Loop Current Eddy cuts off; oil danger to Keys now greatly reduced

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:24 PM GMT on May 28, 2010

Share this Blog
3
+

A major ocean current re-alignment is underway the Gulf of Mexico right now, and the new configuration that is developing greatly reduces the threat of oil entering the Loop Current and affecting the Florida Keys and U.S. East Coast. As I explain in my Loop Current Primer, the Loop Current is an ocean current that transports warm Caribbean water through the Yucatan Channel between Cuba and Mexico. The current flows northward into the Gulf of Mexico, then loops southeastward just south of the Florida Keys (where it is called the Florida Current), and past the western Bahamas. Here, the waters of the Loop Current flow northward along the U.S. coast and become the Gulf Stream. With current speeds of about 0.8 m/s, the Loop Current is one of the fastest currents in the Atlantic Ocean. Every 6 - 11 months, the top bulge of the Loop Current cuts off, forming a 250-mile diameter circular eddy in the middle of the Gulf of Mexico. This clockwise-spinning eddy is filled with warm water from the Loop Current, and is called a Loop Current Eddy. The main body of the Loop Current then takes a fairly direct eastward path from the Yucatan Channel to the Florida Keys.

Over the past two days, surface currents in the Gulf of Mexico have aligned to form a Loop Current Eddy, as seen in the analysis of surface currents done by the U.S. Navy (Figure 1, and see also a 30-day animation of the eddy forming.) It remains to be seen if the deep water currents have followed suit, and a stable Loop Current Eddy cannot exist until the deep water currents also cut off into a clockwise-rotating ring of water at depth. A NOAA Hurricane Hunter aircraft is out over the Gulf of Mexico today dropping expendable buoys and current probes to determine if a stable Loop Current Eddy has formed. Roffer's Ocean Fishing Forecast Service has a nice discussion on the Loop Current Eddy formation.


Figure 1. Comparison of surface currents in the Gulf of Mexico on May 19 (top) and May 27 (bottom) as simulated by the HYCOM model. On May 19, the Loop Current made a large northward loop into the Gulf, and was able to transport oil from the near the spill location southwards through the Keys. By May 27, this loop had cut off, and new oil moving southwards from the spill will now be trapped in the clockwise rotating Loop Current Eddy that is cut off from the Loop Current. Note on the west side of the Gulf of Mexico, off the coast of Texas, there is an old Loop Current Eddy that cut off from the Loop Current in July 2009. This eddy cut off in the same location as this week's eddy, and has drifted west-southwestward at 3 - 5 km per day over the past ten months. Image credit: U.S. Navy.

If the eddy does remain in place, it will greatly reduce the chances of oil making it to Cuba, the Florida Keys, and beyond. Any oil moving southwards from the spill location will now become entrained in the eddy, and will move in a 250 mile-wide clockwise circle in the east-central Gulf of Mexico. A small portion the oil will get shed away from the eddy's periphery and make it into the Loop Current and waters surrounding the eddy, but the concentrations of oil doing so will be small. Keep in mind, though, that during the first 1 - 2 months that a Loop Current Eddy forms, it is common for the eddy to exchange substantial amounts of water with the Loop Current, and in some cases get re-absorbed into the Loop Current. A 1-year animation of the Loop Current shows that the last Loop Current Eddy, which cut off in mid-July 2009, experienced a 2-week period in early August when it re-attached to the Loop Current. A significant portion of any oil entering the eddy during a period of re-attachment will be able to enter the Loop Current and flow past the Keys.

One bad result of the eddy breaking off is that now we have an extra source of heat energy for passing hurricanes during the upcoming hurricane season. Loop Current eddies have high-temperature water that extends to great depth, and hurricanes passing over such eddies often undergo rapid intensification. Hurricanes Katrina and Rita of 2005 both underwent rapid intensification as they passed over warm Loop Current eddies in 2005. The formation of a Loop Current Eddy during hurricane season means that a much greater portion of the Gulf of Mexico has deep, warm water capable of fueling rapid intensification of hurricanes.

Oil spill update
Light offshore northwesterly winds are expected to blow over the northern Gulf of Mexico today through Saturday, resulting decreased threats of oil to the Louisiana shore, according to the latest trajectory forecasts from NOAA. These offshore winds may be able to transport oil southwards into the Loop Current Eddy that just formed; a streamer of oil moving southeastward into the Loop Current Eddy is visible in yesterday's NASA MODIS imagery (Figure 2). Winds will shift to onshore out of the south on Saturday night, then shift to southwesterly by Tuesday. The long-range forecast from the GFS model indicates continued southwesterly winds all of next week. If this forecast verifies, we will see our greatest chances yet of significant amounts of oil reaching the beaches of Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle.


