Global warming and the frequency of intense Atlantic hurricanes: model results

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 1:37 PM GMT on April 05, 2010

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Could global warming increase wind shear over the Atlantic, potentially leading to a decrease in the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes? There is a growing consensus among hurricane scientists that this is indeed quite possible. Two recent studies, by Zhao et al. (2009), "Simulations of Global Hurricane Climatology, Interannual Variability, and Response to Global Warming Using a 50-km Resolution GCM", and by Knutson et al. (2008), "Simulated reduction in Atlantic hurricane frequency under twenty-first-century warming conditions", found that global warming might increase wind shear over the Atlantic by the end of the century, resulting in a decrease in the number of Atlantic hurricanes. For example, the second study took 18 relatively coarse (>60 km grid size) models used to formulate the 2007 IPCC climate report, and "downscaled" them using a higher-resolution (18 km grid size) model called ZETAC that was able to successfully simulate the frequencies of hurricanes over the past 50 years. When the 18 km ZETAC model was driven using the climate conditions we expect in 2100, as output by the 18 IPCC models, the authors found that a reduction of Atlantic tropical storms by 27% and hurricanes by 18% by the end of the century resulted. An important reason that their model predicted a decrease in the frequency of Atlantic hurricanes was due to a predicted increase in wind shear. As I explain in my wind shear tutorial, a large change of wind speed with height over a hurricane creates a shearing force that tends to tear the storm apart. The amount of wind shear is critical in determining whether a hurricane can form or survive.


Figure 1. Top: predicted change by 2100 in wind shear (in meters per second per degree C of warming--multiply by two to get mph) as predicted by summing the predictions of 18 climate models. Bottom: The number of models that predict the effect shown in the top image. The dots show the locations where tropical storms formed between 1981-2005. The box indicates a region of frequent hurricane formation where wind shear is not predicted to change much. Image credit: Geophysical Research Letters, "Increased Tropical Atlantic Wind Shear in Model Projections of Global Warming", by Vecchi and Soden, 2007.

Since the Knutson et al. study using the 18 km resolution ZETAC model was not detailed enough to look at what might happen to major Category 3 and stronger hurricanes, a new study using a higher resolution model was needed. This was done by a team of modelers led by Dr. Morris Bender of NOAA's GFDL laboratory, who published their results in Science in February. The authors used the GFDL hurricane model--the model that has been our best-performing operation hurricane track forecasting model over the past five years--to perform their study. The GFDL hurricane model runs at a resolution of 9 km, which is detailed enough to make accurate simulations of major hurricanes. The researchers did a double downscaling study, where they first took the forecast atmospheric and oceanic conditions at generated by the coarse (>60 km grid) IPCC models, used these data to initialize the finer resolution 18 km ZETAC model, then used the output from the ZETAC model to initialize the high-resolution GFDL hurricane model. The final results of this "double downscaling" study suggest that although the total number of hurricanes is expected to decrease by the end of the century, we should expect an increase of 81% in the number of Category 4 and 5 storms in the Atlantic. This trend should not be clearly detectable until about 60 years from now, given a scenario in which CO2 doubles by 2100. The authors say that their model predicts that there should already have been a 20% increase in the number of Category 4 and 5 storms since the 1940s, given the approximate 0.5°C warming of the tropical Atlantic during that period. This trend is too small to be detectable, given the high natural variability and the difficulty we've had accurately measuring the exact strength of intense hurricanes before the 1980s.The region of the Atlantic expected to see the greatest increase in Category 4 and 5 storms by the year 2100 is over the Bahama Islands (Figure 2), since wind shear is not expected to increase in this region, and sea surface temperatures and atmospheric instability are expected to increase there.

The net effect of a decrease in total number of hurricanes but an increase in the strongest hurricanes should cause an increase in U.S. hurricane damages of about 30% by the end of the century, the authors compute, assuming that hurricane damages behave as they did during the past century. Over the past century, Category 4 and 5 hurricanes made up only 6% of all U.S. landfalls, but accounted for 48% of all U.S. damage (if normalized to account for increases in U.S. population and wealth, Pielke et al., 2008.)


