The hurricane season of 2010 arrives

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:56 PM GMT on June 01, 2010

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The hurricane season of 2010 is upon us. With unprecedented sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic, El Niño gone and possibly transitioning to La Niña, a massive oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico, a million earthquake refugees in Haiti at the mercy of a hurricane strike, and an ever-increasing number of people living on our coasts, the arrival of this year's hurricane season comes with an unusually ominous tone. NOAA is forecasting a very active and possibly hyperactive season, and Dr. Bill Gray has said he expects "a hell of a year." However, our ability to forecast hurricane activity months in advance is limited, and we don't yet know how the large scale weather patterns like the Bermuda High will set up during the peak part of hurricane season. In particular, I very much doubt that we are in for a repeat of the unprecedented violence of the Hurricane Season of 2005, with its 28 named storms, 15 hurricanes, and 7 intense hurricanes. While sea surface temperatures are currently warmer this year than in 2005, that year featured some very unusual atmospheric circulation patterns, with a very strong ridge of high pressure over the eastern U.S., record drought in the Amazon, and very low surface pressures over the Atlantic. A repeat of 2005's weather patterns is unlikely, though I am expecting we will get at least four major hurricanes this year. An average year sees just two major hurricanes.


Figure 1. Tracks of all June tropical storms and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, 1995 - 2009. Allison was a subtropical storm (coded blue). Image credit: NOAA Coastal Services Center.

The latest long-range computer model guidance suggests there's no reason to suspect that the first two weeks of this year's hurricane season will bring any unusual activity. Climatologically, June is typically the quietest month of the Atlantic hurricane season. On average, we see only one named storm every two years in June. Only one major hurricane has made landfall in June--Category 4 Hurricane Audrey of 1957, which struck the Texas/Louisiana border area on June 27 of that year, killing 550. The highest number of named storms for the month is three, which occurred in 1936 and 1968. In the fifteen years since the current active hurricane period began in 1995, there have been eleven June named storms (if we include 2008's Tropical Storm Arthur, which really formed on May 31). Five tropical storms have formed in the first half of June in that 14-year period, giving a historical 36% chance of a first-half-of-June named storm. Five June storms in the past 14 years have passed close enough to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill location to have caused significant transport had there been an oil slick on the surface.

Sea Surface Temperatures
Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) are at record high levels over the tropical Atlantic between Africa and Central America this year (Figure 2). As I discussed in my May 15 post, the area between 10°N and 20°N, between the coast of Africa and Central America (20°W - 80°W), is called the Main Development Region (MDR) because virtually all African waves originate in this region. These African waves account for 85% of all Atlantic major hurricanes and 60% of all named storms. When SSTs in the MDR are much above average during hurricane season, a very active season typically results (if there is no El Niño event present.) SSTs in the Main Development Region (10°N to 20°N and 20°W to 80°W) were an eye-opening 1.46°C above average during April. This is the third straight record warm month, and the warmest anomaly measured for any month--by a remarkable 0.2°C. The previous record warmest anomalies for the Atlantic MDR were set in June 2005 and March 2010, at 1.26°C. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) and its close cousin, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), are largely to blame for the record SSTs. The AO and NAO are climate patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean related to fluctuations in the difference of sea-level pressure between the Icelandic Low and the Azores-Bermuda High. If the difference in sea-level pressure between Iceland and the Azores is small (negative NAO), this creates a weak Azores-Bermuda High, which reduces the trade winds circulating around the High. During December - February, we had the most negative AO/NAO since records began in 1950, and this caused trade winds between Africa and the Lesser Antilles Islands in the hurricane Main Development Region to slow to 1 - 2 m/s (2.2 - 4.5 mph) below average. Slower trade winds mean less mixing of the surface waters with cooler waters down deep, plus less evaporational cooling of the surface water. As a result, the ocean heated up significantly, relative to normal, over the winter and Spring.

However, over the past two weeks, the AO/NAO has trended close to average, and trade winds over the tropical Atlantic have increased to near normal speeds as the Bermuda-Azores High has strengthened. SST anomalies have been falling in recent weeks, and will continue to fall in the coming two weeks, based on the latest forecast from the GFS model. While I expect that record SSTs will continue into mid-June, current trends suggest that by July, SST anomalies will be close to what they were in 2005. SST anomalies in the MDR could fall below the record 2005 levels by the peak part of hurricane season, August - October. Even so, SSTs in the Caribbean this year will be plenty warm to cause an abnormal number of major hurricanes. These warm SSTs may also cause extensive damage to the coral reefs, which suffered huge die-offs from the record SSTs of 2005.

