!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bordonaro:

I lived on Long Island in the 1966-1979 time frame. I have seen TS Doria in 1972, Hurricane Belle in 1976. Weak, measly storm, yes, BUT, I gained a GREAT respect for their power, especially after witnessing at 100-105MPH wind gust in Belle. From almost calm to a roafr like a jet engine, in less than 30 seconds.

My mother, father, sister & brother in law got creamed by Hurricane Gloria in 1985. They had no power for 2 weeks, major damage, winds sustained at low CAT 3, about 115MPH, as they were on the "dreaded right NE quadrant , which added 25MPH to the sustained winds. My wife gave me a blow by blow of the 3 hr conversation with her mom during Gloria, it was REAL bad.

My sister in law, in Lake Ronkonkoma, LI had several apartment complex roofs torn completely off in her complex. One landed in main swimming pool, as they described it, "It was like a bomb just went off all of a sudden". That was over 25 years ago. NY-NJ Metro had a glancing blow form Bob in the early 1990's, but nothing since then, They are way overdue.

The sad part is most folks in the Northeast & New England are sadly unprepared for ANY major TC. Not saying a CAT 5 will hit NYC, NY. However a major CAT 3 is way overdue.


I remember Doria, it was doing a Fujiwara dance with Chloe as I recall..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Tazmanian:
oh my by looking at this we may be heading in too a mod too strong La Nina La Nina may be come vary strong come winter if this keeps going

The latest weekly SST departures are:


Ni%uFFFDo 4 -0.4%uFFFDC
Ni%uFFFDo 3.4 -0.8%uFFFDC
Ni%uFFFDo 3 -1.0%uFFFDC
Ni%uFFFDo1 2 -1.3%uFFFDC



any one see this
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
804. xcool
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
Quoting StormW:


Oh. Well, just wanted to clarify, I am a Tropical Meteorologist, and I don't hype. In fact, I continue to point out the different factors, in hopes to give folks who don't understand things about Tropical Cyclones, why a lot of us think this season will be hyperactive. For instance, the dust outbreak we just had...how many episodes have we seen since June 01? We have Global signals that are more favorable than 1998, and 1995, which had 14 and 19 storms, respectively. We not only have to look at the fact that we are in a La Nina, the AMO is and has been at record warmth, Wind shear for the most part has been at or below climatology, African rainfall estimates show that it should be wetter in the Sahel region down the road, the current state of the Atlantic Tripole, and you also have to take into account the cold PDO and colder SST's in much of the EPAC in relation to the Atlantic. Even in a neutral Nino pattern, or even weak El Nino, if the Atlantic is warmer in relation to that, guess where more of the heat energy is. Need I go on?

please do.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Yup. Look at those way above normal SSTs by New Jersey. If that continues, don't expect many subtropical cyclones this years.


I lived on Long Island in the 1966-1979 time frame. I have seen TS Doria in 1972, Hurricane Belle in 1976. Weak, measly storm, yes, BUT, I gained a GREAT respect for their power, especially after witnessing at 100-105MPH wind gust in Belle. From almost calm to a roar like a jet engine, in less than 30 seconds.

My mother, father, sister & brother in law got creamed by Hurricane Gloria in 1985. They had no power for 2 weeks, major damage, winds sustained at low CAT 3, about 115MPH, as they were on the "dreaded right NE quadrant , which added 25MPH to the sustained winds. My wife gave me a blow by blow of the 3 hr conversation with her mom during Gloria, it was REAL bad.

My sister in law, in Lake Ronkonkoma, LI had several apartment complex roofs torn completely off in her complex. One landed in main swimming pool, as they described it, "It was like a bomb just went off all of a sudden". That was over 25 years ago. NY-NJ Metro had a glancing blow form Bob in the early 1990's, but nothing since then. They are way overdue.

The sad part is most folks in the Northeast & New England are sadly unprepared for ANY major TC. Not saying a CAT 5 will hit NYC, NY. However a major CAT 3 is way overdue.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CBS4:
Oh wow, oh my! I apologies absolutely profusely for that, Gator! Anyhow, good evening, how are you doing tonight? How's been your Monday, thus far? ''Sigh'', :(. :0.

yikes! sorry i mentioned it.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
799. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Philippines Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomical Service and Administration
TROPICAL STORM "BASYANG" (CONSON)
Tropical Cyclone Bulletin #5
==============================================

Tropical Storm "BASYANG" has further intensified as it moves towards Isabela-Aurora Area.

At 4:00 AM PhST, Tropical Storm Basyang (Conson) located at 14.6°N 126.2°E or 190 km east northeast of Virac, Catanduanes has 10 minute sustained winds of 60 knots with gusts of 80 knots. The cyclone is reported as moving west at 11 knots.

