Large and intensifying Hurricane Alex bears down on northeastern Mexico, South Texas

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:23 PM GMT on June 30, 2010

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Hurricane Alex continues to intensify as it slowly bears down on the coast of northeastern Mexico. Brownsville long-range radar shows the spiral bands of Alex, which has dumped heavy rains of up to four inches in northeastern Mexico and near Brownsville, according to satellite estimates of rainfall. The Brownsville airport received 0.78" of rain in the hour ending at 8am CDT, and 0.61" in the hour ending at 9am CDT. Floods from Alex have already killed ten people--six in Nicaragua, and two each in El Salvador and Guatemala.


Figure 1. Snapshot of the Brownsville long-range radar showing Hurricane Alex approaching the coast.

The 7:12am CDT eye penetration of the Hurricane Hunters found a central pressure of 959 mb, a modest 2 mb drop from the reading four hours previous to that. They noted a very tiny eye, ten miles in diameter, with a gap in the northwest side. Tiny eyes like this tend to be unstable, and in the 9:05am CDT eye penetration, the Hurricane Hunters found that the inner eyewall had collapsed, and the pressure had risen 2 mb, to 961 mb. A new, much larger eye will form today as the day progresses. During these "eyewall replacement cycles", a hurricane will typically weaken a few millibars , and the strongest winds will spread out over a larger area as the hurricane conserves angular momentum. Thus, the hurricane still has about the same amount of destructive power, it is just spread out over a larger area. This tends to increase the hurricane's storm surge, but lessens the wind damage, since the extreme winds of the inner eyewall are no longer present. Satellite loops show a large, well-organized storm with increasing amounts of low-level spiral bands forming, and improving upper-level outflow. Data from last night's flight of the NOAA jet showed an unusually moist atmosphere surrounds Alex, so dry air is no longer a problem for it. It's a good thing Alex has less than a day before making landfall, or else is would be a large and very powerful major hurricane.


Figure 2. Visible light image of Tropical Storm Alex taken at 19:35 UTC (2:35 pm CDT) on June 29, 2010, by NASA's Aqua satellite. At the time, Alex was a tropical storm with 70 mph winds. Image credit: NASA.

Storm Surge
Traditionally, a storm's ranking on the Saffir-Simpson Scale--the familiar Category 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 rankings we always talk about--have also been used to quantify storm surge threat. However, large, weaker storms that cover a huge area of the Gulf of Mexico, like Alex, can generate a larger storm surge than a smaller but more intense hurricane with a higher Saffir-Simpson rating. Thus, the National Hurricane Center has formally discontinued use of the Saffir-Simpson scale to characterize storm surge, and is studying the possibility of issuing separate Storm Surge Warnings a few years from now. These would be in addition to their traditional Hurricane Warnings. To give us a better idea of a storm's surge potential, Dr. Mark Powell of NOAA's Hurricane Research Division has developed the Integrated Kinetic Energy scale to rank storms. The scale ranges from 0 to 6, and a parallel wind damage scale that runs from 0 to 6 is also generated. Alex had an Integrated Kinetic Energy of 2.6 on the 0 to 6 scale at 1:30pm CDT yesterday, and its destructive potential rating for winds was just 1.2. Thus, Alex's surge ranked alomst one-and-a-half categories higher in destructive potential than its wind. These numbers have probably increased by a full category since yesterday afternoon. NHC is giving a 40% - 60% chance of a storm surge of at least 3 feet affecting the Brownsville area, and 10% - 30% chance the surge will exceed 5 feet. In theory, a Category 2 hurricane moving WNW at 5 mph can bring a storm surge of up to 8 - 9 feet to the South Texas and northern Mexican coast.

