Great earthquake rocks Chile; NYC gets 4th greatest snow ever; Xynthia batters Europe

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 5:26 PM GMT on February 27, 2010

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A great earthquake with magnitude 8.8 rocked the coast of Chile at 6:34 GMT this morning, generating a potentially dangerous tsunami that is racing across the Pacific Ocean. The great quake is the 7th most powerful tremor in world history (Figure 1). Preliminary tsunami wave heights for the California coast near Santa Barbara are 2 - 2.5 feet. The wave is expected to arrive between 12:15 - 12:35 pm PST. The tsunami is expected to arrive in Hawaii between 11:05 - 11:42am HST, with a wave 8.2 feet high expected in Hilo, on the Big Island. A tsunami from the 9.5 Magnitude 1960 earthquake in Chile killed 61 people in Hilo. Today's quake was so strong, that it triggered a seiche in Lake Pontchartrain, Louisiana, over 4,500 miles (7,000 km) away. The lake sloshed back and forth, creating a wave 0.4 - 0.51 feet on either side of the lake.


Figure 1. Wikipedia's list of strongest earthquakes of all-time.

Preliminary tsunami amplitude forecasts:

La Jolla, CA 2.3 ft
Los Angeles, CA 2.0 ft
Malibu, CA 2.6 ft
Pt. San Luis, CA 2.3 ft
Half Moon Bay, CA 2.6 ft
Crescent City, CA 1.7 ft
Morro Bay, CA 2.2 ft
Santa Monica, CA 3.3 ft
San Francisco, CA 0.7 ft
Pismo Beach, CA 4.6 ft

Hilo, HI 8.2 feet 11:5am HST
Honolulu, HI 1.6 ft 11:37am HST
Kahului, HI 7.2 ft 11:26am HST
Nawiliwili, HI 3.0 ft 11:42am HST
Haleiwa 1.6 ft
Kawaihae 2.0 ft

Port Orford, OR 0.7 ft

Moclip, WA 1.3 ft

Seward, AK 1.3 ft
Stika, AK 1.3 ft
Kodiak, AK 2.3 ft

Tofino, British Columbia 1.7 ft

Today's great quake occurred at the boundary between the Nazca and South American plates about 325 km southwest of the capital Santiago (population 5.3 million). The depth was estimated at 35 km. At least four aftershocks of magnitude 6 or higher have occurred, the largest being a 6.9 aftershock. Fortunately, the area close to the epicenter is relatively sparsely populated, but there may be heavy damage in Concepción (est. pop. 300,000) and Chillan (est. pop. 170,000), which lie 115 km and 100 km to the south of the epicenter, respectively.


Figure 2. NOAA's preliminary forecast of tsunami wave energy for today's earthquake. Image credit: NOAA Tsunami Warning Center.

New York City slammed with its 4th largest snowstorm on record
The snow from the fourth extreme snowstorm to wallop the Northeast U.S. this winter dumped a remarkable 20.9" of snow on New York City's Central Park yesterday and Thursday. This is the 4th largest snowstorm for the city in recorded history. According to the National Weather Service, the top ten snowstorms on record for New York City's Central Park are:

26.9" Feb 11-12, 2006
26.4" Dec 26-27, 1947
21.0" Mar 12-14, 1888
20.9" Feb 25-26, 2010
20.2" Jan 7-8, 1996
19.8" Feb 16-17, 2003
18.1" Mar 7-8, 1941
17.7" Feb 5-7, 1978
17.6" Feb 11-12, 1983
17.5" Feb 4-7, 1920

The storm also helped New York City set a new all-time snowfall record for the most snow ever recorded in a month--36.9". The old record was 30.5", set in March 1896. However, the old Lower Manhattan WB Station recorded 37.9" in February 1894. Yesterday's snowstorm puts New York City's snow for the 2009 - 2010 season at 51.4", making it the 11th snowiest winter since 1869. Chris Burt, author of Extreme Weather, lists the city's all-time seasonal snowfall record at 81.5", set in the winter of 1867 - 1868. This measurement came before official records began in Central Park, and were done be the NY Park Commissioners (see "Annual Report NY Park Commissioners", 1868, by John B. Marie). The second snowiest winter in NYC occurred during the winter of 1995 - 1996, when 75.6" fell.

