The hurricane season of 2010 arrives

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:56 PM GMT on June 01, 2010

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The hurricane season of 2010 is upon us. With unprecedented sea surface temperatures in the Atlantic, El Niño gone and possibly transitioning to La Niña, a massive oil slick in the Gulf of Mexico, a million earthquake refugees in Haiti at the mercy of a hurricane strike, and an ever-increasing number of people living on our coasts, the arrival of this year's hurricane season comes with an unusually ominous tone. NOAA is forecasting a very active and possibly hyperactive season, and Dr. Bill Gray has said he expects "a hell of a year." However, our ability to forecast hurricane activity months in advance is limited, and we don't yet know how the large scale weather patterns like the Bermuda High will set up during the peak part of hurricane season. In particular, I very much doubt that we are in for a repeat of the unprecedented violence of the Hurricane Season of 2005, with its 28 named storms, 15 hurricanes, and 7 intense hurricanes. While sea surface temperatures are currently warmer this year than in 2005, that year featured some very unusual atmospheric circulation patterns, with a very strong ridge of high pressure over the eastern U.S., record drought in the Amazon, and very low surface pressures over the Atlantic. A repeat of 2005's weather patterns is unlikely, though I am expecting we will get at least four major hurricanes this year. An average year sees just two major hurricanes.


Figure 1. Tracks of all June tropical storms and hurricanes in the Gulf of Mexico, 1995 - 2009. Allison was a subtropical storm (coded blue). Image credit: NOAA Coastal Services Center.

The latest long-range computer model guidance suggests there's no reason to suspect that the first two weeks of this year's hurricane season will bring any unusual activity. Climatologically, June is typically the quietest month of the Atlantic hurricane season. On average, we see only one named storm every two years in June. Only one major hurricane has made landfall in June--Category 4 Hurricane Audrey of 1957, which struck the Texas/Louisiana border area on June 27 of that year, killing 550. The highest number of named storms for the month is three, which occurred in 1936 and 1968. In the fifteen years since the current active hurricane period began in 1995, there have been eleven June named storms (if we include 2008's Tropical Storm Arthur, which really formed on May 31). Five tropical storms have formed in the first half of June in that 14-year period, giving a historical 36% chance of a first-half-of-June named storm. Five June storms in the past 14 years have passed close enough to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill location to have caused significant transport had there been an oil slick on the surface.

Sea Surface Temperatures
Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) are at record high levels over the tropical Atlantic between Africa and Central America this year (Figure 2). As I discussed in my May 15 post, the area between 10°N and 20°N, between the coast of Africa and Central America (20°W - 80°W), is called the Main Development Region (MDR) because virtually all African waves originate in this region. These African waves account for 85% of all Atlantic major hurricanes and 60% of all named storms. When SSTs in the MDR are much above average during hurricane season, a very active season typically results (if there is no El Niño event present.) SSTs in the Main Development Region (10°N to 20°N and 20°W to 80°W) were an eye-opening 1.46°C above average during April. This is the third straight record warm month, and the warmest anomaly measured for any month--by a remarkable 0.2°C. The previous record warmest anomalies for the Atlantic MDR were set in June 2005 and March 2010, at 1.26°C. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) and its close cousin, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), are largely to blame for the record SSTs. The AO and NAO are climate patterns in the North Atlantic Ocean related to fluctuations in the difference of sea-level pressure between the Icelandic Low and the Azores-Bermuda High. If the difference in sea-level pressure between Iceland and the Azores is small (negative NAO), this creates a weak Azores-Bermuda High, which reduces the trade winds circulating around the High. During December - February, we had the most negative AO/NAO since records began in 1950, and this caused trade winds between Africa and the Lesser Antilles Islands in the hurricane Main Development Region to slow to 1 - 2 m/s (2.2 - 4.5 mph) below average. Slower trade winds mean less mixing of the surface waters with cooler waters down deep, plus less evaporational cooling of the surface water. As a result, the ocean heated up significantly, relative to normal, over the winter and Spring.