Typically, June storms only form over the Gulf of Mexico, Western Caribbean, and Gulf Stream waters just offshore Florida, where water temperatures are warmest. SSTs are 28 - 30°C in these regions, which is about 0.5 - 1.5°C above average for this time of year. June storms typically form when a cold front moves off the U.S. coast and stalls out, with the old frontal boundary serving as a focal point for development of a tropical disturbance. African tropical waves, which serve as the instigators of about 85% of all major hurricanes, are usually too far south in June to trigger tropical storm formation. Every so often, a tropical wave coming off the coast of Africa moves far enough north to act as a seed for a June tropical storm. This was the case for Arthur of 2008 (which also had major help from the spinning remnants of the Eastern Pacific's Tropical Storm Alma). Another way to get Atlantic June storms is for a disturbed weather area in the Eastern Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to push north into the Western Caribbean and spawn a storm there. This was the case for Tropical Storm Alberto of 2006 (which may have also had help from an African wave). SSTs are too cold in June to allow storms to develop between the coast of Africa and the Lesser Antilles Islands--there has only been once such development in the historical record--Ana of 1979.


Figure 2. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) departure from average for May 31, 2010. SSTs averaged more that 1°C above average over the entire tropical Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Note the large region of below average SSTs along the Equatorial Pacific off the coast of South America, signaling the possible start of an La Niña episode. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS.

Wind shear
Wind shear is usually defined as the difference in wind between 200 mb (roughly 40,000 foot altitude) and 850 mb (roughly 5,000 foot altitude). In most circumstances, wind shear above 20 knots will act to inhibit tropical storm formation. Wind shear below 12 knots is very conducive for tropical storm formation. High wind shear acts to tear a storm apart. The jet stream's band of strong high-altitude winds is the main source of wind shear in June over the Atlantic hurricane breeding grounds, since the jet is very active and located quite far south this time of year.

The jet stream over the past few weeks has been locked into a pattern where a southern branch (the subtropical jet stream) brings high wind shear over the Caribbean, and a northern branch (the polar jet stream) brings high wind shear offshore of New England. This leaves a "hole" of low shear between the two branches off the coast of North Carolina, which is where Invest 90L formed.

The jet stream is forecast to maintain this two-branch pattern over the coming ten days (Figure 3.) This means that the waters offshore of North Carolina is the most likely place for a tropical storm to form during this period, though the southwestern Caribbean will at times have shear low enough to allow tropical storm formation. The Gulf of Mexico is forecast to have wind shear too high to support a tropical storm during the first half of June. None of our reliable forecast models call for tropical storm formation over the coming 7 days, though the NOGAPS model indicates the possibility of a tropical disturbance forming off the coast of Nicaragua on Friday.


Figure 3. Wind shear forecast from the 00Z GMT June 1, 2010 run of the GFS model for June 7. Currently, the polar jet stream is bringing high wind shear to the waters offshore New England, and the subtropical jet is bringing high wind shear to the northern Caribbean. This leaves the waters off the coast of North Carolina and southern Caribbean under low shear, making these areas the most favored region for tropical storm formation over the next 7 - 10 days. Wind speeds are given in m/s; multiply by two to get a rough conversion to knots. Thus, the red regions of low shear range from 0 - 16 knots.

Dry air and African dust
It's too early to concern ourselves with dry air and dust coming off the coast of Africa, since these dust outbreaks don't make it all the way to the June tropical cyclone breeding grounds in the Western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Developing storms do have to contend with dry air from Canada moving off the U.S. coast; this was a key reason why our first "Invest" of the year, 90L off the coast of South Carolina, never became a subtropical storm.

Dust expert Professor Amato Evan of the University of Virginia has posted his forecast for African dust for the 2010 hurricane season. Dr. Evan is predicting that due to plentiful rains during last year's rainy season over the Sahel region of Africa, and near average amounts of African dust observed in May 2010 and during the 2009 hurricane season, we can expect near average or moderately below average levels of dust over the tropical Atlantic during the 2010 hurricane season.