Destructive Winter Storm Xynthia battering Portugal and Spain
A powerful 969 mb low pressure system named "Xynthia" is rapidly intensifying of the coast of Spain, and stands poised to deliver a devastating blow to Portugal, Spain, and France today and tomorrow as it powers through Europe. Sustained winds of 60 mph (96 km/hr) were reported today at a Personal Weather Station in Costa del Morte, Spain. The pressure fell to 969 mb as Xynthia passed overhead. For comparison, Winter Storm Klaus had a minimum pressure of 967 mb. Klaus, which hit northern Spain and southwest France January 23 - 25, was Earth's most costly natural disaster of 2009, causing $5.1 billion in damage and killing 26. Models predict that Xynthia will continue to intensify today, reaching 962 mb as it moves into the west coast of France Sunday morning. Sustained winds of 50 - 65 mph (80 - 105 km/hr) with hurricane-force gusts up to 100 mph (160 km/hr) are possible along the north coast of Spain tonight and the west coast of France on Sunday as Xynthia barrels through. The storm is also bringing an exceptionally moist plume of tropical moisture ashore, as seen in precipitable water imagery from NOAA (Figure 4). This moisture is likely to cause moderate to severe flooding in portions of Europe over the weekend.


Figure 3. Visible satellite image at 12 GMT of Xynthia.


Figure 4. Satellite measurements show a region of extremely high atmospheric moisture is associated with Winter Storm Xynthia. This moisture will surge over Portugal and Spain today, potentially creating serious flooding. Image credit: Sheldon Kusselson, NOAA/NESDIS.

Links to follow:
Wundermap for Northwest Spain
Spanish radar
Meteo-France
Portugese radar

Jeff Masters

Central Park 26Feb10 (MickyDee)
the BIG one Taken in Manhattan
Central Park 26Feb10
Tree 1, House 0 (Backbaybob)
This cottage was no match for 65 mph wind and an old pine tree.
Tree 1, House 0

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Quoting Seastep:
US Air Quality. Color-blind, but don't see much outside the "good" range there.


Ozone requires a lot of organic compounds, many of which are in short supply without tree transpiration, a.k.a. winter. That and sunlight, another part that is reduced. Not a good metric. Particulate pollution is probably up in the NE right now. Boston is notorious for it.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
Quoting Seastep:
atmo - email.

Sorry for being a pest.

No can do, until later. On the road. Sry.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
good game well played
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 178 Comments: 56141
Great game.
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BOTH TEAMS WON A VERY EXCITING GAME. IT WAS WELL PLAYED AND BALANCED.
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Congrats to all the Canucks.
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Sid the Kid wins it :))))
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atmo - email.

Sorry for being a pest.
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Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
IT'S A NEW GAME !! TWO TWO
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What a hockey game... USA scores with 24.4 secs left to tie the game!
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And if you look at the NE, where I am sure there are many home fireplaces in use, excellent air quality index.

Just saying.
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Quake-proof Chile 'won't touch' Haiti toll



* From correspondents in Concepcion
* From: AFP
* March 01, 2010 8:58AM


A COMBINATION of geography, comparative wealth and disaster readiness is why Chile's massive earthquake won't come close to Haiti's calamitous toll, even though it was much stronger, experts said.

Saturday's 8.8-magnitude quake, the seventh most powerful on record, struck central Chile some 325km south of the capital Santiago and 115km north-northeast of the second largest city of Concepcion.

So far the death toll is over 700 and rising, although President Michelle Bachelet, in announcing the newest figures, warned the toll would climb with hundreds of people still missing.

Haiti, the poorest country in the Americas, was struck January 12 with a 7.0-magnitude quake - hundreds of times weaker than the one in Chile - but the epicentre was just 24km from the overflowing capital Port-au-Prince.

The most recent estimates put the toll there at over 220,000 dead, with President Rene Preval warning the final figure could reach 300,000, making it the worst natural disaster in modern history.

Start of sidebar. Skip to end of sidebar.

End of sidebar. Return to start of sidebar.

Seismically speaking, comparisons between the tremors are irrelevant because the situations at their fault lines were so different, experts said.

But put in geographic context, the two earthquakes show how events of different strengths at varying distances from densely urban areas can have vastly different outcomes.

The epicentre of Chile's earthquake was 35km below the ocean floor, with the seabed absorbing a large portion of the shock - although it did trigger a tsunami that threatened the entire Pacific region.

At a depth of only 10km, it was the Haiti quake's shallowness that proved so catastrophic, according to experts.

This proximity to the surface amplified the vibrations and caused far more damage to densely-packed urban areas near the Haitian capital.

The epicentre of Chile's quake also was almost five times farther away from the second city of Concepcion than Haiti%u2019s quake was from Port-au-Prince.