Signal Warnings #2
=======================

Luzon Region
------------
1.Catanduanes
2.Camarines Norte
3.Polillo Island
4.Aurora
5.Quirino
6.Isabela

Signal Warnings #1
=======================

Luzon Region
------------
1.Camarines Sur
2.Albay
3.Quezon
4.Rizal
5.Bulacan
6.Pampanga
7.Tarlac
8.Nueva Ecija
9.Nueva Vizcaya
10.Ifugao
11.Benguet
12.Mt. Province
13.Pangasinan
14.La Union
15.Abra
16.Ilocos Sur
17.Kalinga
18.Cagayan

Additional Information
========================
Residents living in low lying and mountainous areas under signals # 1 and 2 are alerted against possible flashfloods and landslides.

The public and the disaster coordinating councils concerned are advised to take appropriate actions and watch for the next bulletin to be issued at 11 AM today.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting help4u:
Hey pin-hole eye Taz.



hi
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
oh my by looking at this we may be heading in too a mod too strong La Nina La Nina may be come vary strong come winter if this keeps going

The latest weekly SST departures are:


Nio 4 -0.4C
Nio 3.4 -0.8C
Nio 3 -1.0C
Nio1 2 -1.3C
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
!!!!
????

Member Since: March 10, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 10481
Hey pin-hole eye Taz.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CBS4:



????
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting NCHurricane2009:


When you say SAL, does that stand for Saharan Air Layer (dry air that prevents tropical waves from developing)? If so, I have to say that it looks gone to me already on this image:

http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/eumet/eatl/wv-l.jpg

Whites, blues, and purples are moist air. Don't see dry air in the eastern Atlantic tropical latitudes except a pocket between 30 and 40W.




Heres current sal, all the red and yellow. Like Bord said when the NAO changes, this may as well.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CBS4:
Hi, Taz.

how come you never say hi to me? I know you just as well as Taz does.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bordonaro:

Hurricane Alex caused major flood damage in North Central Mexico, literally crippling the infrastructure of Monterrey, Mexico, a city of 1.35 million. I say the 1.21 billion in damage is an understatement. The total should approach $5 billion dollars.

All it takes is one major Hurricane, like Andrew in 1992 to set its mark on the season. Whether we have 7 storms, 17 storms or 27 storms, it only take ONE.

As a non-professional weather observer for 42 yrs, I believe we will have an above average season, with 14-17 TC's, 9 hurricanes and 3-4 majors. I believe August 1-Oct 1 will be very busy.

Everyone from Brownsville, TX to the Bar Harbor, ME area, including the Caribbean Basin, Lesser and Windward Island needs to pay CLOSE attention to the Tropics.


Well said ...

I think it's a strange twist of fate that all this oil is sitting down there in the Gulf, waiting to be spread like frosting on the cake.

What are the odds that we would be set up for the perfect hurricane season too? It's like something out of a horror movie, and I have little doubt our worst fears will soon be realized.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting SLU:


lol .. 28 was just crazy but there's a chance that this year's ACE could match it at least based on the UKMET's estimate of up to 319.


I was also here in 1992 and hope to never see a CAT 5 come ashore either...

I was thinking the same thing about SST's up the East Coast, could be a bad year for New England States if those temps continue.
Member Since: March 10, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 10481
Quoting CBS4:
Hi, Taz.



hi
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
785. SLU
Quoting Dakster:


Miami - and I hope to never see another 2005 season, and if I am lucky I WON'T.


lol .. 28 was just crazy but there's a chance that this year's ACE could match it at least based on the UKMET's estimate of up to 319.
Member Since: July 13, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 5268
Quoting Bordonaro:

For goodness sake, the buoy 121 NMI off of the NJ coast is already registering 81F, Islip, NY at 40.3 N is at 76F, Atlantic City 76F, off Montauk Pt, LI 76F, off Cape Cod, MA 74F. Those temps are about 5-7F above normal. If the SAL relaxes when we enter a new phase of the NAO here in 2 weeks, and as shear decreases we may have a major TC outbreak.

With over 140 or so million people at risk, everyone needs to pay attention.

I have also noticed most computer models do better forecasting baroclinic storms than their tropical counterparts. A TC can pop up even under the most marginal conditions in this environment.

I am NOT trying to be an "alarm-caster", promise. People need to be aware the Tropical ATL needs little excuse to produce a serious TC.


When you say SAL, does that stand for Saharan Air Layer (dry air that prevents tropical waves from developing)? If so, I have to say that it looks gone to me already on this image:

http://www.ssd.noaa.gov/eumet/eatl/wv-l.jpg

Whites, blues, and purples are moist air. Don't see dry air in the eastern Atlantic tropical latitudes except a pocket between 30 and 40W.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormW:


Who's hyping?

