Long range oil spill forecast

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:02 PM GMT on June 04, 2010

Share this Blog
4
+

Onshore winds out of the south, southwest, or west are expected to blow over the northern Gulf of Mexico over through Tuesday, resulting in a continued threat of landfalling oil to Alabama, Mississippi, and the Florida Panhandle, according to the latest trajectory forecasts from NOAA and the State of Louisiana. The latest ocean current forecasts from the NOAA HYCOM model show that these winds will generate a 0.5 mph current flowing from west to east along the Florida Panhandle coast Sunday through Tuesday. If this current develops as predicted, it will be capable of bringing light amounts of oil as far east as Panama City, Florida, by Wednesday. Long range surface wind forecasts from the GFS model for the period 8 - 14 days from now predict a return to a southeasterly wind regime, which would bring the oil back over Louisiana by mid-June. If you spot oil, send in your report to http://www.gulfcoastspill.com/, whose mission is to help the Gulf Coast recovery by creating a daily record of the oil spill.

Long range oil spill outlook
The National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) issued a press release yesterday showing 4-month model runs (Figure 1) of where the Deepwater Horizon oil spill might go. The model runs show that given typical ocean currents in the Gulf of Mexico, we can expect the oil to eventually affect most of the Florida Panhandle, Keys, and Florida East Coast, as well as coastal areas of South Carolina and North Carolina. Very little oil makes it to the West Florida "Forbidden Zone", where offshore-moving surface currents dominate. The oil may eventually affect three foreign countries: Mexico along the northern tip of the Yucatan Peninsula, Cuba near Havana, and the Bahamas in the Bimini Islands and along the western side of Grand Bahama Island. Once oil does get into the Loop Current, it will probably reach the coasts of France, Spain, and Portugal in about a year. The oil will be too dilute by then to be noticeable, though.

The present ocean current configuration in the Gulf features a newly formed Loop Current Eddy (dubbed "Franklin"), which will tend to capture the majority of oil that flows southwards from the Deepwater Horizon spill site. A plot of drifting buoys (drifters) launched into the Gulf May 19 - 24 (Figure 2) reveals how this clockwise-rotating eddy has been capturing southward-moving surface water. Eddy Franklin will move slowly west-southwest at 2 - 3 mph in the coming weeks. By August or September, the eddy will have moved far enough west that the Loop Current will be able to push northwards towards the spill location again, increasing the chances of oil getting into the Loop Current and being advected through the Florida Straits and up the U.S. Southeast Coast. Between now and mid-August, I doubt that a significant amount of oil will get into the Loop Current, unless a hurricane or tropical storm goes through the Gulf of Mexico. I put the odds of this happening by mid-August at 50%. The odds of a named storm in the Gulf of Mexico will increase sharply after mid-August, when the peak portion of hurricane season arrives. Past history shows a 95% chance of getting two or more named storms in the Gulf of Mexico during hurricane seasons with above-normal activity.


Figure 1. Animation from the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) showing one scenario of how oil released at the location of the Deepwater Horizon disaster on April 20 in the Gulf of Mexico may move in the upper 65 feet of the ocean.


Figure 2. During the R/V Bellows 19-24 May 2010 Cruise into the Loop Current, drifters were dropped on the eastern edge of the Loop Current. These drifters have all been caught in Loop Current Eddy "Franklin", and are orbiting the central Gulf of Mexico in clockwise loops. Additional drifters deployed by the Coast Guard over the past few weeks (orange colors) are also shown. The colored balloons show the starting location of the drifters. Image credit: University of South Florida.

Oil spill resources
My post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
My post on the Southwest Florida "Forbidden Zone" where surface oil will rarely go
My post on what oil might do to a hurricane
Oil trajectory forecasts from NOAA
Gulf Oil Blog from the UGA Department of Marine Sciences
Oil Spill Academic Task Force
University of South Florida Ocean Circulation Group oil spill forecasts
ROFFS Deepwater Horizon page
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the University of Miami


Figure 2. Visible satellite image of Tropical Cyclone Phet on Friday, June 4, 2010.