Figure 2. Expected change in Atlantic Category 4 and 5 hurricanes per decade expected by the year 2100, according to the Science paper by Bender et al. (2010).

Commentary
These results seem reasonable, since the models in question have been successfully been able to simulate the behavior of hurricanes over the past 50 years. However, the uncertainties are high and lot more research needs to be done before we can be confident of the results. Not all of the IPCC models predict an increase in wind shear over the tropical Atlantic by 2100, so the increase in Category 4 and 5 hurricanes could be much greater. Also, the GFDL model was observed to under-predict the strength of intense hurricanes in the current climate, so it may not be creating enough Category 4 and 5 hurricanes in the future climate of 2100. On the other hand, IPCC models such as the UKMO-HadCM3 predict a very large increase in wind shear, leading to a drastic reduction in all hurricanes in the Atlantic by 2100, including Category 4 and 5 storms. So Category 4 and 5 hurricane frequency could easily be much greater or much less than the 81% increase by 2100 found by Bender et al.

The estimates of a 30% increase in hurricane damages by 2100 may be considerably too low, since this estimate assumes that sea level rise will continue at the same pace as was observed in the 20th century. Sea level rise has accelerated since the 1990s, and it is likely that this century we will see much more than than the 7 inches of global sea level rise that was observed last century. Higher sea level rise rates will sharply increase the damages due to storm surge, which account for a large amount of the damage from intense Category 4 and 5 hurricanes.

Keep in mind that while a 30% in hurricane damage by the end of the century is significant, this will not be the main reason hurricane damages will increase this century. Hurricane damages are currently doubling every ten years, according to Pielke et al., 2008. This is primarily due to the increasing population along the coast and increased wealth of the population. The authors theorize that the Great Miami Hurricane of 1926, a Category 4 monster that made a direct hit on Miami Beach, would have caused about $150 billion in damage had it hit in 2005. By 2015, the authors expect the same hurricane would do $300 billion in damage. This number would increase to $600 billion by 2025 (though I think it is likely that the recent recession may delay this damage total a few years into the future.) It is essential that we limit coastal development in vulnerable coastal areas, particularly along barrier islands, to reduce some of the astronomical price tags hurricanes are going to be causing. Adoption and enforcement of strict building standards is also a must.

The authors of the GFDL hurricane model study have put together a nice web page with links to the paper and some detailed non-technical explanations of the paper.

References
Bender et al., 2010, "Modeled Impact of Anthropogenic Warming on the Frequency of Intense Atlantic Hurricanes", Science, 22 January 2010: Vol. 327. no. 5964, pp. 454 - 458 DOI: 10.1126/science.1180568.

Vecchi, G.A., B.J. Soden, A.T. Wittenberg, I.M. Held, A. Leetmaa, and M.J. Harrison, 2006, "Weakening of tropical Pacific atmospheric circulation due to anthropogenic forcing", Nature, 441(7089), 73-76.

Vecchi, G.A., and B.J. Soden, 2007, "Increased Tropical Atlantic Wind Shear in Model Projections of Global Warming", Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L08702, doi:10.1029/2006GL028905, 2007.

Jeff Masters

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I never saw any pictures of Ike's storm surge moving large structures out of place like Katrina did in the Mississippi Gulf Coast.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
...and, for what it's worth, the biggest issue with Ike was the surge...and it wasn't at Galveston...it was on the Bolivar Penninsula...and inland from there...
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Those pics are from storm surge which was classified as major, but the winds didnt do that to the houses, the water did

Also remember, IKE had 130 MPH winds just above the surface. JUST IMAGINE if they would have translated to the surface!