Just about everyone who has commented on this season, including the NHC. Hype doesn't necessarily mean something is untrue, but rather, significantly played up. All of the excitement, fear and panic in the discussions of what this season could be, however correct those statements might prove to be, still set the stage for a certain level of expectation. That's all I meant.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hurrkat05:
angiest apparently you didnt see my other posts as the high filled in the weakness i did say a landfall on the upper mexican coast...you know i havent heard you say anything about the stall i predicted and the n movement that had storm w scratching his head lol...did you forget that?i was the only one that said when it got to 95w it wouls stall which it did...


I don't think Storm was scratching his head over that. He's pretty durn smart.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Bordonaro:

For goodness sake, the buoy 121 NMI off of the NJ coast is already registering 81F, Islip, NY at 40.3 N is at 76F, Atlantic City 76F, off Montauk Pt, LI 76F, off Cape Cod, MA 74F. Those temps are about 5-7F above normal. If the SAL relaxes when we enter a new phase of the NAO here in 2 weeks, and as shear decreases we may have a major TC outbreak.

With over 140 or so million people at risk, everyone needs to pay attention.

I have also noticed most computer models do better forecasting baroclinic storms than their tropical counterparts. A TC can pop up even under the most marginal conditions in this environment.

I am NOT trying to be an "alarm-caster", promise. People need to be aware the Tropical ATL needs little excuse to produce a serious TC.
Yup. Look at those way above normal SSTs by New Jersey. If that continues, don't expect many subtropical cyclones this years.

Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting CBS4:
Did you hear the news, sir? We are now ''officially'' in La Nina conditions.

this is a fake
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
#718...+
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
777. SLU
Quoting Bordonaro:

For goodness sake, the buoy 121 NMI off of the NJ coast is already registering 81F, Islip, NY at 40.3 N is at 76F, Atlantic City 76F, off Montauk Pt, LI 76F, off Cape Cod, MA 74F. Those temps are about 5-7F above normal. If the SAL relaxes when we enter a new phase of the NAO here in 2 weeks, and as shear decreases we may have a major TC outbreak.

With over 140 or so million people at risk, everyone needs to pay attention.

I have also noticed most computer models do better forecasting baroclinic storms than their tropical counterparts. A TC can pop up even under the most marginal conditions in this environment.

I am NOT trying to be an "alarm-caster", promise. People need to be aware the Tropical ATL needs little excuse to produce a serious TC.


That's warm enough to support a very bad storm if one ever decides to ride up the East Coast
Member Since: July 13, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 5268
Quoting SLU:


lol .. where we you in '05!


Miami - and I hope to never see another 2005 season, and if I am lucky I WON'T.
Member Since: March 10, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 10481
Quoting Patrap:
Goldie ?


Priceless...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting tkeith:
Good post earthlydragonfly...

One good hit will give a whole new meaning to the term..."game over"


Dragonfly, I agree with tkeith. I've been through my share of rough ones but nothing like some others on here. No one needs nor wants a hurricane headed in his/her direction.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting SLU:


Yes. There's nothing to suggest a slow season like some people have been saying for the last few days. 17-10-5 is still on.

For goodness sake, the buoy 121 NMI off of the NJ coast is already registering 81F, Islip, NY at 40.3 N is at 76F, Atlantic City 76F, off Montauk Pt, LI 76F, off Cape Cod, MA 74F. Those temps are about 5-7F above normal. If the SAL relaxes when we enter a new phase of the NAO here in 2 weeks, and as shear decreases we may have a major TC outbreak.

With over 140 or so million people at risk, everyone needs to pay attention.

I have also noticed most computer models do better forecasting baroclinic storms than their tropical counterparts. A TC can pop up even under the most marginal conditions in this environment.

I am NOT trying to be an "alarm-caster", promise. People need to be aware the Tropical ATL needs little excuse to produce a serious TC.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting StormW:


I hear ya! Yeah,'05 did. Folks fail to realize that the 2005 season was an anomaly.

When a season gets "hyped" the way this one was and continues to be, you have to expect that some people are going to be disappointed in anything less than a 2005-like season. I think some people on here will continue to "hype" it as an overactive season even if we're sitting at 8 storms by October. They'll say, "just wait, the season isn't over until November 30th". I personally think this will be a slightly higher than normal season but nothing more. But hey, what do I know?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
767. SLU
Quoting Dakster:


Only if I am lucky....


lol .. where were you in '05!
Member Since: July 13, 2006 Posts: 13 Comments: 5268
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:


Damn keeper, where do you find all these..
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AllBoardedUp:
I think "zero" storms for a hurricane season should be a "success", not a bust.


Yeah, I agree. I like the slower, least harmful seasons like 2009 last year, or 2006.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 814 - 764

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.