Other Impacts
Alex is bringing bands of heavy rain to the coasts of Texas and Mexico, as seen on the Brownsville, Texas radar. Hurricane local statements with projections for how Alex will affect the coast are now being issued by the National Weather Service in Brownsville and Corpus Christi. Flooding damage from the expected 6 - 12 inches of rain from Alex will be the main concern. Wind damage is a lesser concern, since the core of Alex is making landfall in a swampy, sparsely populated region of Mexico. The combined wind, surge, and flooding damage from Alex may be similar to 2008's Hurricane Dolly, which hit near Brownsville. Dolly was a Category 2 hurricane offshore that weakened to a Category 1 hurricane with 85 mph winds when it made landfall, and did about $1 billion in damage. Dolly also generated two weak EF-0 tornadoes, and Alex is capable of generating a few tornadoes as well, according to the latest discussion from NOAA's Storm Prediction Center. The atmosphere is moderately unstable, there is plenty of moisture, and wind shear at low levels has been increasing this morning. The greatest threat for tornadoes will occur late this afternoon, on the right side of where the storm makes landfall.

Alex in historical context
Alex is the first June hurricane since Hurricane Allison of 1995. Allison briefly became a minimal 75 mph hurricane before weakening and hitting the Florida Panhandle as a tropical storm. Alex is the strongest June hurricane since Hurricane Bonnie of 1986, which had 85 mph winds. Bonnie was the first hurricane I flew into as a member of the Hurricane Hunters. Bonnie made landfall along the upper Texas coast, and caused less than $20 million in damage. If Alex strengthens to 90 mph winds, it will be the strongest June hurricane since Hurricane Alma of 1966, which had 125 mph winds as it skirted the Florida Keys. There have been only ten hurricanes in May or June since 1945; only four of these were major Category 3 or higher storms.

Track forecast for Alex
All of the models take Alex to the west or west-northwest into northern Mexico by early Thursday morning. However, the steering currents are fairly weak, and Alex could stall and move erratically at times today. I don't anticipate that this weakness in the steering currents will allow Alex to move northward and make landfall in Texas. After landfall, the ridge of high pressure forcing Alex westward should remain in place and strengthen, keeping Alex's remnants over northern Mexico for several days.

Intensity forecast for Alex
Alex is over a region of ocean with moderately high total ocean heat content . Wind shear has fallen to a low 5 knots, and is projected by the SHIPS model to remain in the low range, below 10 knots, through landfall. The combination of low wind shear, moderately high ocean heat content, and plenty of moisture should allow Alex to continue to intensify today. Alex's pressure is already characteristic of a Category 3 hurricane, but the storm is so large that it is taking time for the winds to catch up to the pressure falls. It is unlikely that Alex's winds will be at Category 3 strength at landfall, since the storm is undergoing an eyewall replacement cycle, and does not have time to build a tight inner eyewall with strong winds before landfall. A Category 2 storm at landfall looks more likely.

Elsewhere in the tropics
The latest run of the NOGAPS model predicts the formation of a tropical disturbance in the Western Caribbean on Monday. None of the other models is showing anything brewing over the coming seven days.

Wind and ocean current forecast for the BP oil disaster
Alex is generating very rough conditions over the Deepwater Horizon blowout location, with 6 - 8 foot waves and 3 - 4 foot swells. Strong southeast to south winds of 15 - 25 knots will blow over the oil slick region today through Thursday, according to the latest marine forecast from NOAA. The resulting currents will push oil to many protected bays and estuaries that haven't seen oil yet. In addition, the 1 - 2 foot storm surge Alex is generating along the Louisiana coast will act to push oil deep into some low-lying marshlands. While this oil will be diluted some by the wave action, the impact of the oil and accompanying toxic dispersants on the marshlands is of concern. The latest trajectory forecasts from NOAA and the State of Louisiana show oil will also move westward along the central Louisiana coast towards the Texas border. Winds will decrease to 10 - 15 knots Friday through Monday but remain out of the southeast, keeping the pressure on the regions of coast in Louisiana, Alabama, and Mississippi that are seeing oil hit their shores this week.

Resources for the BP oil disaster
Map of oil spill location from the NOAA Satellite Services Division
My post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
My post on the Southwest Florida "Forbidden Zone" where surface oil will rarely go
My post on what oil might do to a hurricane
NOAA's interactive mapping tool to overlay wind and ocean current forecasts, oil locations, etc.
Gulf Oil Blog from the UGA Department of Marine Sciences
Oil Spill Academic Task Force
University of South Florida Ocean Circulation Group oil spill forecasts
ROFFS Deepwater Horizon page
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the University of Miami

Next post
Either Rob Carver or myself will do an update late this afternoon or this evening.