However, over the past two weeks, the AO/NAO has trended close to average, and trade winds over the tropical Atlantic have increased to near normal speeds as the Bermuda-Azores High has strengthened. SST anomalies have been falling in recent weeks, and will continue to fall in the coming two weeks, based on the latest forecast from the GFS model. While I expect that record SSTs will continue into mid-June, current trends suggest that by July, SST anomalies will be close to what they were in 2005. SST anomalies in the MDR could fall below the record 2005 levels by the peak part of hurricane season, August - October. Even so, SSTs in the Caribbean this year will be plenty warm to cause an abnormal number of major hurricanes. These warm SSTs may also cause extensive damage to the coral reefs, which suffered huge die-offs from the record SSTs of 2005.

Typically, June storms only form over the Gulf of Mexico, Western Caribbean, and Gulf Stream waters just offshore Florida, where water temperatures are warmest. SSTs are 28 - 30°C in these regions, which is about 0.5 - 1.5°C above average for this time of year. June storms typically form when a cold front moves off the U.S. coast and stalls out, with the old frontal boundary serving as a focal point for development of a tropical disturbance. African tropical waves, which serve as the instigators of about 85% of all major hurricanes, are usually too far south in June to trigger tropical storm formation. Every so often, a tropical wave coming off the coast of Africa moves far enough north to act as a seed for a June tropical storm. This was the case for Arthur of 2008 (which also had major help from the spinning remnants of the Eastern Pacific's Tropical Storm Alma). Another way to get Atlantic June storms is for a disturbed weather area in the Eastern Pacific Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) to push north into the Western Caribbean and spawn a storm there. This was the case for Tropical Storm Alberto of 2006 (which may have also had help from an African wave). SSTs are too cold in June to allow storms to develop between the coast of Africa and the Lesser Antilles Islands--there has only been once such development in the historical record--Ana of 1979.


Figure 2. Sea Surface Temperature (SST) departure from average for May 31, 2010. SSTs averaged more that 1°C above average over the entire tropical Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Note the large region of below average SSTs along the Equatorial Pacific off the coast of South America, signaling the possible start of an La Niña episode. Image credit: NOAA/NESDIS.

Wind shear
Wind shear is usually defined as the difference in wind between 200 mb (roughly 40,000 foot altitude) and 850 mb (roughly 5,000 foot altitude). In most circumstances, wind shear above 20 knots will act to inhibit tropical storm formation. Wind shear below 12 knots is very conducive for tropical storm formation. High wind shear acts to tear a storm apart. The jet stream's band of strong high-altitude winds is the main source of wind shear in June over the Atlantic hurricane breeding grounds, since the jet is very active and located quite far south this time of year.

The jet stream over the past few weeks has been locked into a pattern where a southern branch (the subtropical jet stream) brings high wind shear over the Caribbean, and a northern branch (the polar jet stream) brings high wind shear offshore of New England. This leaves a "hole" of low shear between the two branches off the coast of North Carolina, which is where Invest 90L formed.

The jet stream is forecast to maintain this two-branch pattern over the coming ten days (Figure 3.) This means that the waters offshore of North Carolina is the most likely place for a tropical storm to form during this period, though the southwestern Caribbean will at times have shear low enough to allow tropical storm formation. The Gulf of Mexico is forecast to have wind shear too high to support a tropical storm during the first half of June. None of our reliable forecast models call for tropical storm formation over the coming 7 days, though the NOGAPS model indicates the possibility of a tropical disturbance forming off the coast of Nicaragua on Friday.


Figure 3. Wind shear forecast from the 00Z GMT June 1, 2010 run of the GFS model for June 7. Currently, the polar jet stream is bringing high wind shear to the waters offshore New England, and the subtropical jet is bringing high wind shear to the northern Caribbean. This leaves the waters off the coast of North Carolina and southern Caribbean under low shear, making these areas the most favored region for tropical storm formation over the next 7 - 10 days. Wind speeds are given in m/s; multiply by two to get a rough conversion to knots. Thus, the red regions of low shear range from 0 - 16 knots.