Steering currents
The forecast steering current pattern over the next two weeks is a typical one for June, with an active jet stream bringing many troughs of low pressure off the East Coast of the U.S. These troughs will be frequent enough and strong enough to recurve any tropical storms or hurricanes that might penetrate north of the Caribbean Sea. Steering current patterns are predictable only about 3 - 5 days in the future, although we can make very general forecasts about the pattern as much as two weeks in advance. There is no telling what might happen during the peak months of August, September, and October--we might be in for a repeat of the favorable 2009 steering current pattern that recurved every storm out to sea--or the unfavorable 2008 pattern, that steered Ike and Gustav into the Gulf of Mexico.

Summary
Wind shear over the main breeding grounds for June tropical cyclones, the Gulf of Mexico and Western Caribbean, is expected to be high enough over the next two weeks to give us an average chance of a June named storm. I give a 30% chance of a named storm between now and June 15, and a 60% chance for the entire month of June. There is approximately a 30% chance of a June storm passing close enough to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to cause significant transport of the oil. See my post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, for more information on this.

Agatha the 6th deadliest Eastern Pacific storm on record
Central America's Tropical Storm Agatha is now the 6th deadliest Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones on record. Agatha was a tropical storm for just 12 hours, making landfall Saturday on the Pacific coast of Guatemala as a 45 mph tropical storm. However, the storm brought huge amounts of rain--as much as 36 inches--to the high mountains of Guatemala. So far, flooding and landslides have killed at least 123 people in Guatemala, with 59 others missing. The storm also killed 9 in neighboring El Salvador, and 14 in Honduras.


Figure 4. Journey to the center of the Earth: a massive sinkhole 200 feet (60 meters) deep opened up in the capital, Guatemala City, after heavy rains from Tropical Storm Agatha. How are they going to fix this hole? Wow! It doesn't even look real.

Guatemala's worst flooding disaster in recent history was due to Hurricane Stan of 2005, which killed 1,513. The deadliest Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone on record for Guatemala was Hurricane Paul of 1982, which made landfall in Guatemala as a tropical depression. Flooding from Paul's rains killed 620 people in Guatemala.

Oil spill update
Light onshore winds out of the south to southwest are expected to blow over the northern Gulf of Mexico all week, resulting increased threats of oil to the Alabama and Mississippi barrier islands, according to the latest trajectory forecasts from NOAA. These persistent southwesterly winds will likely bring oil very close to the Florida Panhandle by Saturday.

Oil spill resources
My post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
My post Wednesday with answers to some of the common questions I get about the spill
My post on the Southwest Florida "Forbidden Zone" where surface oil will rarely go
My post on what oil might do to a hurricane
Gulf Oil Blog from the UGA Department of Marine Sciences
NOAA trajectory forecasts
Deepwater Horizon Unified Command web site
Oil Spill Academic Task Force
University of South Florida Ocean Circulation Group oil spill forecasts
ROFFS Deepwater Horizon page
Surface current forecasts from NOAA's HYCOM model
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the University of Miami

Join the "Hurricane Haven" with Dr. Jeff Masters: a new Internet radio show
Today, I'll be experimenting with a live 1-hour Internet radio show called "Hurricane Haven." The show will be aired at 4pm EDT on Tuesdays during hurricane season. Listeners will be able to call in and ask questions. Some topics I'll cover on the first show:

1) What's going on in the tropics right now
2) Preview of the coming hurricane season
3) How a hurricane might affect the oil spill
4) How the oil spill might affect a hurricane
5) New advancements in hurricane science presented at this month's AMS Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology
6) Haiti's vulnerability to a hurricane this season

I hope you can tune in to the broadcast, which will be at http://www.wunderground.com/wxradio/wubroadcast.h tml. If not, the show will be recorded and stored as a podcast.

Portlight receives a major grant to fund U.S. disaster relief work
The Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation has announced today that it is awarding a Quality of Life Grant in the amount of $21,500 to Portlight Strategies, Inc. The grant will fund a ready-to-deploy container specifically outfitted to serve the immediate needs of people with disabilities in the aftermath of hurricanes and other domestic natural disasters. To read more about this award, check out the Portlight blog. Congratulations, Portlight team!

Portlight continues its Haiti response
Ready or not, the rainy season is here for Haiti. Portlight has done a tremendous amount to help the Haitians get ready for the upcoming hurricane season, as detailed in the Haitian Relief Recap blog post made last week. Please visit the Portlight.org web site or the Portlight blog to learn more and to donate to Portlight's efforts in Haiti.