"The difference between the Chile quake and Haiti was not only that the epicentre of the Haiti quake was closer ... but also that Chile was better prepared than Haiti for a quake of this magnitude and intensity," University of Colorado geology expert Roger Bilham said.

Since May 1960's record 9.5-magnitude quake that left over 2000 dead, successive Chilean governments have ensured moves towards robust construction standards.

While Saturday's quake still constitutes a major disaster, Chile's widespread adoption and enforcement of modern, seismic-resistant building practices "has mitigated the potential for devastation," according to US risk modeling firm EQECAT.

Following Haiti's quake, engineering experts blamed lax building standards in the Caribbean nation for having exacerbated the disaster.

When the quake struck, apartment blocks and smaller homes simply crumbled to the ground, trapping thousands under rubble and burying thousands more alive.

P.S
Click here if you want to see the latest picture taken by Spencer Tunick. It was all done this morning, 5200 people.
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YO U.S.!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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US Air Quality. Color-blind, but don't see much outside the "good" range there.

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Quoting altesticstorm10:
If 1995, 1998, 2004 and 2005 are our analog years, we're in trouble -- though 1998 was actually fairly weak in comparison to the other three.

Also, let's not forget about this:


Only slightly warmer than 2010, and the image above showed SSTs in April 2005 and we're still in February going into March. Scary **** that the SSTs only need to heat slightly in the next 45 or so days (which they will, in all likelyhood) to equal the SST level of 2005 (which set records for warm anomalies for many portions of the Atlantic).


you guys keep on posting stuff like this your gonna scare me & others for the 2010 hurricane season.
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Quoting hydrus:
certain parts of the Earth to keep equilibrium. Kind of like having your tires balanced. lol


Homeostasis in Organisms

All lives seek balance? For what are lives looking?

Peace? Stillness? Zero change? Harmony? Symmetry?

The study of Homeostasis reveals that balance within living systems is not peaceful, nor quiet, is filled with change, but does harmonize the interior environment with the exterior environment.

For what are lives looking? Call it Dynamic equilibrium, a continuous circle dance of adjustment and correction.

Maintaining this balance between a living system's internal conditions and fluctuating environmental (external) conditions is called homeostasis. Inside and outside must fit.

Living organisms are living systems. A system is a set of elements (parts) actively interacting, organized for a goal. The "goal" of living systems is to stay alive. Single organisms are living systems, but living systems can be of any size, from organism to community to ecosystem, to finally, the entire biosphere. The elements or parts of a living system include all the sub-systems it contains.

These systems are organized and dynamically interact. The ways they connect to and interact with one another are also elements (parts) of the living system. A system includes its physical parts plus its relationship parts. See essay, "Thinking in Wholes."

Living systems (organisms, ecosystems) are self-regulating. Living organisms regulate their internal conditions to balance their interiors with their exterior environments.

When this search for balance between inside and outside is successful, the living system survives. When external changes (for example, of temperature) are too quick and too severe; balance cannot be maintained and the living system dies.
Feedback Loop, Process of Balance

.

Homeostasis is a dynamic, active process, not a static one. A Feedback Loop illustrates this interactive process:

http://www.morning-earth.org/Graphic-E/Balance-intro.html#organisms

Gaia and Geophysiology



As you recall, "Biosphere" refers to the whole of life on Earth; it is commonly described as the envelope or thin sphere around the planet where life occurs. The sphere of life includes the lower atmosphere, the entire world ocean, the entire surface of all lands, and the upper edges of Earth's rock crust.

The Gaia Theory says that the Biosphere as a whole regulates the conditions of life toward the optimum. The Biosphere behaves as if it were a single living system, a super-organism named Gaia (named for Greek goddess Gaia, earth's mother). Some scientists use the term "geophysiology" interchangeably with Gaia.

Giving Earth's homeostatic processes the name "Gaia" was a poor choice. It introduced religion into what became an angry debate, which was less about the science of geophysiology than it was about dogma.

Gaia Theory does not suggest that Earth is conscious or thinks. Feedback loops require no thought or self-awareness. But the theory does argue that the atmosphere, the oceans, the land, and the life in them are closely coupled systems that respond to one another as if they were all part of one body. Walter Cannon, who coined the word homeostasis, called it "the wisdom of the body." Notice again that no thought process is involved in homeostasis. If you stand on one foot for awhile, the balancing act you do works through feedback loops continually correcting the balance, but you certainly don't need to think about it. If you did, you would probably lose your balance.