Tropical Cyclone Phet unleashes heavy rains on Oman
Tropical Cyclone Phet hit the northern tip of Oman yesterday as a Category 2 storm, bringing torrential rains and killing at least two people. Masirah, Oman recorded sustained winds of 74 mph yesterday, and Sur, Oman on the northeast coast has received 3.25 inches of rain so far. Phet was the 2nd strongest tropical cyclone ever recorded in the Arabian Sea, when it peaked at Category 4 strength with 145 mph. Only Category 5 Cyclone Gonu of 2007, which devastated Oman, was stronger. Phet has emerged from the coast of Oman this morning, but is likely to weaken over the next day due to increased wind shear. Phet should hit Pakistan as a tropical storm on Saturday, bringing heavy rain and serious flooding.

Next update
I'll probably have one update over the weekend. The tropical Atlantic is quiet right now, with no models predicting tropical cyclone development over the next seven days.

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 656 - 606

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105Blog Index

656. xcool
brb my son is screaming
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting masonsnana:
Hoping for the best, expecting the worst
Thats all you really can do and prepare.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
Well hopefully central and southwest florida will be spared this year.
Hoping for the best, expecting the worst
Member Since: February 14, 2004 Posts: 2 Comments: 664
Quoting masonsnana:
Oh Exactly! I was prepared as far a food etc. but not mentally. And added injury, It was soooo hot and humdid after with no power for days and days.
Well hopefully central and southwest florida will be spared this year.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting hurricanejunky:


My wife called Port Charlotte when Charley was still south of Cuba. Lucky guess! I wasn't quite sure how it would track once it got past Key West...it was a terrible feeling since it blew up so fast. I was only prepared for a 2 not a 4!!
Oh Exactly! I was prepared as far a food etc. but not mentally. And added injury, It was soooo hot and humdid after with no power for days and days.
Member Since: February 14, 2004 Posts: 2 Comments: 664
Quoting WinterAnalystwx13:
Alex Bonnie Colin Danielle Earl

Fiona Gaston Hermine Igor Julia

Karl Lisa Matthew Nicole Otto

Paula Richard Shary Tomas Virginie

Walter
What kind of name is virginie?
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting CycloneOz:


They're not working on the leak.

Instead, they're spraying something into the oil from "ACME."

I must admit, the nuclear weapon idea is looking more and more attractive with each passing moment. Maybe a low yield nuclear warhead would produce enough heat to weld the sea floor, stopping the leak, with minimal nuclear fallout?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting WinterAnalystwx13:
June 3 2010

Wow thats all i can say just wow!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting masonsnana:
The worst thing about Charlie was it was suppose to go to Tampa, when it was apparent that he was coming to SWF, it was the worst feeling. There was little we could all do


My wife called Port Charlotte when Charley was still south of Cuba. Lucky guess! I wasn't quite sure how it would track once it got past Key West...it was a terrible feeling since it blew up so fast. I was only prepared for a 2 not a 4!!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CycloneOz:


I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Pick your poison this year!
Is the n name nicole this year because if it is watch out because that one may bite!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting CycloneOz:


I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Pick your poison this year!


Yes but none other than the O storm can be spelled the same backwards and forwards...so there!

LOL!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hurricanejunky:


Some friends in Cape were getting it BAD! Easily 100mph sustained with higher gusts. I'm in North Ft. Myers now and a couple houses around us in that area are brand new due to Charley hurling trees at them or destroying them. Nasty little storm that one...
we're on acreage now so hopefully less housing density will mean less potential for debris damage. OTOH, that means winds will be a little stronger...
The worst thing about Charlie was it was suppose to go to Tampa, when it was apparent that he was coming to SWF, it was the worst feeling. There was little we could all do
Member Since: February 14, 2004 Posts: 2 Comments: 664
Quoting hurricanejunky:


What about Otto? Any storm that's spelled backwards the same as it is forwards has got to be trouble!


I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P

Pick your poison this year!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting masonsnana:
It was horrible


Yes Punta Gorda was an absolute war zone. I still think the death toll was much higher. Some of those waterfront trailer parks only had a couple hours notice and many didn't leave. Conspiracy theories abounded...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hurricanejunky:


What about Otto? Any storm that's spelled backwards the same as it is forwards has got to be trouble!
LOL!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
Wow must have been very scary we went to punta gorda after the storm to help our relatives and it was like a bomb went off horrible i hope i never expierience that ever.
It was horrible
Member Since: February 14, 2004 Posts: 2 Comments: 664
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
Beware of Igor this year that name is asking for trouble!