ZCZC MIATCDAT4 ALL
TTAA00 KNHC DDHHMM
HURRICANE IKE DISCUSSION NUMBER 48
NWS TPC/NATIONAL HURRICANE CENTER MIAMI FL AL092008
1100 PM EDT FRI SEP 12 2008

A PLETHORA OF DATA FROM NOAA DOPPLER WEATHER RADARS...NOAA AND AIR
FORCE RECONNAISSANCE AIRCRAFT...AND SATELLITE IMAGERY ALL INDICATE
THAT THE STRUCTURE OF IKE HAS IMPROVED MARKEDLY OVER THE PAST 6
HOURS...AND A 40 NMI DIAMETER EYE HAS BECOME PROMINENT. THE LOWEST
PRESSURE REPORTED BY RECON HAS BEEN 952 MB. DOPPLER RADAR
VELOCITIES IN THE NORTHERN EYEWALL AT 6500 FT HAVE BEEN AS HIGH AS
114 KT...AND A DROPSONDE IN THAT SAME AREA MEASURED A PEAK WIND
VALUE OF 116 KT. MAXIMUM FLIGHT-LEVEL WINDS AT 700 MB HAVE RANGED
FROM 103-105 KT...AND A RELIABLE SFMR SURFACE WIND SPEED OF 90 KT
WAS MEASURED IN THE SOUTHERN EYEWALL AROUND 0140Z. ALL OF THIS
INFORMATION CORRESPONDS TO A MAXIMUM SURFACE WIND SPEED ESTIMATE OF
95 KT.

THE LARGE EYE OF IKE HAS BEEN WOBBLING CONSIDERABLY OVER THE PAST 6
HOURS...BUT A GENERAL MOTION OF 315/10 SEEMS TO HAVE BEEN THE
PREFERRED DIRECTION OF TRAVEL. SHORT TERM EXTRAPOLATION WOULD PLACE
THE CENTER OF IKE ALONG GALVESTON ISLAND AND/OR THE UPPER-TEXAS
COAST SHORTLY BEFORE SUNRISE SATURDAY MORNING. AFTER LANDFALL...IKE
IS EXPECTED TO CONTINUE MOVING AROUND THE WESTERN PERIPHERY OF A
SUBTROPICAL RIDGE SITUATED EAST-WEST ALONG THE NORTHERN GULF COAST
AND TURN NORTHWARD IN ABOUT 12-18 HOURS...AND THEN RECURVE RAPIDLY
TO THE NORTHEAST BY 24 HOURS AHEAD OF A FAST APPROACHING FRONTAL
SYSTEM. BY 36-48 HOURS...IKE MAY BECOME ABSORBED BY THE FRONTAL
SYSTEM OVER THE UPPER MIDWEST. THE OFFICIAL FORECAST TRACK IS
ESSENTIALLY JUST AN UPDATE OF THE PREVIOUS TRACK...AND IS DOWN THE
MIDDLE OF THE TIGHTLY CLUSTERED NHC MODEL GUIDANCE.

IKE STILL HAS ABOUT A 6-HOUR WINDOW OF OPPORTUNITY TO STRENGTHEN
INTO A 100-KT MAJOR HURRICANE. EQUALLY IMPORTANT...HOWEVER...IS THE
EFFECT THAT STRONGER WINDS ALOFT WILL HAVE ON HIGH RISE BUILDINGS.
WIND DATA FROM LAND-BASED DOPPLER RADARS AND AIRCRAFT DROPSONDES
INDICATE THAT WINDS NEAR CATEGORY 4 STRENGTH...115 KT OR 130 MPH
...EXIST JUST A FEW HUNDRED FEET ABOVE THE SURFACE. THERE COULD BE A
REPEAT OF DAMAGE TO WINDOWS IN HIGH RISE STRUCTURES SIMILAR TO WHAT
OCCURRED DURING HURRICANE ALICIA IN 1983. THE PEAK WIND SPEED AND
VARIOUS WIND RADII WERE HELD HIGHER THAN OUR INLAND WIND DECAY
MODELS ARE PREDICTING DUE TO THE MUCH LARGER SIZE OF IKE.


Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
...if only stupidity were painful...
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ok wow, arguing about which hurricane was worse?

well they both were really bad, and I dont understand why one would fight about this.
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Quoting skepticall2:
You are right. Some houses still had shingles on them but tell that to the people of galveston island who lost everything.