Dry air and African dust
It's too early to concern ourselves with dry air and dust coming off the coast of Africa, since these dust outbreaks don't make it all the way to the June tropical cyclone breeding grounds in the Western Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. Developing storms do have to contend with dry air from Canada moving off the U.S. coast; this was a key reason why our first "Invest" of the year, 90L off the coast of South Carolina, never became a subtropical storm.

Dust expert Professor Amato Evan of the University of Virginia has posted his forecast for African dust for the 2010 hurricane season. Dr. Evan is predicting that due to plentiful rains during last year's rainy season over the Sahel region of Africa, and near average amounts of African dust observed in May 2010 and during the 2009 hurricane season, we can expect near average or moderately below average levels of dust over the tropical Atlantic during the 2010 hurricane season.

Steering currents
The forecast steering current pattern over the next two weeks is a typical one for June, with an active jet stream bringing many troughs of low pressure off the East Coast of the U.S. These troughs will be frequent enough and strong enough to recurve any tropical storms or hurricanes that might penetrate north of the Caribbean Sea. Steering current patterns are predictable only about 3 - 5 days in the future, although we can make very general forecasts about the pattern as much as two weeks in advance. There is no telling what might happen during the peak months of August, September, and October--we might be in for a repeat of the favorable 2009 steering current pattern that recurved every storm out to sea--or the unfavorable 2008 pattern, that steered Ike and Gustav into the Gulf of Mexico.

Summary
Wind shear over the main breeding grounds for June tropical cyclones, the Gulf of Mexico and Western Caribbean, is expected to be high enough over the next two weeks to give us an average chance of a June named storm. I give a 30% chance of a named storm between now and June 15, and a 60% chance for the entire month of June. There is approximately a 30% chance of a June storm passing close enough to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill to cause significant transport of the oil. See my post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, for more information on this.

Agatha the 6th deadliest Eastern Pacific storm on record
Central America's Tropical Storm Agatha is now the 6th deadliest Eastern Pacific tropical cyclones on record. Agatha was a tropical storm for just 12 hours, making landfall Saturday on the Pacific coast of Guatemala as a 45 mph tropical storm. However, the storm brought huge amounts of rain--as much as 36 inches--to the high mountains of Guatemala. So far, flooding and landslides have killed at least 123 people in Guatemala, with 59 others missing. The storm also killed 9 in neighboring El Salvador, and 14 in Honduras.


Figure 4. Journey to the center of the Earth: a massive sinkhole 200 feet (60 meters) deep opened up in the capital, Guatemala City, after heavy rains from Tropical Storm Agatha. How are they going to fix this hole? Wow! It doesn't even look real.

Guatemala's worst flooding disaster in recent history was due to Hurricane Stan of 2005, which killed 1,513. The deadliest Eastern Pacific tropical cyclone on record for Guatemala was Hurricane Paul of 1982, which made landfall in Guatemala as a tropical depression. Flooding from Paul's rains killed 620 people in Guatemala.

Oil spill update
Light onshore winds out of the south to southwest are expected to blow over the northern Gulf of Mexico all week, resulting increased threats of oil to the Alabama and Mississippi barrier islands, according to the latest trajectory forecasts from NOAA. These persistent southwesterly winds will likely bring oil very close to the Florida Panhandle by Saturday.

Oil spill resources
My post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
My post Wednesday with answers to some of the common questions I get about the spill
My post on the Southwest Florida "Forbidden Zone" where surface oil will rarely go
My post on what oil might do to a hurricane
Gulf Oil Blog from the UGA Department of Marine Sciences
NOAA trajectory forecasts
Deepwater Horizon Unified Command web site
Oil Spill Academic Task Force
University of South Florida Ocean Circulation Group oil spill forecasts
ROFFS Deepwater Horizon page
Surface current forecasts from NOAA's HYCOM model
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the University of Miami

Join the "Hurricane Haven" with Dr. Jeff Masters: a new Internet radio show
Today, I'll be experimenting with a live 1-hour Internet radio show called "Hurricane Haven." The show will be aired at 4pm EDT on Tuesdays during hurricane season. Listeners will be able to call in and ask questions. Some topics I'll cover on the first show:

1) What's going on in the tropics right now
2) Preview of the coming hurricane season
3) How a hurricane might affect the oil spill
4) How the oil spill might affect a hurricane
5) New advancements in hurricane science presented at this month's AMS Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology
6) Haiti's vulnerability to a hurricane this season

I hope you can tune in to the broadcast, which will be at http://www.wunderground.com/wxradio/wubroadcast.h tml. If not, the show will be recorded and stored as a podcast.