What about Otto? Any storm that's spelled backwards the same as it is forwards has got to be trouble!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting CycloneOz:


They're not working on the leak.

Instead, they're spraying something into the oil from "ACME."


LOL!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
Beware of Igor this year that name is asking for trouble!


The "I" storm has analogs in recent years. I'm worried about that letter, too.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Beware of Igor this year that name is asking for trouble!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
http://www.wunderground.com/blog/JeffMasters/comment.html?entrynum=1500#commenttop

Congrats on 1500 entries, Dr. Masters! Keep up the great work.
Member Since: July 29, 2006 Posts: 28 Comments: 1795
Quoting kingy:
who just saw obammy's interview, very critical of BP !


And rightfully so!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hurricanejunky:


Wile E Coyote 14 continues plugging away at the leak...news at 11...


They're not working on the leak.

Instead, they're spraying something into the oil from "ACME."
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
www.ronsrovlinks.nl/modules

Ocean currents likely to carry oil to Atlantic coast
Published on 04 June 2010 (8 reads)

ncar_logoA detailed computer modeling study released today indicates that oil from the massive spill in the Gulf of Mexico might soon extend along thousands of miles of the Atlantic coast and open ocean as early as this summer. The modeling results are captured in a series of dramatic animations produced by the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and collaborators.

The research was supported in part by the National Science Foundation, NCAR's sponsor. The results were reviewed by scientists at NCAR and elsewhere, although not yet submitted for peer-review publication.

"I've had a lot of people ask me, ‘Will the oil reach Florida?'" says NCAR scientist Synte Peacock, who worked on the study. "Actually, our best knowledge says the scope of this environmental disaster is likely to reach far beyond Florida, with impacts that have yet to be understood."

The computer simulations indicate that, once the oil in the uppermost ocean has become entrained in the Gulf of Mexico's fast-moving Loop Current, it is likely to reach Florida's Atlantic coast within weeks. It can then move north as far as about Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, with the Gulf Stream, before turning east. Whether the oil will be a thin film on the surface or mostly subsurface due to mixing in the uppermost region of the ocean is not known.
oil_slick_map
A still from the animation showing the oil trajectory after 130 days.
Click image to enlarge
The scientists used a powerful computer model to simulate how a liquid released at the spill site would disperse and circulate, producing results that are not dependent on the total amount released. The scientists tracked the rate of dispersal in the top 65 feet of the water and at four additional depths, with the lowest being just above the sea bed.

"The modeling study is analogous to taking a dye and releasing it into water, then watching its pathway," Peacock says.

The dye tracer used in the model has no actual physical resemblance to true oil. Unlike oil, the dye has the same density as the surrounding water, does not coagulate or form slicks, and is not subject to chemical breakdown by bacteria or other forces.

Peacock and her colleagues stress that the simulations are not a forecast because it is impossible to accurately predict the precise location of the oil weeks or months from now. Instead, the simulations provide an envelope of possible scenarios for the oil dispersal. The timing and course of the oil slick will be affected by regional weather conditions and the ever-changing state of the Gulf's Loop Current-neither of which can be predicted more than a few days in advance. The dilution of the oil relative to the source will also be impacted by details such as bacterial degradation, which are not included in the simulations.

What is possible, however, is to estimate a range of possible trajectories, based on the best understanding of how ocean currents transport material. The oil trajectory that actually occurs will depend critically both on the short-term evolution of the Loop Current, which feeds into the Gulf Stream, and on the state of the overlying atmosphere. The flow in the model represents the best estimate of how ocean currents are likely to respond under typical wind conditions.

Picking up speed

Oil has been pouring into the Gulf of Mexico since April 20 from a blown-out undersea well, the result of an explosion and fire on an oil rig. The spill is located in a relatively stagnant area of the Gulf, and the oil so far has remained relatively confined near the Louisiana and Alabama coastlines, although there have been reports of small amounts in the Loop Current.