Image and video hosting by TinyPic


You see... That's impressive and all. But with Katrina, you saw damage like that on the coastal shores in 3 different states, not just a barrier island or two. Also, I have news for you. You see those little camp houses on pilings. The majority of those are well constructed. We used to see little Category 1 hurricanes wipe out camps just like that in Louisiana.
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...okie dokie...
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144. BtnTx
Sprint is unlimited everythind
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Yea Ike was on its way to about 125mph if it had more water and time


Thankfully, after he crossed Cuba into the GOM, he couldn't get his act back together. IF Ike would have hit as a CAT 4, things would have been much, much worse!
Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
Quoting skepticall2:


So New Orleans is more densely populated than Houston? Which is now the 3rd largest city in the country


density is an entirely different issue from overall population
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I'm skeptical of some bloggers on here....
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Those pics are from storm surge which was classified as major, but the winds didnt do that to the houses, the water did
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
136. BtnTx
Quoting tornadodude:


well I have unlimited everything, and I think I might need a special cord for it, and I have a Blackberry Curve
use the usb charging cable. The software is the key see wu mail. Happy Weathering
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Quoting skepticall2:


So New Orleans is more densely populated than Houston? Which is now the 3rd largest city in the country


Not just New Orleans, look at the big picture! Katrina had Severe impacts from Baton Rouge to New Orleans to The entire Mississippi Gulf Coast to Mobile Alabama to the Florida Panhandle cities. Also, Katrina's effects were far reaching well inland. The total amount of people who were effected by Katrina was far greater than Ike.
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Yea Ike was on its way to about 125mph if it had more water and time
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
Quoting RitaEvac:
When you have shingles still on the roofs of houses on Galveston, TX in the path of the eye, I would say that Ike wind wise was pretty tame. Regardless of scary it sounded. Bottom line is....people in Houston/Galveston have yet to be in a major powerful storm that is still yet to come. We aint seen nothing yet.


I remember Ike started getting his act together just offshore of Galveston, TX, where out of nowhere a 60mi wide eye popped out, with 105MPH winds right to the east of its center. If everyone remembers, Crystal Beach took the direct hit, with 105MPH winds, 15'+ Storm Surge. Bridge City, TX, about 80 miles to the east had a 20' Storm Surge. Maybe the strongest winds did not hit Galveston, TX, but the 14' Storm Surge did alot of serious damage.
Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
132. Skyepony (Mod)
Quoting chefrobert:
There was reported a shift in the earth's tilt after the Chilean earthquake (giving us an extra milisecond of time). My Question is - does this shift in tilt affect the gravitational pull for other plate tectonics and second does it have an significant impact on Hurricanes?


The shift does cause some extra earth sloshing..no hard evidence about the hurricane factor, but the last time Chandler's wobble was knocked off course was late 2004. That seemed to put it in more a odd pattern compared to what just happened..which may have knocked it wide if it much affected it at all.

Certainly effected the length of day which has been a mess since (hence some current sloshing on going).


The plates put it in play to begin with..that could be chicken or the egg with the sloshing.

GRACE has been showing massive lifting of the ground in the Arctic & Greenland due to air is lighter than ice & the ice is melting..I wonder how much strain that much ground rising is putting on the plates.
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 156 Comments: 36158
Quoting RitaEvac:
When you have shingles still on the roofs of houses on Galveston, TX in the path of the eye, I would say that Ike wind wise was pretty tame. Regardless of scary it sounded. Bottom line is....people in Houston/Galveston have yet to be in a major powerful storm that is still yet to come. We aint seen nothing yet.


Exactly... We had roofs missing off of houses in Jefferson Parish as a result of Katrina's powerful winds. And guess what? They weren't even in the western eye-wall! I can only imagine how bad it was in that right-front quadrant.
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.
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
When you have shingles still on the roofs of houses on Galveston, TX in the path of the eye, I would say that Ike wind wise was pretty tame. Regardless of how scary it sounded. Bottom line is....people in Houston/Galveston have yet to be in a major powerful storm that is still yet to come. We aint seen nothing yet.
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
Quoting SevereHurricane:


Ike may have had a powerful storm surge, however, its wind's were not at Category 3 strength thus not making it a Major Hurricane at landfall.


Yes, they were only 110MPH, or 5 MPH short of the threshold of being a CAT 3. Ike's shear size created widespread 10' Storm Surges all the way from near Galveston, TX to near NOLA. Major storm surge damage occurred from Crystal Beach, TX through Bridge City, TX!