Portlight receives a major grant to fund U.S. disaster relief work
The Christopher and Dana Reeve Foundation has announced today that it is awarding a Quality of Life Grant in the amount of $21,500 to Portlight Strategies, Inc. The grant will fund a ready-to-deploy container specifically outfitted to serve the immediate needs of people with disabilities in the aftermath of hurricanes and other domestic natural disasters. To read more about this award, check out the Portlight blog. Congratulations, Portlight team!

Portlight continues its Haiti response
Ready or not, the rainy season is here for Haiti. Portlight has done a tremendous amount to help the Haitians get ready for the upcoming hurricane season, as detailed in the Haitian Relief Recap blog post made last week. Please visit the Portlight.org web site or the Portlight blog to learn more and to donate to Portlight's efforts in Haiti.


Figure 5. A portion of the 30,000 pounds of rice donated to Haitian earthquake victims by Portlight earlier this month, shipped via the schooner Halie and Mathew.

I'll be back Wednesday afternoon with an analysis of the new Colorado State University hurricane forecast issued by Phil Klotzbach and Bill Gray, due out on June 2.

Jeff Masters

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1174. Patrap
Tropical Cyclone PHET



Multi platform Tropical Cyclone MSLP and Maximum Winds

Minimum Sea Level Pressure is calculated directly from the azimuthally averaged gradient level tangential winds produced by the multi platform tropical cyclone wind analysis. The circular domain for the numerical integration has a 600km radius. The pressure deficit resulting from the integration is then added to an environmental pressure. The environmental pressure (Penv) is interpolated from NCEP analyses in a circle 600 km from the cyclone center. The maximum surface winds produced by the analysis are also shown.
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 434 Comments: 133270
01/2030 UTC 17.2N 61.4E T4.0/4.0 PHET
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
That sounds very stupid to me.
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
That sounds very stupid to me.
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
That sounds very stupid to me.



another time i will explain what i mean.
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1171. pottery
Quoting Ossqss:
We should see debris when it starts cutting.


Another question is why don't they just unbolt it and bolt another top on it with a quick connect. I know, thinking of my hose connection is just to easy :)

I wondered about unbolting too. But then I remembered there is still a 5" drill pipe in there too!

The saw--is that rollers on the bracket? Do they rotate the saw-frame around the pipe? Or is the diamond wire going to cut through from one side?
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1170. Patrap
Dvorak

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1169. will45
theres noway they gonna cap what we are looking at now
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Nice showers here in Lake Worth, Fl. Grass was getting crunchy.
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1167. Levi32
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
That sounds very stupid to me.


It is.
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1166. Patrap
Tropical Cyclone PHET
Enhanced Infrared (IR) Imagery (4 km Mercator)






Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 434 Comments: 133270
Cannot wait for 456 and Levi to tag team this season.
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Quoting Weather456:


You will never find the monsoon trough on a TPC surface map. They have hopelessly diluted the term with the ITCZ.

The monsoon trough is that part of the ITCZ from SA to a point in the EPAC south of Central America.

That sounds very stupid to me.
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1162. will45
I would agree on unbolting that plate and put a good pipe on it
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1161. xcool
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Quoting Levi32:


South of Panama. The ITCZ/SACZ/Monsoon trough are commonly not analyzed over land due to them typically being ill-defined and hard to distinguish. That is also why tropical waves are hard to track over land, especially South America.
Thanks for clearing it up.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Speaking of the monsoon trough, where is it? I can't see it on the 18z surface analysis.



You will never find the monsoon trough on a TPC surface map. They have hopelessly diluted the term with the ITCZ.

The monsoon trough is that part of the ITCZ from SA to a point in the EPAC south of Central America.