As Fritjof Capra points out, what is outstanding about Gaia Theory is that it demonstrates that Earth's feedback loops interconnect living systems with non-living systems. In other words, life and the planet have co-evolved.
http://www.morning-earth.org/Graphic-E/Bal-Biosphere.html
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Okaaay.

When you live in semi-rural to rural areas, burning is simply the most efficient and least costly way to be rid of dead biomass. And is the best for the environment, outside of composting. And at some scale composting isn't realistic. And the nearest neighbor might be a football field away...or much further. Further, many couldn't care less about using fertilizers, etc. (I know I don't) The grass will grow as well as it can, let it be.

Personally, I just keep it down enough to avoid having bugs, snakes, and rodents too comfortable close to the house. Otherwise, my lot can do whatever...

Now in the world of 1/4 acres lots, yeah, burning isn't so good. Keep your regulations there, too.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12463
Quoting Skyepony:
Yes TEHO.. The fertilizer companies wince when people say burning leaves is the same as burning money.. Never mind the dead zone in the gulf from the fertilizers draining from our waterways, increased CO2 (including fertilizer production) or air quality. Smokey the Bear is another topic..

A little pertinent Feb moon lore
~A snowy February was said to bring a good spring, while a mild month meant stormy weather.
~In Italy they say that if the Moon changes on a Sunday, there will be a flood before the month is out.

Xanthia is flying..


Agree with you on the fertilizers. But CO2 is not harmful and the air quality is temporary and, as I said, loved it. Same as fireplaces in the winter. Home.

Also, as real-world example, I could not compost at my previous residence. Way too many leaves. My entire yard would have been compost after a few years. I did compost some, but the rest were picked up by the town. No bags required. They had a cool vacuum truck. Just blow/rake them to the road.

But, if the town didn't pick them up? Yes, I would burn them. Better than bagging them for landfill, imo.

Miss that smell, but that is far outweighed by not missing the cold. I can visit.
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846. Skyepony (Mod)
After that big quake I checked the earth rotation graphs lastnight. The ones that are plotted come out once a week so a wait & see if this big quake threw off the wobble like that one in '04..
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Quoting StormW:


Let's put this upcoming season in a different perpesctive: We just pulled 9 named systems out of an El Nino year with mega dry air and shear. If two of the other systems that should have been named would have, that would have brought us to 11. Bear in mind also, SST's in the MDR were below avg. An "average" season yields 10-11 named storms. Ain't too hard to do the math from there, regarding the upcoming season and the SST anomalies we are seeing.


I agree Sir Storm,
I think we all are in for a wild Season this year....

Taco :0)
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844. Skyepony (Mod)
Yes TEHO.. The fertilizer companies wince when people say burning leaves is the same as burning money.. Never mind the dead zone in the gulf from the fertilizers draining from our waterways, increased CO2 (including fertilizer production) or air quality. Smokey the Bear is another topic..

A little pertinent Feb moon lore
~A snowy February was said to bring a good spring, while a mild month meant stormy weather.
~In Italy they say that if the Moon changes on a Sunday, there will be a flood before the month is out.

Xanthia is flying..
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Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:


Redistribution of mass near Earth%u2019s surface alters its rotation, gravity field, and geocenter location. Advanced techniques for measuring these geodetic variations now exist, but the ability to attribute the observed modes to individual Earth system processes has been hampered by a shortage of reliable global data on such processes, especially hydrospheric processes. To address one aspect of this deficiency, 17 yr of monthly, global maps of vegetation biomass were produced by applying field-based relationships to satellite-derived vegetation type and leaf area index. The seasonal variability of biomass was estimated to be as large as 5 kg m%u22122. Of this amount, approximately 4 kg m%u22122 is due to vegetation water storage variations. The time series of maps was used to compute geodetic anomalies, which were then compared with existing geodetic observations as well as the estimated measurement sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). For gravity, the seasonal amplitude of biomass variations may be just within GRACE%u2019s limits of detectability, but it is still an order of magnitude smaller than current observation uncertainty using the satellite-laser-ranging technique. The contribution of total biomass variations to seasonal polar motion amplitude is detectable in today%u2019s measurement, but it is obscured by contributions from various other sources, some of which are two orders of magnitude larger. The influence on the length of day is below current limits of detectability. Although the nonseasonal geodynamic signals show clear interannual variability, they are too small to be detected.