What made it worse was that the tides rose more quickly than expected in Galveston, TX, cutting off the escape routes quite early in the storm event!
Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
Quoting skepticall2:


There was a video on this site that a member posted idk about maybe last hurricane season when I didn't post it showed another way to measuring hurricanes that was a little more accurate to damage and everything it showed Ike as powerful or maybe more powerful that Katrina. It was a major storm why did Ike get retired then?????? HMMM


Katrina was for worse than Ike. Sure Ike was big, however, Katrina was far more powerful. Katrina's effects were more severe and far reaching and were felt over many densely populated areas making it both more costly and deadly.
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Quoting Jeff9641:
I am very concerned about the position of the Bermuda High as this pattern may now be setting up as this high doesn't appear to want to breakdown or move. Florida appears to be in big trouble and there maybe another location for landfalls and that maybe the south coast of Texas. Texas and Florida are my likely landfall areas.


Relating to this post, and your earlier post, the further "east" the BH sets in place for the Summer, the better for Florida that would favor recurvature; I think you meant futher "west" (in the Atlantic basin) which could aid in steering storms towards the Carib/Antilles/Florida. Also know, that the BH will move and "shift" in place over the next several months a bit before it "settles" in for the Summer around June-July.......Too early to rely upon the current position as the bellweather of where it will will sit come the start of the season going into the CV season.....
Member Since: August 8, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 8308
Quoting skepticall2:


Most say Ike was a major hurricane. Just because the winds didn't get up high enough I was in hurricane force winds for 12 hours at least that is pretty major to me plus the surge of the ocean on land was pretty big. Your definition of major is different from mine. Ike was a major storm for houston.


Ike may have had a powerful storm surge, however, its wind's were not at Category 3 strength thus not making it a Major Hurricane at landfall.
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Mr. Marcus.... There's no stopping progress, so we can only try to steer it in a positive direction. We're not going back to the way things were 600 years ago, and we and the planet will simply have to deal with that fact.

The funny part is that so many people seem to think that the Earth is subject to our whims, where in reality, we are spec in terms of the affect we have and the time we have been doing it. it would be great if we redirected the effor toward cleaning our mess.

For example, I always wonder why they can't extract aluminum from landfills. Right now we have to find it, mine it, extract and refine it, so we can make a damn beer can. If we just scour the landfills, we won't have to hunt for it, because we know it's there. We won't have to extract it from rocks and process it to make it useable, because it already is. We can just melt it down and use it.

As for the GW crowd, I agree with you. They seem more hell bent on tying the weather to GW, regardless of what the weather is actually doing. Getting hot? Blame GW using some oddly connected "facts". getting cold? Do the same. More storms, less storms, more intense storms, not enough storms... all can be explained by GW.

At some point they are hurting their own cause. I was inclined to buy into it for a while, but....
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Quoting skepticall2:


There was a video on this site that a member posted idk about maybe last hurricane season when I didn't post it showed another way to measuring hurricanes that was a little more accurate to damage and everything it showed Ike as powerful or maybe more powerful that Katrina. It was a major storm why did Ike get retired then?????? HMMM


Because people died on the coast, not in Houston
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
Quoting Jeff9641:
I am very concerned about the position of the Bermuda High as this pattern may now be setting up as this high doesn't appear to want to breakdown or move. Florida appears to be in big trouble and there maybe another location for landfalls and that maybe the south coast of Texas. Texas and Florida are my likely landfall areas.


I would say Florida more so than Texas, they farther east and poking out in the ocean just a tad more
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
Quoting skepticall2:


Most say Ike was a major hurricane. Just because the winds didn't get up high enough I was in hurricane force winds for 12 hours at least that is pretty major to me plus the surge of the ocean on land was pretty big. Your definition of major is different from mine. Ike was a major storm for houston.