Jeff Masters

Hurricane Alex (LRandyB)
Weather inbound to Hurricane Alex.
Hurricane Alex
Hurricane Alex (LRandyB)
Weather inbound to Hurricane Alex.
Hurricane Alex
Hurricane Alex (LRandyB)
Flight deck view from a WC-130J Hurricane Hunter aircraft
Hurricane Alex

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If I were in Brownsville Id be rushing my Preps to completion as the Storm is making headway NNW
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127565
Quoting TI882:
Why would the report 961 when they found 958.3 just to the East on the recon flight?


Time: 14:06:00Z
Coordinates: 23.8167N 95.4167W
Acft. Static Air Press: 842.6 mb (~ 24.88 inHg)
Acft. Geopotential Hgt: 1,137 meters (~ 3,730 feet)
Extrap. Sfc. Press: 958.3 mb (~ 28.30 inHg)
D-value: -
Flt. Lvl. Wind (30s): From 229° at 6 knots (From the SW at ~ 6.9 mph)
Air Temp: 22.4°C (~ 72.3°F)
Dew Pt: 21.8°C (~ 71.2°F)
Peak (10s) Flt. Lvl. Wind: 9 knots (~ 10.3 mph)
SFMR Peak (10s) Sfc. Wind: -
SFMR Rain Rate: -
(*) Denotes sus


A dropsonde in the eye measured 961mb.
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127. hurrkat05 10:53 AM EDT on June 30, 2010

Say what?
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Quoting watchingnva:


the funny thing about that map is that the center "eye" is crossing 24N as we speak...
Lol, basically yeah. That cone is messed up.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21091
Quoting homelesswanderer:
Thanks DRM. I almost started saying someone told me Rita was going through EWRC when she made landfall. Then I thought UGH! Not another old hurricane story! But then again the only thing that would be worse than an old hurricane story is a NEW hurricane story. Sigh. Go into Mexico and fall apart Alex.


That would cause a lot of flooding in Mexico, Texas and the inland CONUS.
Member Since: August 30, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 2835
Just 4 fun, how cool will alex look with a nice eye.

Member Since: July 9, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 334
Alex now has more ACE (4.6) than 2/3 of last year's storms.
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Quoting HurricaneSwirl:


I don't see a shift.


There is not going to be any significant shift the subtropical ridge to its north will soon turn alex on a westerly course and possibly towards the sw.
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Rita, I would guess that is because all of the shifting eddies and loops in the Gulf. Kinda why they have a hard time figuring out where the oil is heading.
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Quoting USSINS:
Photobucket



Nice obs (as usual), Kman. Thanks.


Alex has his eyes on Texas! Beautiful satellite picture.
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Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 421 Comments: 127565
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Barely any change.



the funny thing about that map is that the center "eye" is crossing 24N as we speak...
Member Since: September 7, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 1494
10 AM track and windfield

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134. TI882
Why would the report 961 when they found 958.3 just to the East on the recon flight?


Time: 14:06:00Z
Coordinates: 23.8167N 95.4167W
Acft. Static Air Press: 842.6 mb (~ 24.88 inHg)
Acft. Geopotential Hgt: 1,137 meters (~ 3,730 feet)
Extrap. Sfc. Press: 958.3 mb (~ 28.30 inHg)
D-value: -
Flt. Lvl. Wind (30s): From 229° at 6 knots (From the SW at ~ 6.9 mph)
Air Temp: 22.4°C (~ 72.3°F)
Dew Pt: 21.8°C (~ 71.2°F)
Peak (10s) Flt. Lvl. Wind: 9 knots (~ 10.3 mph)
SFMR Peak (10s) Sfc. Wind: -
SFMR Rain Rate: -
(*) Denotes sus
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting nrtiwlnvragn:
SHIPS Text has a 56% probability of an eye wall replacement.
Makes sense to me since the eye is so tiny.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21091
132. IKE
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Quoting Patrap:






Last two frames seem to indicate a return to a west-northwest motion
Member Since: July 9, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 334
Gulf storms....these are the ones that dont follow the rules, unlike out in the Atlantic and Carribbean
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Quoting HurricaneSwirl:


I don't see a shift.