Figure 5. A portion of the 30,000 pounds of rice donated to Haitian earthquake victims by Portlight earlier this month, shipped via the schooner Halie and Mathew.

I'll be back Wednesday afternoon with an analysis of the new Colorado State University hurricane forecast issued by Phil Klotzbach and Bill Gray, due out on June 2.

Jeff Masters

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Where is the live cam on CNN website? Is it the same as the one from BP?
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1473. hercj
Quoting TampaSpin:
If you double click the video at my web you will get full screen.......if you like.

hey spin what a hell of a game
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Quoting pottery:
Saw is going to slow down a bit when it hits the drill pipe that is inside the riser we see there.
Keep in mind that the riser is 21" across!

They need to get a hose in there to blow away the oil so they can get a better view of what they are actually doing.
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1471. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
Quoting AussieStorm:
will the top part of the pipe just fall to the sea floor??
i figure grab it pull it to the side with a claw on the ROV once they pass the 3/4 mark on the cut the pressure could just blow it off
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 175 Comments: 54864
Re; The "Spillcam"
This is a different saw mechanism and approach from what I watched for quite a while this morning. Can anyone tell me what the earlier cut was about, what it was supposed to achieve? Because this looks more like what I was expecting.
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Quoting toasterbell:
Thanks for the welcome greetings, y'all! :-) You're always so nice to us newbies!
K, can anyone tell me what the general plan on this thing is? Cut it off and stick something on top to siphon extra off? Is there a timeline?


Either a HAT or a CAP depending on what shape the cut pipe ends up being.
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Quoting MahFL:
If you believe 80 % then your plainly completely naive.

that's what they said in there briefing last week. 80% i think is an optimistic target
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Quoting AussieStorm:
will the top part of the pipe just fall to the sea floor??



My guess they have it tied off from the top side....
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will the top part of the pipe just fall to the sea floor??
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Quoting RTLSNK:
They may have just stopped it to let the oil clear a little so they could check their progress. Once they start it again the ROV can't get a clear picture of the cut.


makes sense.

Quoting TampaSpin:
IT looks like BP is about to have a gusher again......this is gonna let the oil scream out for a while.....


nerve racking
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Thanks for the welcome greetings, y'all! :-) You're always so nice to us newbies!
K, can anyone tell me what the general plan on this thing is? Cut it off and stick something on top to siphon extra off? Is there a timeline?
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whats going on with that blob in the gom? any chance for development? thanks in advance
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1462. pottery
Saw is going to slow down a bit when it hits the drill pipe that is inside the riser we see there.
Keep in mind that the riser is 21" across!
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If you double click the video at my web you will get full screen.......if you like.
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1460. MahFL
When did BP not have a gusher ?
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absolutely amazing video.
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1457. MahFL
If you believe 80 % then your plainly completely naive.
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Quoting Patrap:


Upset Nungesser walks out on Coast Guard meeting

An upset Plaquemines Parish President Billy Nungesser walked out of a Coast Guard meeting on sand berms calling it a “Dog and Pony Show.”

i love him. he calls it what it is
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IT looks like BP is about to have a gusher again......this is gonna let the oil scream out for a while.....
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1453. MahFL
CNN changed cams, reload the page.
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1452. RTLSNK
They may have just stopped it to let the oil clear a little so they could check their progress. Once they start it again the ROV can't get a clear picture of the cut.
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Quoting spathy:
Ausie lets hope they can suck more than 80%

that's what they said in there briefing last week, 80% will be collected
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1450. MahFL
They were assessing the saws progress.
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Its gushing now.. which in this case is good for now.

Link
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1448. txjac
good evening toaster ...I'm a fellow lurker for many years too ..watching and learning ..
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1447. pottery
Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
give me a link will ya i just lost mine

CNN website
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1446. will45
Link

there ya go
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Quoting KEEPEROFTHEGATE:
give me a link will ya i just lost mine
bp.com
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Just heard on local news that BP may know tomorrow if latest effort will work. Won't be a tight seal by tomorrow, but will have an indication if they have just made a bigger mess.
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1443. pottery
Quoting toasterbell:
Hey y'all,
I've been lurking this year since the oil spill (and every year since '06), but figured I'd say hi since it's day one of hurricane season (ya know, since it's not polite to spy :-P). I just wanna say, I'm really glad I'm not in charge of operating that saw right now.