Figure 2. Visible satellite image of the Gulf of Mexico taken at 2:55pm EDT Thursday May 27, 2010, by the MODIS instrument on NASA's Aqua satellite. Thin streaks of oil can be seen moving southeast and then southwest around the eastern side of the new Loop Current Eddy. Image credit: NASA.

Oil spill resources
My post, What a hurricane would do the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
My post Wednesday with answers to some of the common questions I get about the spill
My post on the Southwest Florida "Forbidden Zone" where surface oil will rarely go
My post on what oil might do to a hurricane
NOAA trajectory forecasts
Deepwater Horizon Unified Command web site
Oil Spill Academic Task Force
University of South Florida Ocean Circulation Group oil spill forecasts
ROFFS Deepwater Horizon page
Surface current forecasts from NOAA's HYCOM model
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery from the University of Miami

Central American disturbance
The Atlantic is currently quiet, with none of our reliable global forecast models predicting tropical cyclone development over the next 6 days. There is an area of disturbed weather (90E) just off the Pacific coast of Mexico that will be a major concern for southern Mexico and much of Central America over the next 3 - 4 days. The disturbance will bring heavy rains to Central America during the weekend, potentially bringing serious flooding rains to portions of Mexico, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. NHC is giving the disturbance a high (>60% chance) of the disturbance developing into a tropical depression by Sunday. Wunderbloggers Weather456 and StormW have more on the tropics.


Figure 3. Satellite image of the Central American disturbance 90E this morning.

Join the "Hurricane Haven" with Dr. Jeff Masters: a new Internet radio show
Beginning next week, I'll be experimenting with a live 1-hour Internet radio show called "Hurricane Haven." The show will be aired at 4pm EDT on Tuesdays, with the first show June 1. Listeners will be able to call in and ask questions. Some topics I'll cover on the first show:

1) What's going on in the tropics right now
2) Preview of the coming hurricane season
3) How a hurricane might affect the oil spill
4) How the oil spill might affect a hurricane
5) New advancements in hurricane science presented at this month's AMS Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology
6) Haiti's vulnerability to a hurricane this season

I hope you can tune in to the broadcast, which will be at http://www.wunderground.com/wxradio/wubroadcast.h tml. If not, the show will be recorded and stored as a podcast.

I'll be back with at least one update over the coming 3-day Memorial Day weekend. Have a great holiday!

Jeff Masters

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 3357 - 3307

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80Blog Index

3357. Ossqss
Night all, Save a Prayer for us, we need it!
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8185
I have my hand up superweatherman I think about between 35-50%
Member Since: June 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 11033
3355. EricSFL
Quoting Weather456:


And as we saw earlier the amount of water that rained out of 90E over one week.


How come the area where 90E was meandering for days hasn't cooled down?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting leo305:


impressive for a 45mph tropical storm


Yes and that video is from El Salvador, which is not even near the COC.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3353. xcool
i have no clue.
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
Go back to the 2pm and do the math.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting weather42009:


If you do not mind, I would like to print this image you made for broadcasting reasons.



sure
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Halyn:
I usually just lurk .. but .. I would suggest that Ossqss stop blaming the present administration and consider the fact that NoOne has any experience with a disaster of this magnitude .. No One !! If BP doesn't have the expertise to stop the flow .. then the expertise probably doesn't exsist. I feel sure that Pres. Obama is doing everything within his power as Potus .. and if BP can't stop it to protect their billions of $$ in profits .. you can pretty well bet that all the "experts" have been tapped. Pres. Obama doesn't have a magic wand .. nor does he have a "loyal opposition" who is inclined to give him an iota of help. If anyone has an idea .. for heaven's sake .. get in touch with the appropriate people and suggest it .....


Thats the problem, thousands upon thousands of people have sent ideas and none looked into.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3349. leo305
Quoting xcool:
TO ME MOVE NNW


into higher mountains?
Member Since: April 17, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1753
Quoting Levi32:


Wow that's horrid....what a sad coincidence of two damaging events. That's also another lesson that a storm doesn't have to have hurricane-force winds to be life-threatening. The biggest problem is usually water, and unlike wind, stronger hurricanes do not necessarily produce more rainfall.