Doesn't make sense if the track is moving NW. The NHC needs to stop depending on the forecast models for Alex, it's already north of them.
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SHIPS Text has a 56% probability of an eye wall replacement.
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Quoting PensacolaDoug:
93: Theres always a few who are in denial.
Maybe one day they'll be right.


Either that or the crocodiles will get them.....LOL
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Photobucket



Nice obs (as usual), Kman. Thanks.
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Quoting DestinJeff:


not quite sold yet, huh, kman?


Hi, sorry, I am at the office and my fire wall makes for long loading times for the blog. I won't be on for much longer.

I took a look at the steering again and the high to the NW of Texas has strengthened just a little since earlier today. Whether that will be enough to deflect Alex back to the WNW remains to be seen but it may also induce another stall soon.


It is really a test of strength now between Alex and the ridge and so far Alex has been winning that challenge this morning.


This must be causing some amount of consternation at the NHC as they will need to make a call real soon on revising that track forecast IMO.
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Although not all of them, here are the gauges for Harris county

HCOEM GAUGE MAP
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122. IKE
...ALEX HAS NOT STRENGTHENED YET...BUT FORECAST TO DO SO TODAY...
10:00 AM CDT Wed Jun 30
Location: 23.8°N 95.5°W
Max sustained: 80 mph
Moving: NW at 7 mph
Min pressure: 961 mb
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Alex still with maximum sustained winds of 80mph. Also, now he is moving towards the NW at 7mph. Let's see if the track shifted.


Nope.
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Barely any change.

Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21091
SATELLITE PRESENTATION HAS IMPROVED THIS MORNING WITH T-NUMBERS FROM
TAFB AND SAB REACHING 5.0 AND 5.5 ON THE DVORAK SCALE AND THE
MINIMUM PRESSURE HAS BEEN OSCILLATING BETWEEN 958 MB AND 961 MB.
HOWEVER...BOTH FLIGHT LEVEL WINDS AND SFMR DATA SUPPORT AN
INITIAL INTENSITY OF ONLY 70 KNOTS AT THIS TIME. LATEST
RECONNAISSANCE DATA SHOW THAT THERE ARE TWO WIND MAXIMA ON THE
NORTHEAST QUADRANT OF THE HURRICANE AND WINDS ARE SPREAD OUT IN
OTHER QUADRANTS. GIVEN SUCH A LOW MINIMUM PRESSURE...THE CURRENT
SATELLITE PRESENTATION AND A FAVORABLE ENVIRONMENT FOR
INTENSIFICATION...THE WINDS SHOULD INCREASE TODAY AND ALEX COULD
REACH CATEGORY TWO BEFORE LANDFALL.

No mention of any EWRC. This became a Hurricane at 11 pm, hurricanes rarely preform EWRC this early in the game.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23572
As DR. Masters has pointed out, an EWRC is likely. And, coincidentally, it appears as if the eye may be collapsing. Pressure has raised slightly, there has been some erratic movement....Radar signature indicates that the eye is filling in.... I'm going to say, either this is following a Cone we don't see, or it's going to resume going W after the EWRC is complete.
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Forecast Discussion, short and to the point....AVILA
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Quoting txalwaysprepared:


I believe S. Padre closes the bridge at 35 mph winds.


That could very well be - around here (NE Florida) bridges are closed at 40 or 45 mph, so if you live on the barrier island as I do, you need to think about evacuating early and not wait. My 9 yo daughter and I were one of the last people off the island in the Floyd evacuation due to my husband being out at sea and having to do all the work with the house myself.
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I don't see a shift.
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Quoting StormW:


What flight level are they at?
About 842mb.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21091
Read for my opinion of Alex right now.
Link
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 23572
Quoting AllStar17:


I'll be honest, it looks like it is moving north according to that loop.