KEYWORDS: Biogeochemical cycles; Earth rotation variations; Time-variable gravity; Remote sensing
http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1175%2FEI126.1&ct=1
We will have to relocate the areas with the most living things to certain parts of the Earth to keep equilibrium. Kind of like having your tires balanced. lol
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Global distribution and variability of biomass

The monthly climatology shown in Figure 2 summarizes the seasonal variability of biomass. Based on the computed 17-yr time series, the average vegetation density on the land surface was 5.93 kg m−2 (Figure 3 ), which is equivalent to 0.89 teratons of terrestrial vegetation globally. The global mean temporal range of vegetation density over the 17-yr period (mean, over all land points, of the 17-yr maximum minus minimum vegetation density) was 1.69 kg m−2 (Figure 4 ). The densest vegetation cover, approximately 36 kg m−2, exists in the Amazon and parts of the boreal forests of Canada and central Asia. The seasonal progression of foliage from the southern peak in January toward its northern peak in July and August and back again is also apparent in Figure 2 . The largest variability, roughly 5 kg m−2 between seasons on average, appears to occur in boreal forests. Of this, about 4 kg m−2 is attributable to changes in vegetation water storage. However, as noted later in the discussion of error sources (section 4.3.), some of the seasonal variability of remotely sensed LAI may be artificial, and because of the relatively small value of canopy specific leaf area (SLA) per unit of biomass assigned to evergreen needleleaf vegetation, small changes in LAI in the boreal forests yielded large changes in biomass. Tropical forests were determined to have little seasonal biomass variability, which is logical because they are evergreen. Interannual variations in biomass were generally small, except in eastern Australia and the deciduous needleleaf forests of northern Canada (Figure 5 ).
4.2. Contribution to global geodynamic effects and comparison with geodetic observations

Figures 6 –8 show time series of low-degree gravity Stokes coefficients in terms of time-variable gravity, geocenter shifts, and Earth rotation variations, induced by the global biomass variation (see Table 1 ). For all time series, both seasonal (annual + semiannual + higher harmonics) and interannual variations are apparent, with no clear long-term secular trends during the period of study. Though larger than the interannual signal, the seasonal biomass signal is minor compared to other sources (see below). This does not diminish the importance of documenting it and thus refining our understanding of observed geodetic phenomena, particularly given the continuing improvement of monitoring techniques. The interannual anomalies are interesting; for example, they appear to have a slightly lagged correlation with the multivariate El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index (not shown). The link between ENSO and large-scale vegetation characteristics is well known (e.g., Behrenfeld et al. 2001; Nemani et al. 2003); so the correlation is hardly surprising and will not be discussed here. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo on 15 June 1991 caused a decrease in net solar radiation around the world (Minnis et al. 1993), which impacted the growth of plants (e.g., Tucker et al. 2001). The resulting effects on Earth’s orientation parameters can be seen in Figures 6 –8 , particularly in the C11 (Figure 6 ) and J2 (Figure 7 ) time series.

4.2.1. Geocenter motion

The geocenter motion is of central importance in the definition of the terrestrial reference frame. Investigations have been conducted on the influence of mass redistribution of surface fluids (e.g., Dong et al., 1997) and the associated global deformation due to the seasonal mass loading (Blewitt et al. 2001). Figure 6 shows that the biomass-induced geocenter motion is on the order of several tens of micrometers, which is one to two orders of magnitude smaller than the contributions by other seasonal mass redistributions in the atmosphere and hydrosphere according to numerical models. Note that, as with the latter, the majority of the seasonal motion occurs in the north–south z direction, reflecting the hemispherical seasonality. Current monitoring of the geocenter from the space geodetic observations of satellite-laser ranging (e.g., Pavlis 2002) is insufficient to detect, or identify, this small motion.

4.2.2. Earth rotation variation

The contribution of biomass variability to seasonal polar motion, or the biomass excitation of the annual wobble, was determined to have an amplitude on the order of 0.1 mas (Figure 7 ). That is marginally detectable in today’s measurement, for example, from the technique of very long baseline interferometry (e.g., Clark et al. 1998). The influence on the LOD is somewhat below current limits of detectability. In any case, like the geocenter motion, the biomass-induced signal in Earth’s rotation excitation is obscured by contributions from various other sources in the atmosphere and hydrosphere, some of which are two orders of magnitude larger. The same is true for the interannual excitations.

4.2.3. Time-variable gravity

The satellite-laser-ranging technique has detected low-degree time-variable gravity due to various sources, particularly in J2 (e.g., Cox and Chao 2002). Its measurement error, however, is an order of magnitude too large to detect the biomass-induced J2 according to Figure 7 , and even worse for the other low-degree Stokes coefficients, for example, those in Figure 8 .