And as we saw earlier the amount of water that rained out of 90E over one week.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting wunderkidcayman:
hmmm... this does not seem corect

SUMMARY OF 800 PM PDT...0300 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...14.9N 92.0W
ABOUT 25 MI...45 KM...ENE OF TAPACHULA MEXICO
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...35 MPH...55 KM/HR
PRESENT MOVEMENT...NNE OR 25 DEGREES AT 5 MPH...7 KM/HR
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1003 MB...29.62 INCHES


SUMMARY OF 500 PM PDT...0000 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...14.8N 92.1W
ABOUT 20 MI...30 KM...E OF TAPACHULA MEXICO
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...40 MPH...65 KM/HR
PRESENT MOVEMENT...NE OR 55 DEGREES AT 10 MPH...16 KM/HR
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1003 MB...29.62 INCHES

It's not moving NNE




Their motion is based on minimum 6 hrs close to land.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3346. xcool
TO ME MOVE NNW
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
3345. Halyn
I usually just lurk .. but .. I would suggest that Ossqss stop blaming the present administration and consider the fact that NoOne has any experience with a disaster of this magnitude .. No One !! If BP doesn't have the expertise to stop the flow .. then the expertise probably doesn't exsist. I feel sure that Pres. Obama is doing everything within his power as Potus .. and if BP can't stop it to protect their billions of $$ in profits .. you can pretty well bet that all the "experts" have been tapped. Pres. Obama doesn't have a magic wand .. nor does he have a "loyal opposition" who is inclined to give him an iota of help. If anyone has an idea .. for heaven's sake .. get in touch with the appropriate people and suggest it .....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3344. Levi32
Quoting Weather456:


Been posting bits here and there throughout the day but to summarize everything. It is likely the low level disturbance will disrupt over CA but the mountains extend upward to about 700 mb so it is likely some mid-level energy will remain intact. What ever is left is forced NEward due to deep layer ridging building into the Caribbean, forcing moisture into the GOM. Development seems unlikely as this point due to high levels of shear and the time it would take for something to reorganize after crossing CA. The CMC shows a significant system impacting FL but it is being rather unreasonable, intensifying the feature in the face of shear. If the CMC is right, then the only system that can intensify in the face of shear is a baroclinic system. I highly doubt development in the GOM this week.

My biggest concern will continue to be the situation in Guatemala as Agatha progresses through. It's really hard to hear that children buried alive in mud and drainage clog due to a mixture of ash and rain. it's really sad.


Wow that's horrid....what a sad coincidence of two damaging events. That's also another lesson that a storm doesn't have to have hurricane-force winds to be life-threatening. The biggest problem is usually water, and unlike wind, stronger hurricanes do not necessarily produce more rainfall.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Ossqss:
My apologies to the blog, I just feel very angry that this has been going on for 40 days or so and we have no good news. I don't care who is in charge.. I just care that they are competent. I just don't get that feeling,,,, do you?

Give me the Supertanker skimmers to keep the oil out of play with land at this time, or the centrifuge units that have proven themselves. Where are they?????????
BTW, I don't want u to think I disagree with u on the fundamental issue. I just think u are being unrealistic in expecting the govt to get more done than BP can / has done. And that's just because I am cynical about the state of any aspect of the current US civil service that has had any thing to do with the oil industry in the last 4 - 8 years. I feel there's been so much "graft" and such a lassez faire attitude towards oil production from the government perspective that civil servants who interact with oil representatives live in an altered reality where "big oil is everything".

But this is getting away from wx so much that I better quit. After all, bad habits can get one into serious problems after 1 June....
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Weather456:


Been posting bits here and there throughout the day but to summarize everything. It is likely the low level disturbance will disrupt over CA but the mountains extend upward to about 700 mb so it is likely some mid-level energy will remain intact. What ever is left is forced NEward due to deep layer ridging building into the Caribbean, forcing moisture into the GOM. Development seems unlikely as this point due to high levels of shear and the time it would take for something to reorganize after crossing CA. The CMC shows a significant system impacting FL but it is being rather unreasonable, intensifying the feature in the face of shear. If the CMC is right, then the only system that can intensify in the face of shear is a baroclinic system. I highly doubt development in the GOM this week.

My biggest concern will continue to be the situation in Guatemala as Agatha progresses through. It's really hard to hear that children buried alive in mud and drainage clog due to a mixture of ash and rain. it's really sad.