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1157. Makoto1
Quoting Weather456:


it is getting sheared the most at mid-levels.


Thanks, makes sense considering that it's mostly at the mid-levels. I know from reading here that dry air is a factor here as well. I guess things not forming are expected though, it is only June 1.
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1156. Levi32
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Speaking of the monsoon trough, where is it? I can't see it on the 18z surface analysis.



South of Panama. The ITCZ/SACZ/Monsoon trough are commonly not analyzed over land due to them typically being ill-defined and hard to distinguish. That is also why tropical waves are hard to track over land, especially South America.
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Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Looks like some back and forth movement, but that may just be the distortion. If it's cutting, it's doing it very slowly.
**thanks for the responses, you're probably right...
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Quoting Levi32:


Tropical waves do not just dissipate. The instability along tropical waves over land is largely influenced by daytime heating anyway, so convection is expected to wane at this time of night. You will see it flare up again north and south of Panama over the next few days as the tropical waves interact with the newly-formed monsoon trough.
Speaking of the monsoon trough, where is it? I can't see it on the 18z surface analysis.

Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
Quoting PcolaDan:


I've never seen the Jaws of Life, but are they so sharp they start cutting before going through the groove. If so, dulling would solve that problem. I'm real good at dulling knives, saw blades, exacto... :)
It's not the point of being sharp. It is the force that is put on the object being cut. It's all cut through hydrolics and I don't think you could ever modify the cutters to exort enough force to crimp the pipe completely closed. There would still be a gap on the edges of the round pipe.
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1150. Ossqss
We should see debris when it starts cutting.


Another question is why don't they just unbolt it and bolt another top on it with a quick connect. I know, thinking of my hose connection is just to easy :)
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8192
1149. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
PHET is already a MAJOR CYCLONE
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 191 Comments: 59070
1148. Levi32
Quoting MiamiHurricanes09:
Models (NOGAPS in specific) is showing a wave emerging off of South America into the extreme southwestern Caribbean. Looking at satellite it looks like it has dissipated.



Tropical waves do not just dissipate. Convection does. The instability along tropical waves over land is largely influenced by daytime heating anyway, so convection is expected to wane at this time of night. You will see it flare up again north and south of Panama over the next few days as the tropical waves interact with the newly-formed monsoon trough.
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Quoting Makoto1:


Nope but what I do have is a "go Packers" for you, even though I dreamt last night that they lost to the Cowboys by 74 ._.

And 456, basically what we're seeing is it getting sheared apart, or at least the beginnings of it, right?


it is getting sheared the most at mid-levels.
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.
Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1145. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
Quoting 1900hurricane:

Judging by that sat image alone, it isn't going to keep a T# as low as 3.5 for long.

TPIO10 PGTW 020008

A. TROPICAL CYCLONE 03A (PHET)

B. 01/2330Z

C. 17.5N

D. 61.0E

E. THREE/MET7

F. T5.0/5.0/D2.5/24HRS STT: D1.0/06HRS

G. IR/EIR

H. REMARKS: 09A/PBO RAGGED EYE/ANMTN. EYE WITH BLK SURROUNDING
TEMP YIELDS DT OF 5.5. CLEAR PT YIELDS 5.0. MET 4.0. DBO 5.0.

I. ADDITIONAL POSITIONS: NONE


DARLOW
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 191 Comments: 59070
1144. JamesSA
Quoting mikatnight:
can anyone tell if that saw is running yet?
I do not think it is yet.
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Quoting pottery:

It's gonna be a long night.
I have to see this cap get put on there.........


know what you mean. still can't make up my mind if the saw has started running
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I don't believe it is running yet. They wneed to do all the can to make sure that it is cutting parallel to the flange. When it penetrates the pipe, I expect very little visibility.
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Quoting Levi32:


Yeah, it is not as well-defined as yesterday, but surrounding surface pressures have stopped rising, which is a small plus. What I noticed is that the 2nd burst was stronger, lasted longer, and actually got as far as forming a weak surface swirl but was not able to hold onto it so it got ejected west over the Yucatan.