In March of 2002 the GRACE satellite mission was launched with the goal of producing a new model of Earth’s gravity field every month for several years with high precision and spatial resolution (Tapley et al. 2004a). Based on analyses of modeled soil moisture and snow time series and the baseline error characteristics of the mission, Wahr et al. (Wahr et al. 1998) and Rodell and Famiglietti (Rodell and Famiglietti 1999) predicted that terrestrial water storage changes would be detectable by GRACE on monthly and longer time steps over regional to continental scales, depending on the magnitudes of the changes themselves. Terrestrial water storage changes are now being derived from GRACE observations (e.g., Wahr et al. 2004) and used in water cycle research (e.g., Rodell et al. 2004). However, disaggregating these changes vertically (i.e., into groundwater, soil moisture, snow, and the other components of terrestrial water storage) will require auxiliary observations and/or a more mature understanding of mass variability in the components (Rodell and Famiglietti 2001).

The results presented here contribute to our understanding of variability in one of those components, vegetation, and we can now assess the sensitivity of GRACE to biomass variations. In terms of global harmonics, the gravitational effects of changes in biomass are predicted to be just sensible by GRACE at degrees 4–14 (Figure 9 ). However, more importantly, in certain regions seasonal biomass variations are on the same order as GRACE limits of detectability (Wahr et al. 2004), which is likely to improve as the retrieval algorithms mature (Tapley et al. 2004b). These regions include many parts of temperate North America and Eurasia. Hence, vegetation must be considered when attempting to explain or disaggregate the terrestrial mass changes and anomalies that are being derived from GRACE.
http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1175%2FEI126.1&ct=1
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
REGULATIONS IN TEXAS AND LOUISIANA AND OTHER STATES PROHIBIT BURNING OF WOOD AND OTHER DEBRIS. EXEMPTIONS ARE ALLOWED FOR CELEBRATORY FIRES (READ AGGIES AND LSU). ZEALOUS ENFORCEMENT IN HOUSTON WAS EXTENDED TO BAR-B-QUE (SHORT-LASTING). WHAT EVERYONE FORGOT WAS THE BURNING OF FIREWOOD IN HOUSES DURING THE WINTER. IT CONTINUES TO BE DONE. AS AN ENFORCEMENT OFFICER OF ENVIRONMENTAL REGULATIONS FOR MY COMPANY, I ALWAYS ADMONISHED OUR PERSONNEL TO REFRAIN FROM BURNING TRASH.
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Quoting hydrus:
do you know the precise weight of the Earths biomass too?

Redistribution of mass near Earth%u2019s surface alters its rotation, gravity field, and geocenter location. Advanced techniques for measuring these geodetic variations now exist, but the ability to attribute the observed modes to individual Earth system processes has been hampered by a shortage of reliable global data on such processes, especially hydrospheric processes. To address one aspect of this deficiency, 17 yr of monthly, global maps of vegetation biomass were produced by applying field-based relationships to satellite-derived vegetation type and leaf area index. The seasonal variability of biomass was estimated to be as large as 5 kg m%u22122. Of this amount, approximately 4 kg m%u22122 is due to vegetation water storage variations. The time series of maps was used to compute geodetic anomalies, which were then compared with existing geodetic observations as well as the estimated measurement sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE). For gravity, the seasonal amplitude of biomass variations may be just within GRACE%u2019s limits of detectability, but it is still an order of magnitude smaller than current observation uncertainty using the satellite-laser-ranging technique. The contribution of total biomass variations to seasonal polar motion amplitude is detectable in today%u2019s measurement, but it is obscured by contributions from various other sources, some of which are two orders of magnitude larger. The influence on the length of day is below current limits of detectability. Although the nonseasonal geodynamic signals show clear interannual variability, they are too small to be detected.

KEYWORDS: Biogeochemical cycles; Earth rotation variations; Time-variable gravity; Remote sensing
http://ams.allenpress.com/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1175%2FEI126.1&ct=1
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting misanthrope:

No need to apologize to me, I live far, far away. Luckily, where I live, it's illegal to either dump yard waste into landfills or to burn it. Composting is the only way to go - you may want to check into it. And before someone throws a hissy fit, yes I know that composting will still result in the release of CO2 but it sure cuts down on the release of particulates and carcinogens.

I am curious, any children in your neighborhood? The incidence of childhood asthma has been rising and environmental pollutants - especially airporne particulates - are a significant contributor. Just something to think about.

--- I should add that I just leave the leaves in place then run my mulching mower over them before the first snow falls. Come spring, you can't even tell they were ever there.


As the saying goes, one man's trash is another man's treasure.