Looks like a NNW motion to me.
Member Since: August 30, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 2835
Alex has not strengthened yet, but forecast to do so today,

Summary of 1000 am cdt, 1500 utc, information ----------------------------------------------- location, 23.8n 95.5w about 145 mi, 235 km e of la pesca mexico about 190 mi, 310 km se of brownsville Texas maximum sustained winds, 80 mph, 130 km/hr present movement, nw or 320 degrees at 7 mph, 11 km/hr minimum central pressure, 961 mb, 28.38 inches
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Alex still with maximum sustained winds of 80mph. Also, now he is moving towards the NW at 7mph. Let's see if the track shifted.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21091
Quoting extreme236:
TAFB gave out a T5.0/90kt estimate, so an average of the two agencies would be 95kts.


Strong CAT2 according to ADT, but I know recon data is more accurate.
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93: Theres always a few who are in denial.
Maybe one day they'll be right.
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Quoting kmanislander:


Yep, and can be seen here well North and East of the next forecat point.The NHC will need to do some scrambling with this as the current track forecast is busted.


Strong words Bro......Lol. But in defense of NHC, those "last minute" wobbles and corrections as a storm approaches landfall, which can mean a difference of several hundred miles in term of eyewall landfall, are impossible to accurately predict.....He is still within the current cone, albeit, on the northern end.
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On Alex's present course...Brownsville... or just south of it as a CAT2 is by no means out of the question.



AOI

AOI

AOI

Hurricane Hunter Data

TS BUSTED FORECAST ALIBI
Member Since: October 1, 2007 Posts: 81 Comments: 26511
Quoting RecordSeason:
78:

Dr. Lyons used to say that the mph at surface level is usually about the same as kts at flight level. So if it is 92kts at flight, it would be around 92mph at the surface.


That's actually not a bad way to translate it.
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000
WTNT31 KNHC 301447
TCPAT1
BULLETIN
HURRICANE ALEX ADVISORY NUMBER 20
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL012010
1000 AM CDT WED JUN 30 2010

...ALEX HAS NOT STRENGTHENED YET...BUT FORECAST TO DO SO TODAY...


SUMMARY OF 1000 AM CDT...1500 UTC...INFORMATION
-----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...23.8N 95.5W
ABOUT 145 MI...235 KM E OF LA PESCA MEXICO
ABOUT 190 MI...310 KM SE OF BROWNSVILLE TEXAS
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...80 MPH...130 KM/HR
PRESENT MOVEMENT...NW OR 320 DEGREES AT 7 MPH...11 KM/HR
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...961 MB...28.38 INCHES


WATCHES AND WARNINGS
--------------------
CHANGES WITH THIS ADVISORY...

NONE.

SUMMARY OF WATCHES AND WARNINGS IN EFFECT...

A HURRICANE WARNING IS IN EFFECT FOR...
* THE COAST OF TEXAS SOUTH OF BAFFIN BAY TO THE MOUTH OF THE RIO
GRANDE
* THE COAST OF MEXICO FROM THE MOUTH OF THE RIO GRANDE TO LA CRUZ

A TROPICAL STORM WARNING IN IN EFFECT FOR...
* THE COAST OF TEXAS FROM BAFFIN BAY TO PORT OCONNOR
* THE COAST OF MEXICO SOUTH OF LA CRUZ TO CABO ROJO

FOR STORM INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO YOUR AREA IN THE UNITED
STATES...INCLUDING POSSIBLE INLAND WATCHES AND WARNINGS...PLEASE
MONITOR PRODUCTS ISSUED BY YOUR LOCAL NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE
FORECAST OFFICE. FOR STORM INFORMATION SPECIFIC TO YOUR AREA OUTSIDE
UNITED STATES...PLEASE MONITOR PRODUCTS ISSUED BY YOUR NATIONAL
METEOROLOGICAL SERVICE.