The model simulations show that a liquid released in the surface ocean at the spill site is likely to slowly spread as it is mixed by the ocean currents until it is entrained in the Loop Current. At that point, speeds pick up to about 40 miles per day, and when the liquid enters the Atlantic's Gulf Stream it can travel at speeds up to about 100 miles per day, or 3,000 miles per month.

The six model simulations released today all have different Loop Current characteristics, and all provide slightly different scenarios of how the oil might be dispersed. The simulations all bring the oil to south Florida and then up the East Coast. However, the timing of the oil's movement differs significantly depending on the configuration of the Loop Current.

The scenarios all differ in their starting conditions, a technique used in weather and climate forecasting to determine how uncertainty about current conditions might affect predictions of the future.

Additional model studies are currently under way, looking further out in time, that will indicate what might happen to the oil in the Atlantic.



"We have been asked if and when remnants of the spill could reach the European coastlines," says Martin Visbeck, a member of the research team with IFM-GEOMAR, University of Kiel, Germany. "Our assumption is that the enormous lateral mixing in the ocean together with the biological disintegration of the oil should reduce the pollution to levels below harmful concentrations. But we would like to have this backed up by numbers from some of the best ocean models."

The scientists are using the Parallel Ocean Program, which is the ocean component of the Community Climate System Model, a powerful software tool designed by scientists at NCAR and the Department of Energy. They are conducting the simulations at supercomputers based at the New Mexico Computer Applications Center and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research manages the National Center for Atmospheric Research under sponsorship by the National Science Foundation. Any opinions, findings and conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128624
629. kingy
who just saw obammy's interview, very critical of BP !
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
628. xcool
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting masonsnana:
I'm in NW Cape Coral, about 10 miles south of where Charlie hit. Hopefully, never again in my life time


Some friends in Cape were getting it BAD! Easily 100mph sustained with higher gusts. I'm in North Ft. Myers now and a couple houses around us in that area are brand new due to Charley hurling trees at them or destroying them. Nasty little storm that one...
we're on acreage now so hopefully less housing density will mean less potential for debris damage. OTOH, that means winds will be a little stronger...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
ROV Companies

Rental companies for miscellaneous ROV and hydrographic equipment.

Advent Marine Technologies Ltd.

Argus Remote Systems AS

Ashtead Technology Rentals


AXYS Technologies Inc.

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128624
Quoting hydrus:
In S.W.Florida, you can see palm tree,s leaned over at a 45 degree angle but still living. Most of these strange looking palms were the result of Donna. I see a lot of them on U.S.41.


That's... Insane. I wonder how they survived at that angle, especially for that long. Also makes me glad that I'm so far inland.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting masonsnana:
I'm in NW Cape Coral, about 10 miles south of where Charlie hit. Hopefully, never again in my life time
Wow must have been very scary we went to punta gorda after the storm to help our relatives and it was like a bomb went off horrible i hope i never expierience that ever.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting CycloneOz:
I've been able to deduce some interesting things from watching the live feed of the "gusher cam" on CNN:

1: Military Date and Time Used: Navy ROVs perhaps?

2: ROV Name / Duty: Hero 14 (?) / Dispersant Duty

3: Seafloor Depth: 4924.8 feet

4: ROV Altitude Above Seafloor: 67.9 feet


They should name their ROV's Wile E Coyote and number them in sequence...that'd be funny, wouldn't it? Considering the success rate they've had with all their brilliant ideas I think it would be rather fitting.

Wile E Coyote 14 continues plugging away at the leak...news at 11...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
622. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Philippines Atmospheric Geophysical Astronomical Services and Administration

Tropical Weather Outlook
=======================
At 2:00 PM PhST, a Low Pressure Area was estimated at 230 km Northeast of Basco, Batanes 21.7°N, 124.0°E.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hurricanejunky:


We had about the same winds in South Ft. Myers and no power for 5 days but about 20 miles north the winds were 120+ mph and in Punta Gorda (about 10 miles north of me now) winds were gusting over 170. Charley's windfield was like a huge tornado. Storm surge was very small for a Cat 4 mainly due to the trajectory, quick intensification and rapid forward speed. It was a real firecracker for those in the path of the 6 mile wide eye though. Working with the local EOC as I do, we were quite busy and in turmoil. Infrastructure was in shambles even in much of Lee County.
I'm in NW Cape Coral, about 10 miles south of where Charlie hit. Hopefully, never again in my life time
Member Since: February 14, 2004 Posts: 2 Comments: 664
Anybody here?
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
619. HadesGodWyvern (Mod)
Japan Meteorological Agency
Tropical Disturbance Summary
3:00 AM JST June 5 2010
===============================