I used to love the smell of burning leaves in the fall. Was part of the whole experience to me, but TEHO.
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GUESS I WAS GUILTY OF WISHFUL THINKING....LOLOL
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End of 2
Canada 2 USA 1
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Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:

The world's most populated places are, in rough order, Mumbai in India (13.6 million people), Karachi in Pakistan (13 million), Delhi in India (11.3 million), Istanbul in Turkey (11.3 million), Sao Paulo in Brazil (11 million), Moscow in Russia (10.5 million), Seoul in South Korea (10.4 million), Shanghai in China (10 million), Beijing in China (9.5 million), Mexico City in Mexico (8.8 million), Tokyo in Japan (8.7 million), Jakarta in Indonesia (8.5 million), and New York City in the United States (8.3 million).

The most populated places at the country level are Monaco, a nation-state in Europe that is the most densely populated sovereign nation, with 32,000 people in just two square kilometers, and Singapore, with 4.6 million in 707 square kilometers. Macau and Hong Kong, mostly autonomous special administrative regions in China, are also extremely populous, with 520,400 and 7 million in 28.6 and 1,099 square kilometers respectively. If Macau were an independent nation, it would have the highest population density in the world.

Altogether, there are eight cities with populations over 10 million, at least eight cities with population densities over 20,000 people per square kilometer (seven in India and one in Bangladesh), and at least several additional cities with population densities between 10,000 and 20,000 people per square kilometer. For reference, a typical town or village has a population density of about 100-1,000 people per square kilometer, while the average world population density, if only the land is counted, is approximately 43 people per square kilometer. in general, the world's most populated places are found in south and east Asia.

The city with the highest population density in the world, and by extension one of the most populated places, by a factor of almost 100%, is Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. With 6.7 million residents living in an area of about 154 square kilometers (59.4 square miles), Dhaka is often known as the rickshaw capital of the world, with 400,000 rickshaws running daily. Like the rest of Bangladesh, Dhaka is culturally related to India, its neighbor to the east.

Despite fears over overpopulation, some of the most populated places in the world are some of the most interesting places to live. Though most of the most populated cities except Tokyo, Beijing, and New York City have huge slum areas, there are also large, well-developed portions of the city which are culturally, economically, and intellectually vibrant. With the global human population increasing by about 60 million people per year, and more than half of humanity living in cities, learning to hope with highly populated areas is the wave of the future. With careful planning, highly populated cities can be pleasant, with large parks and open space, as well as highly productive economically.

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-of-the-worlds-most-populated-places.htm
Killer post, do you know the precise weight of the Earths biomass too? jk.lol
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usa ONE, CANADA ONE. HANG ON FOR UPDATES.
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Quoting Ossqss:
Wow, it must have been a deadly living hell before we started putting out the millions upon millions of square miles of uncontrolled, naturally occurring fires over the last few thousand years that happened all the time. Think about it......


http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Asthma/Asthma_Causes.html

http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=8&cont=6


Are you saying that this has something to do with burning leaves/trash/plastic in your back yard?

For the record, I'm with Orca. Suppression of forest fires that do not threaten life or property is utter folly. However, taking simple steps to protect the health of the public seems pretty reasonable to me.
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2-0 :)
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Quoting Patrap:



I down wit dat..

Cept dont put me in District 9.

Thats one creepy Hood for sho..
They have a spaceship there ...
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting P451:
That's an awful lot warmer in the MDR.



Thought a looping GIF would aide in viewing.


Way its lookin.. this year will be a prime year for systems like Dean and Bill in the early part of the season (July-Aug) The GOMEX though looks much cooler than it did in '09 which is good although it will likely warm up to well above average temperatures by April or May.
Member Since: July 8, 2005 Posts: 259 Comments: 24580
Quoting Ossqss:


Yep, that is exactly what your UN has planned for you under their Agenda 21 initiative. Kinda gives the term "turning Green" new meaning. Let alone the term " quality of life". Gheeze

L8R



I down wit dat..

Cept dont put me in District 9.

Thats one creepy Hood for sho..
Member Since: July 3, 2005 Posts: 428 Comments: 129909
Quoting hydrus:
lol !
Quoting bappit:
#805 Actually, I think they make a very good point about slums being green. One million people living in a single square mile. Amazing achievement.