DISCUSSION AND 48-HOUR OUTLOOK
------------------------------
AT 1000 AM CDT...1500 UTC...THE CENTER OF HURRICANE ALEX WAS LOCATED
BY A RECONNAISSANCE AIRCRAFT NEAR LATITUDE 23.8 NORTH...LONGITUDE
95.5 WEST. ALEX IS MOVING TOWARD THE NORTHWEST NEAR 7 MPH...11
KM/HR...BUT A TURN MORE TO THE WEST SHOULD BEGIN LATER TODAY. ON THE
FORECAST TRACK...THE CENTER OF ALEX WILL MAKE LANDFALL IN THE
HURRICANE WARNING AREA LATE TONIGHT OR EARLY THURSDAY MORNING.

MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS REMAIN NEAR 80 MPH...130 KM/HR...WITH HIGHER
GUSTS. ALEX IS A CATEGORY ONE HURRICANE ON THE SAFFIR-SIMPSON
HURRICANE WIND SCALE BUT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO BECOME A CATEGORY TWO
HURRICANE PRIOR TO LANDFALL. A GRADUAL WEAKENING SHOULD BEGIN AFTER
THE CENTER CROSSES THE COASTLINE.

ALEX IS A LARGE CYCLONE AND THE HURRICANE FORCE WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD
UP TO 60 MILES...95 KM...FROM THE CENTER...AND TROPICAL STORM FORCE
WINDS EXTEND OUTWARD UP TO 200 MILES...325 KM PRIMARILY TO THE
NORTHEAST OF THE CENTER.

LATEST MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE REPORTED BY A RECONNAISSANCE PLANE
WAS 961 MB...28.38 INCHES.


HAZARDS AFFECTING LAND
----------------------
RAINFALL...ALEX IS EXPECTED TO PRODUCE TOTAL RAINFALL ACCUMULATIONS
OF 6 TO 12 INCHES OVER PORTIONS OF NORTHEASTERN MEXICO AND SOUTHERN
TEXAS...WITH ISOLATED MAXIMUM AMOUNTS OF 20 INCHES. THESE RAINS
COULD CAUSE LIFE-THREATENING FLASH FLOODS AND MUD SLIDES...
ESPECIALLY IN MOUNTAINOUS TERRAIN. RAINBANDS ASSOCIATED WITH ALEX
ARE SPREADING ONSHORE IN NORTHEASTERN MEXICO AND SOUTHERN TEXAS.

WIND...HURRICANE CONDITIONS ARE EXPECTED TO REACH THE COAST WITHIN
THE HURRICANE WARNING AREA TONIGHT. HOWEVER...TROPICAL STORM WINDS
SHOULD BEGIN SOON...MAKING OUTSIDE PREPARATIONS DIFFICULT OR
DANGEROUS.

STORM SURGE...A DANGEROUS STORM SURGE WILL RAISE WATER LEVELS BY
AS MUCH AS 3 TO 5 FEET ABOVE GROUND LEVEL ALONG THE IMMEDIATE COAST
TO THE NORTH OF WHERE THE CENTER MAKES LANDFALL. THE SURGE COULD
PENETRATE INLAND AS FAR AS SEVERAL MILES FROM THE SHORE WITH DEPTH
GENERALLY DECREASING AS THE WATER MOVES INLAND. NEAR THE COAST...
THE SURGE WILL BE ACCOMPANIED BY LARGE AND DESTRUCTIVE WAVES.

TORNADOES...ISOLATED TORNADOES ARE POSSIBLE OVER PORTIONS OF EXTREME
SOUTHERN TEXAS TODAY AND TONIGHT.


NEXT ADVISORY
-------------
NEXT INTERMEDIATE ADVISORY...100 PM CDT.
NEXT COMPLETE ADVISORY...400 PM CDT.

$$
FORECASTER AVILA
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TAFB gave out a T5.0/90kt estimate, so an average of the two agencies would be 95kts.
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NW means more time over water, food for thought.
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Quoting 7544:
maybe alex sees what hitting mex can do to him and he said nope i think ill go the other way nne lol getting very interesting this am


NW at best...still going to mx...albeit closer to the border than the center line of the nhc...
Member Since: September 7, 2005 Posts: 7 Comments: 1494
Quoting kmanislander:


Looks NNW to me now.


Yep.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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