If you do not mind, I would like to print this image you made for broadcasting reasons.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
hmmm... this does not seem corect

SUMMARY OF 800 PM PDT...0300 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...14.9N 92.0W
ABOUT 25 MI...45 KM...ENE OF TAPACHULA MEXICO
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...35 MPH...55 KM/HR
PRESENT MOVEMENT...NNE OR 25 DEGREES AT 5 MPH...7 KM/HR
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1003 MB...29.62 INCHES


SUMMARY OF 500 PM PDT...0000 UTC...INFORMATION
----------------------------------------------
LOCATION...14.8N 92.1W
ABOUT 20 MI...30 KM...E OF TAPACHULA MEXICO
MAXIMUM SUSTAINED WINDS...40 MPH...65 KM/HR
PRESENT MOVEMENT...NE OR 55 DEGREES AT 10 MPH...16 KM/HR
MINIMUM CENTRAL PRESSURE...1003 MB...29.62 INCHES

It's not moving NNE
Member Since: June 13, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 11033
3340. leo305
Quoting MrstormX:
This Video shows what Agatha has been up too


impressive for a 45mph tropical storm
Member Since: April 17, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1753
Quoting AllStar17:


What are your thoughts, 456?


Been posting bits here and there throughout the day but to summarize everything. It is likely the low level disturbance will disrupt over CA but the mountains extend upward to about 700 mb so it is likely some mid-level energy will remain intact. What ever is left is forced NEward due to deep layer ridging building into the Caribbean, forcing moisture into the GOM. Development seems unlikely as this point due to high levels of shear and the time it would take for something to reorganize after crossing CA. The CMC shows a significant system impacting FL but it is being rather unreasonable, intensifying the feature in the face of shear. If the CMC is right, then the only system that can intensify in the face of shear is a baroclinic system. I highly doubt development in the GOM this week.

My biggest concern will continue to be the situation in Guatemala as Agatha progresses through. It's really hard to hear that children buried alive in mud and drainage clog due to a mixture of ash and rain. it's really sad.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
This Video shows what Agatha has been up too
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3337. help4u
Don't think that is going to happen cyclonic voyage.That is the problem i work! No electric car will do the work i do .But if Obama is successful and he can get gas up to 7.00 a gallon maybe their will be no work and problem solved!Remember when he said gas prices will neccessairly sky rocket!Change is on the way give him another year then maybe i will have to buy and electric car. Right now i am still trying to make a living.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3336. xcool
HOT SST GOM I THINKING WE CAN SEE STORM IN GOM...NOT GOOD
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
Quoting Ossqss:
My apologies to the blog, I just feel very angry that this has been going on for 40 days or so and we have no good news. I don't care who is in charge.. I just care that they are competent. I just don't get that feeling,,,, do you?

Give me the Supertanker skimmers to keep the oil out of play with land at this time, or the centrifuge units that have proven themselves. Where are they????????? What do we have to lose?


No need to apologize, this isn't an ohhhh we'll fix it type of thing anymore. I don't think many realize the scope of what's actually happening and what will happen come August when the oil is still flowing. I get panick attacks everytime I think about it so I choose my time wisely.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3334. USSINS
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MrstormX:


This is what I suspect is going to happen...


Ahh, is that vortex reeally expected to remain over the US Southeast to dump rain for a week?!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3332. Walshy
Quoting leo305:
NHC kills agatha by tomorrow afternoon



Seems reasonable with the strong convection rapidly declining.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3331. Ossqss
Quoting MrstormX:


Eventually BP is going to go broke, they have probably already maxed out there liability insurance. And if Hurricanes keep them away from the leak then it could be months before the problem stops. Eventually Ever person along the GOM is going to be filing claims, and BP will have to pay.


Our gov has the responsibility to protect us. There are no financial problem here.
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8185
Quoting CyclonicVoyage:



This disaster is yet another bi-product of the Bush administration. Cheney and Bush enacted all these piss poor drilling laws my friend. If you remember correctly Obama was pushing alternative energy in his campaign. Get off your duff, quit bashing and go by an electric car. That is the only REAL way to stop all this.


The electric car on paper is a great idea. you do realize though that electricity is made predominately from hydrocarbons though?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3329. xcool
storms trickey ..imo
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
BP will
eventually file
bankruptcy

thus avoiding
paying any
substantial claims
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
By show of hands how many of you think that AGATHA will make it to the the Caribbean and transformed a sex change.Also the percentage?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3326. leo305
NHC kills agatha by tomorrow afternoon
Member Since: April 17, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 1753
Quoting Ossqss:
My apologies to the blog, I just feel very angry that this has been going on for 40 days or so and we have no good news. I don't care who is in charge.. I just care that they are competent. I just don't get that feeling,,,, do you?