No it wasn't, on the water it was, inland was just wind that didn't hardly do much damage, 140mph winds would of been whole other ball game and whole other landscape in Houston
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
Worrying about 2100 hurricanes....LMAO.... lets worry about the next few months. These blogs are becoming comedy in here. These folks are going to get chewed up and spit out so bad, its hillarious
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
5 years with no major...means this year should be the year probably somewhere
Member Since: July 14, 2008 Posts: 1 Comments: 9625
Quoting Orcasystems:


Try this link.. it appears to have the answer.

Link


thanks! I'll look into it.

Quoting KitchenGypsy:

on any of the major us carriers tethering runs 60 a month. it tends to be a bit slow, and you can't use the phone while its a modem. usually they also sell aircards for the same rate. might be worth looking into if you'll use it enough and you don't mind a contract.

Patrap you on here this afternoon? I'd love to hear your opinion on all this.....
and by the way, Patrap and his lovely wife are responsible for feeding me my first crawfish yesterday and it was amazing!


Yeah I have a contract right now with Sprint for my phone, and I might check and see about using pre paid air card with verizon
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Can you believe its almost been 5 years since the last Major Hurricane made landfall in the US?
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Quoting AussieStorm:
Shortcut to Barrier Reef disaster - shipwreck captain to be grilled



HIS ship was 30km off course in a restricted area and now sits grounded on a delicate coral shoal with a broken rudder, breached buoyancy tanks and suspected damaged fuel tanks.

Today the captain of the Shen Neng 1 faces a formal interview on just how his bulk carrier hit the Douglas Shoal, off Yeppoon, at full speed on Saturday night.

The 24-member crew will also be interviewed following reports the ship may have taken a shortcut after offloading a pilot who'd been on board for the early stage of its journey.

Last night two tugs were working to stabilise the stricken vessel, which had dragged 30m across the reef and was in danger of breaking up. The damaged ship still holds 950 tonnes of heavy fuel oil and a cargo of 65,000 tonnes of coal.

Queensland Premier Anna Bligh was furious.

"This is an extremely serious incident. This ship has acted illegally going into these restricted areas," she said.

"The Commonwealth Government is now investigating how this happened and I hope, frankly, they throw the book at them."

The Federal Government said it would consider tightening rules for shipping around the Great Barrier Reef. Environment Protection Minister Peter Garrett has asked the Great Barrier Marine Park to set up a scientific panel to assess the environmental damage.

Three to four tonnes of fuel oil had leaked into the sea, causing a 3km long oil slick.

A boom will be placed around the stricken ship today to catch any more oil. Salvage experts were onboard working out how to refloat the ship, a process that could take weeks.

The stricken ship is owned by Shenzhen Energy, a subsidiary of the COSCO Group - China's largest shipping company.

The company could be fined $1 million and the ship's captain $250,000 if they are found to have broken Australian maritime law.

Prime Minister Kevin Rudd is due to fly over the site of the spill today.


While not really weather related, this is a pretty sad event, on multiple levels. The fines are laughable given the level of damage. It's just this type of event that drives me nuts with all of the Global Warming nonsense going on. We, as a species, continue to poison this planet (soil, water, air), poison ourselves (introduced via our food supplies) and are slowly killing off all life as we know it. Rather than spending all of these energies (and money) on a problem that no one has proven actually exists (it's all theories), can we spend that time and effort cleaning our water, cleaning our air (CO2 is a naturally occurring gas and doesn't count), and removing the poisons that get into our food supplies? Having done a number of beach and other cleanups, and being a huge proponent of recycling, I can't think of a better way to save ourselves and the planet would be much better off.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
There was reported a shift in the earth's tilt after the Chilean earthquake (giving us an extra milisecond of time). My Question is - does this shift in tilt affect the gravitational pull for other plate tectonics and second does it have an significant impact on Hurricanes?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting tornadodude:


yeah I'll double check first, thanks!

have a good one

on any of the major us carriers tethering runs 60 a month. it tends to be a bit slow, and you can't use the phone while its a modem. usually they also sell aircards for the same rate. might be worth looking into if you'll use it enough and you don't mind a contract.

Patrap you on here this afternoon? I'd love to hear your opinion on all this.....
and by the way, Patrap and his lovely wife are responsible for feeding me my first crawfish yesterday and it was amazing!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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