The main problem is the system's small size, which makes it very susceptible to dry air every time the thunderstorms go up and draw inflow from the surrounding environment. I have doubts it will burst again tomorrow, but if it does, we might get a couple steps farther than we did this morning. That's all assuming it doesn't get carried out of the area tonight.


ya mayhap they wont blaim me then
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weather 456 got it right the LLC moved over the yucantan away from the burst of convection we were looking at by if you look closely at the rgb you will also see somthing else the mid level also followed the LLC decoupling the system, i feel the sub tropical stream did it in.
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.
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1138. pottery
Quoting mikatnight:
can anyone tell if that saw is running yet?

Not yet
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Quoting HadesGodWyvern:


T3.5 "Severe Cyclonic Storm" Phet

Judging by that sat image alone, it isn't going to keep a T# as low as 3.5 for long.
Member Since: August 2, 2006 Posts: 47 Comments: 11908
1136. MZV
Ever had a home renovation project that goes on and on ... every repair unveils more things to correct and more money to spend .... that's what these oil leak fixes remind me of. It's a pain that keeps on taking.
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1135. Levi32
Quoting Weather456:


In my opinion, none of these bursts have been progressive. The system has less convergence now than at 24 hrs ago.


Yeah, it is not as well-defined as yesterday, but surrounding surface pressures have stopped rising, which is a small plus. What I noticed is that the 2nd burst was stronger, lasted longer, and actually got as far as forming a weak surface swirl but was not able to hold onto it so it got ejected west over the Yucatan.

The main problem is the system's small size, which makes it very susceptible to dry air every time the thunderstorms go up and draw inflow from the surrounding environment. I have doubts it will burst again tomorrow, but if it does, we might get a couple steps farther than we did this morning. That's all assuming it doesn't get carried out of the Caribbean tonight.
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1134. KEEPEROFTHEGATE (Mod)
Quoting HadesGodWyvern:


T3.5 "Severe Cyclonic Storm" Phet
something bad comes of this i hope they are preparing
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 191 Comments: 59070
1133. JamesSA
Quoting Ossqss:
Ya know, weeks ago the folks on this blog talked of doing exactly what is happening tonight on the BOP, make one leak.

BTW, I was under the impression the pipe was 1.5 inches thick, that does not appear to be the case. It also appears to be of a lower tensile strength to bend as shown in the feed. Perhaps it is just me, but why did this not happen a long time ago. I believe we will have a fix soon. Then the deluge of questions will abound.

Decision paralysis at the top.
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Dry air intrusion from the southwest as I posted in the loop has more weight to it than normal air thus the effects would be greater. Since most of the dry air is entrained at mid-levels as also seen by the GFS soundings I posted then the mid-level shear should correspond and it does:






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well I will wait till morning to pull the plug
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Anyone else notice the feed from BP doesn't have a timestamp on it any more?

Also, to everyone one experiancing a "steched" blog, swithc browsers, or use the compatibility mode in IE. (maybe we need a notice about this somewhere at the top of the blog? This question keeps coming up)
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1129. pottery
Quoting JamesSA:
Ok guys, make the other cut and put the lid on it. There's an awful lot of oil coming out now.

It's gonna be a long night.
I have to see this cap get put on there.........
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Models (NOGAPS in specific) is showing a wave emerging off of South America into the extreme southwestern Caribbean. Looking at satellite it looks like it has dissipated.

Member Since: September 2, 2009 Posts: 130 Comments: 21194
1127. Ossqss
Ya know, weeks ago the folks on this blog talked of doing exactly what is happening tonight on the BOP, make one leak.

BTW, I was under the impression the pipe wall was 1.5 inches thick, that does not appear to be the case. It also appears to be of a lower tensile strength to bend as shown in the feed. Perhaps it is just me, but why did this not happen a long time ago. I believe we will have a fix soon. Then the deluge of questions will abound.
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8192
can anyone tell if that saw is running yet?
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wont happen from me again i'm out
-peace
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1124. JamesSA
Ok guys, make the other cut and put the lid on it. There's an awful lot of oil coming out now.
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Dr. Masters co-founded wunderground in 1995. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990. Co-blogging with him: Bob Henson, @bhensonweather

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