Give me the Supertanker skimmers to keep the oil out of play with land at this time, or the centrifuge units that have proven themselves. Where are they?????????


Eventually BP is going to go broke, they have probably already maxed out there liability insurance. And if Hurricanes keep them away from the leak then it could be months before the problem stops. Eventually Ever person along the GOM is going to be filing claims, and BP will have to pay.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Knowledge would tell you, no way Aggie makes it.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Ossqss:


Does pointing a finger clean the oil up? Think about it........
Does NOT pointing a finger keep it from happening again? U think about it ............


My point is simply that what happened in the past is actually HAMPERING govt' progress in addressing the problem. 2 put it another way: if u have 10 groups, all of whom receive kickbacks from the previous administration; all of whom were allowed greater privileges which may potentially contribute to current problems, - how many of the 10 are likely to support a new administration that's set as its goal to reduce or eradicate their kickbacks and privileges? How many are going to help that admin solve a problem which they hope to lay at that admin's feet and thereby absolve themselves of blame?

Get real.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
this is
Biblical

it is
the wages
of our
arrogance
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
BP states 30000 barrels of heavy mud was pumped at 80 barrels a minute. So a total of 375 minutes or 6hr15mins worth of pumping...yet states they have been at this for 3 days straight. i only have hope in the relief wells at this point (one of which they have stopped drilling). shame on them
Member Since: May 30, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 39
Quoting AstroHurricane001:


I don't mean all places where frogs exist there will be earthquakes. But there is a chance for an earthquake near Jamaica this year.

What makes you think that?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting P451:


Why do people care about a post count?

Never understood this.

Pointless.

I meant the total posts for the blog. It shows that the blog is getting increasingly popular. It's just interesting information not much more than that
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Weather456:
I can see it is going to be a loooong week with the remnants of Agatha.


What are your thoughts, 456?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3317. xcool
i'm going watch storms not keeping my eyes off
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
3316. Ossqss
My apologies to the blog, I just feel very angry that this has been going on for 40 days or so and we have no good news. I don't care who is in charge.. I just care that they are competent. I just don't get that feeling,,,, do you?

Give me the Supertanker skimmers to keep the oil out of play with land at this time, or the centrifuge units that have proven themselves. Where are they?????????
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8185
3315. Makoto1
Quoting Weather456:
I can see it is going to be a loooong week with the remnants of Agatha.


I think a lot of us were thinking the same thing.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Weather456:
I can see it is going to be a loooong week with the remnants of Agatha.


90L all over again...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3313. xcool



Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
Quoting kmanislander:


Say it aint so !. I just heard one croak outside :-(


I don't mean all places where frogs exist there will be earthquakes. But there is a chance for an earthquake near Jamaica this year.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting help4u:
AND NOW HAS DONE WHAT.Give awards to BIG BP and letting them slide.Remember Obama was for more drilling and the enviromentalist made big oil drill miles off coast so deep that now the disaster cannot be fixed!!So i quess yesterday caused today! If they had drilled at a thousand feet this would have been over weeks ago!!



This disaster is yet another bi-product of the Bush administration. Cheney and Bush enacted all these piss poor drilling laws my friend. If you remember correctly Obama was pushing alternative energy in his campaign. Get off your duff, quit bashing and go by an electric car. That is the only REAL way to stop all this.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3310. Levi32
Quoting MrstormX:


Hey... don't count those Canadians out they have good bacon


They do....just not when it's overdone...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
3309. xcool



Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
3308. xcool
<<< 30% here get name in gom..
Member Since: September 26, 2009 Posts: 2 Comments: 15620
I can see it is going to be a loooong week with the remnants of Agatha.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

Viewing: 3357 - 3307

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 | 23 | 24 | 25 | 26 | 27 | 28 | 29 | 30 | 31 | 32 | 33 | 34 | 35 | 36 | 37 | 38 | 39 | 40 | 41 | 42 | 43 | 44 | 45 | 46 | 47 | 48 | 49 | 50 | 51 | 52 | 53 | 54 | 55 | 56 | 57 | 58 | 59 | 60 | 61 | 62 | 63 | 64 | 65 | 66 | 67 | 68 | 69 | 70 | 71 | 72 | 73 | 74 | 75 | 76 | 77 | 78 | 79 | 80Blog Index

Top of Page

About

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.