The world's most populated places are, in rough order, Mumbai in India (13.6 million people), Karachi in Pakistan (13 million), Delhi in India (11.3 million), Istanbul in Turkey (11.3 million), Sao Paulo in Brazil (11 million), Moscow in Russia (10.5 million), Seoul in South Korea (10.4 million), Shanghai in China (10 million), Beijing in China (9.5 million), Mexico City in Mexico (8.8 million), Tokyo in Japan (8.7 million), Jakarta in Indonesia (8.5 million), and New York City in the United States (8.3 million).

The most populated places at the country level are Monaco, a nation-state in Europe that is the most densely populated sovereign nation, with 32,000 people in just two square kilometers, and Singapore, with 4.6 million in 707 square kilometers. Macau and Hong Kong, mostly autonomous special administrative regions in China, are also extremely populous, with 520,400 and 7 million in 28.6 and 1,099 square kilometers respectively. If Macau were an independent nation, it would have the highest population density in the world.

Altogether, there are eight cities with populations over 10 million, at least eight cities with population densities over 20,000 people per square kilometer (seven in India and one in Bangladesh), and at least several additional cities with population densities between 10,000 and 20,000 people per square kilometer. For reference, a typical town or village has a population density of about 100-1,000 people per square kilometer, while the average world population density, if only the land is counted, is approximately 43 people per square kilometer. in general, the world's most populated places are found in south and east Asia.

The city with the highest population density in the world, and by extension one of the most populated places, by a factor of almost 100%, is Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. With 6.7 million residents living in an area of about 154 square kilometers (59.4 square miles), Dhaka is often known as the rickshaw capital of the world, with 400,000 rickshaws running daily. Like the rest of Bangladesh, Dhaka is culturally related to India, its neighbor to the east.

Despite fears over overpopulation, some of the most populated places in the world are some of the most interesting places to live. Though most of the most populated cities except Tokyo, Beijing, and New York City have huge slum areas, there are also large, well-developed portions of the city which are culturally, economically, and intellectually vibrant. With the global human population increasing by about 60 million people per year, and more than half of humanity living in cities, learning to hope with highly populated areas is the wave of the future. With careful planning, highly populated cities can be pleasant, with large parks and open space, as well as highly productive economically.

http://www.wisegeek.com/what-are-some-of-the-worlds-most-populated-places.htm
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting bappit:
#805 Actually, I think they make a very good point about slums being green. One million people living in a single square mile. Amazing achievement.


Yep, that is exactly what your UN has planned for you under their Agenda 21 initiative. Kinda gives the term "turning Green" new meaning. Let alone the term " quality of life". Gheeze

L8R
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8188
After 1
Canada 1 USA 0
The next goal scored will be the big one ;)
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Quoting Ossqss:




Exactly, just ask those who live in California....


Yes,and then when it rained they wouldn't be sliding into the ocean either.
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Quoting bappit:
#805 Actually, I think they make a very good point about slums being green. One million people living in a single square mile. Amazing achievement.
lol !
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#805 Actually, I think they make a very good point about slums being green. One million people living in a single square mile. Amazing achievement.
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Quoting Orcasystems:


We would have a much healthier ecosystems if we stopped putting them out... we are screwing around with mother nature and the natural forest regeneration.




Exactly, just ask those who live in California....
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8188
Quoting Ossqss:
Wow, it must have been a deadly living hell before we started putting out the millions upon millions of square miles of uncontrolled, naturally occurring fires over the last few thousand years that happened all the time. Think about it......


http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Asthma/Asthma_Causes.html

http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=8&cont=6


We would have a much healthier ecosystems if we stopped putting them out... we are screwing around with mother nature and the natural forest regeneration.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Wow, it must have been a deadly living hell before we started putting out the millions upon millions of square miles of uncontrolled, naturally occurring fires over the last few thousand years that happened all the time. Think about it......


http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Asthma/Asthma_Causes.html

http://www.aafa.org/display.cfm?id=8&cont=6
Member Since: June 12, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 8188
1-0 Canada :)
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816. Skyepony (Mod)
Ike~ your playing a suckers game with the leaves. It least you stopped buying bags to throw away your fertilizer but your still burning your fertilizer. Not that ashes aren't a good fertilizer (but alone won't complete feed your lawn), compost is a better & more expensive one & would end the lawn fertilizer cost. Pile & compost them or mow them & leave them.. If you leave them your lawn will eat them the 1st good rain, saving you the cost of fertilizer, not to mention your time raking, burning, fertilizing.

I live with alot of oaks~ I've watched my neighbors rake their lives away the last decade only to pay regularly for pesticides/herbicides & fertilizer to keep a grass alive that doesn't even like this soil or climate but is popular. Their lawn may look a little better a month out of the year but I have a life & an organic lawn.
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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