At 18:00 PM UTC, Tropical Depression (1002 hPa) located at 23.0N 127.0E has 10 minute sustained winds of 25 knots with gusts of 40 knots. The depression is reported as moving east at 15 knots.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting hydrus:
And the 1921 hurricane was large and powerful. In some of my old weather books, it states that every island from Fort Myers Bch to Eggmont Key was under water.
only 3 houses were left standing in tampa at that time
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Jeff9641:


Hey easy now I don't need another Charley as I was terrified when it came through Orlando. I had winds of 100 mph maybe higher here. I also had no power for 11 days after Charley.


We had about the same winds in South Ft. Myers and no power for 5 days but about 20 miles north the winds were 120+ mph and in Punta Gorda (about 10 miles north of me now) winds were gusting over 170. Charley's windfield was like a huge tornado. Storm surge was very small for a Cat 4 mainly due to the trajectory, quick intensification and rapid forward speed. It was a real firecracker for those in the path of the 6 mile wide eye though. Working with the local EOC as I do, we were quite busy and in turmoil. Infrastructure was in shambles even in much of Lee County.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Makoto1:


I've heard stories about Donna, my mom was growing up in New Jersey when it scraped there.
In S.W.Florida, you can see palm tree,s leaned over at a 45 degree angle but still living. Most of these strange looking palms were the result of Donna. I see a lot of them on U.S.41.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21409
I've been able to deduce some interesting things from watching the live feed of the "gusher cam" on CNN:

1: Military Date and Time Used: Navy ROVs perhaps?

2: ROV Name / Duty: Hero 14 (?) / Dispersant Duty

3: Seafloor Depth: 4924.8 feet

4: ROV Altitude Above Seafloor: 67.9 feet
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
GOM IR Loop

Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 426 Comments: 128624
Quoting StSimonsIslandGAGuy:
When talking about 2005, I've always liked this image.


I think that's just due to the fact there was no satellite in 1933, so they could only track a storm when it was near land.
Member Since: July 29, 2006 Posts: 28 Comments: 1795
Quoting CycloneOz:
I have a feeling that the Tampa Shields will be no match for the Borg storms to come.
NOOOOOOOOOO!!!!!!!!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting Bordonaro:

Last Hurricane that hit Tampa head on was in 1921. I know you have been very fortunate so far, I hope this will continue, but you all are way overdue for a landfalling hurricane.
And the 1921 hurricane was large and powerful. In some of my old weather books, it states that every island from Fort Myers Bch to Eggmont Key was under water.
Member Since: September 27, 2007 Posts: 1 Comments: 21409
Quoting Bordonaro:

Last Hurricane that hit Tampa head on was in 1921. I know you have been very fortunate so far, I hope this will continue, but you all are way overdue for a landfalling hurricane.
Hopefully we wont get a hurricane this year because this is my last year here but i will always love tampa and hope if they do get a hurricane people heed evacuations.
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Quoting HurricaneSwirl:


Lol can you imagine the blog 2-3 months from now. That should be good
Chaos pure chaos!
Member Since: April 8, 2010 Posts: 15 Comments: 2572
Late bloomers today, it seems. The sea breeze is hung up just off the east coast.


Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting alexhurricane1991:
Well i live north of tampa in pasco county odessa to be exact and we got it pretty good last night.

Last Hurricane that hit Tampa head on was in 1921. I know you have been very fortunate so far, I hope this will continue, but you all are way overdue for a landfalling hurricane.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 656 - 606

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80 | 81 | 82 | 83 | 84 | 85 | 86 | 87 | 88 | 89 | 90 | 91 | 92 | 93 | 94 | 95 | 96 | 97 | 98 | 99 | 100 | 101 | 102 | 103 | 104 | 105Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

Local Weather

Mostly Cloudy
66 °F
Mostly Cloudy