-Loretta

Hi! Welcome!
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1442. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
Quoting will45:
The saw is getting soaked with oil.Looks like the wheels are slipping to me
give me a link will ya i just lost mine
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 175 Comments: 54864
1441. pottery
Quoting will45:
The saw is getting soaked with oil.Looks like the wheels are slipping to me

The saw would be sealed in that housing, and the wire will be tensioned by the roller pulleys. I doubt it will slip.
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1440. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
Quoting SLU:


Thanks. Based on the conditions it's almost certain to happen this year ....
only way out would be divine intervention
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 175 Comments: 54864
1439. pottery
Quoting mikatnight:
why did it stop?

Dont know. Hope they didnt break the wire..
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Hey y'all,
I've been lurking this year since the oil spill (and every year since '06), but figured I'd say hi since it's day one of hurricane season (ya know, since it's not polite to spy :-P). I just wanna say, I'm really glad I'm not in charge of operating that saw right now.

-Loretta
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1437. will45
The saw is getting soaked with oil.Looks like the wheels are slipping to me
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1436. xcool
:0
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15684
1435. txjac
It's now going again...
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Quoting Patrap:
They even getting cranky on yer side da Lake now atmo...

Slidell residents jam meeting to vent about Gulf oil spill
By Kia Hall Hayes, The Times-Picayune
June 01, 2010, 9:35PM


Addressing concerned residents who packed into a Slidell cafeteria to ask local, state and federal representatives about the Gulf oil spill on Tuesday, BP spokesman Hugh Depland encouraged them not to hold back.

"If you're angry, be angry. That's OK," he said, "I would probably be angry as well."

Confronting a BP representative minutes later, New Orleans resident Elizabeth Cook did just that. "I want to know why you're using dispersants!" she demanded.

Blown-up photos of polluted water and workers cleaning an egret rested on easels along a nearby wall.


Yep. Wanted to go be a fly on the wall there, but decided to leave what space was available for those impacted...

Did hear about another productive meeting somewhere else...brass tacks on the parish level a couple of hours before that one.
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1433. pottery
Quoting Patrap:
They even getting cranky on yer side da Lake now atmo...

Slidell residents jam meeting to vent about Gulf oil spill
By Kia Hall Hayes, The Times-Picayune
June 01, 2010, 9:35PM


Addressing concerned residents who packed into a Slidell cafeteria to ask local, state and federal representatives about the Gulf oil spill on Tuesday, BP spokesman Hugh Depland encouraged them not to hold back.

"If you're angry, be angry. That's OK," he said, "I would probably be angry as well."

Confronting a BP representative minutes later, New Orleans resident Elizabeth Cook did just that. "I want to know why you're using dispersants!" she demanded.

Blown-up photos of polluted water and workers cleaning an egret rested on easels along a nearby wall.


He said " I would PROBABLY be angry as well" ??
In the good old days they would of strung him up right then and there.
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why did it stop?
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1430. MahFL
The cap is on the seabed ready to be placed in position.
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Quoting StormJunkie:
Figured I better stop in and say hey y'all....Since it is the first day of the season.

txjac...No clue, but it better work because a cut pipe will release more oil than the kinked and mangled extension that was attached to it prior to the cutting.

Hey, SJ.

I don't think they are figuring on a capped pipe until late in the week.
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Quoting WinterAnalystwx13:
Everyone made their June outlooks yet? For me, I think we will see:

Alex, as a 40 - 60 m/h storm

Bonnie, as a 40-70 m/h storm

Colin, as a 50-70 m/h storm

Danielle, as a 40-60 m/h storm

These are just guesses, but its June. Are we really expecting anything over 70 m/h?


I'm predicting two named storms, with one hurricane; no major.
Member Since: March 7, 2007 Posts: 597 Comments: 21159
Figured I better stop in and say hey y'all....Since it is the first day of the season.

txjac...No clue, but it better work because a cut pipe will release more oil than the kinked and mangled extension that was attached to it prior to the cutting.
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1425. RTLSNK
Quoting pottery:

Not going to happen that way.
It's "like an arrow from a cross-bow" you mean!
Well, the guys on the ship directly above should stand with thier legs tightly clamped shut....


Yeah, know that feeling well, when we flew with the gunships we always sat on our flak jackets! :)
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1424. pottery
Quoting atmoaggie:

Aha, but that was just funded by Costner...real scientists are into the design and function. Not just actors that play scientists on TV.

I dont know. There is something about Hollywood.
Reagan, Arnold in Calif., you know...
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About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.