Heavy snow, rain, and flooding for the Northeast U.S.

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 3:21 PM GMT on February 25, 2010

Share this Blog
0
+

The winter of 2009-2010 continues its relentless onslaught over the U.S. today, as a powerful low pressure system intensifying along the East Coast brings heavy snow, flooding rains, and high winds to New England and the Mid-Atlantic. The storm has already dropped more than two feet of snow over Eastern New York near Albany, and surrounding regions of Western Massachusetts and Southern Vermont. These regions are now seeing rain mixed in with the snow, which will limit further accumulations to 1 - 3 inches. Farther east, flooding is a concern for most of Connecticut, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, southern New Hampshire, and portions of western Maine, where heavy rainfall of 1 - 3 inches on top of a snow pack with a high water content has created runoff that has already swollen many rivers to flood stage. Heavy snow is the main concern over southeast New York, northern New Jersey, and northeast Pennsylvania. The unusually slow-moving storm is expected to drop snow amounts of up to 18" in the Pocono Mountains of northeast Pennsylvania, and in northern New Jersey. New York City, whose 30.5" of snow so far this winter is 13" above average for this date, could get up to a foot of wet, heavy snow. Philadelphia's 73" of snow for the season will get an 8 - 12" boost from the storm, taking their record snowiest winter even further into record territory. Wind gusts of 30 - 40 mph in combination with the very wet, heavy snow will make power outages a problem over much of the region.


Figure 1. Visible satellite image at 9:30am EST Thursday, February 25, 2010 showing today's Northeast U.S. snowstorm. Image credit: NASA GSFC GOES project.

Some selected storm-total snowfall amounts, from Tuesday morning through 10am EST today, courtesy of the National Weather Service:

...CONNECTICUT...
BURLINGTON 10.0
NEW HARTFORD 3.8 W 9.0

...KENTUCKY...
OVEN FORK 1 NE 5.0
BLEDSOE 2 SE 4.0

...MASSACHUSETTS...
SAVOY 28.5
ROWE 25.0
CHESTERFIELD 24.0
ASHFIELD 23.6
HEATH 22.0
SHELBURNE 22.0
PLAINFIELD 21.5
PITTSFIELD 20.0
BECKET 19.8
CHESTER 19.5
BLANDFORD 19.0
ASHBURNHAM 16.8
LANESBOROUGH 16.0
NORTH OTIS 16.0
NEW ASHFORD 13.0
WORCESTER 10.7

...NEW HAMPSHIRE...
EAST LEMPSTER 20.0
WASHINGTON 18.5
PETERBOROUGH 18.0
RANDOLF 17.6
GREENFIELD 16.0
NEWPORT 15.3
WILTON 14.0
BENNINGTON 13.0
WAPOLE 12.9
WEST CHESTERFIELD 10.8
LEMPSTER 10.0

...NEW YORK...
ALTAMONT 26.5
WESTERLO 26.0
WILLARD MTN BASE 25.0
NORTH HEBRON 24.0
MEDUSA 23.0
MORIAH 22.5
TABORTON 22.0
DURHAM 20.0
PORTER CORNERS 20.0
ROXBURY 18.9
PHOENICIA 18.5
CHATHAM CENTER 18.0
SCHENECTADY 15.0
ALBANY 12.4
BINGHAMTON 10.5

...OHIO...
CARROLOTON 5.5

...PENNSYLVANIA...
PONOCO PEAK LAKE 13.0
HAWLEY 3.8 NE 11.0
WANTAGE 11.0
PLEASANT MOUNT 10.0
DINGMANS FERRY 3.9 WSW 9.2
MILANVILLE 1.5 SE 8.9
SAYLORSBURG 8.5
BEEMERVILLE 8.0
EAST STROUDSBURG 8.0
THOMPSON 8.0

...RHODE ISLAND...
BURRILLVILLE 6.5
WEST GLOCESTER 5.1
WOONSOCKET 0.3 W 3.4

...TENNESSEE...
APPALACHIA 3.0
ROAN MOUNTAIN 3.0

Update on this Saturday's major winter storm in Europe
Computer forecast models continue to forecast the development of a powerful winter storm that will rapidly intensify Saturday morning into a meteorological "bomb" that will bring high winds and flooding rains to Portugal, northern Spain, and possibly France. However, today's model runs are less aggressive in deepening the storm, and no longer call for the storm to be as intense as last year's Winter Storm Klaus. Klaus, which hit northern Spain and southwest France January 23 - 25, was Earth's most costly natural disaster of 2009, causing $5.1 billion in damage and killing 26. Klaus peaked in intensity at 967 mb, and brought wind gusts of 120 mph (193 km/hr) to Formiguères, France, 125 mph (200 km/hr) to Portbou, Spain, and 134 mph (216 km/hr) to Port d'Envalira, Andorra. Last night's 00Z (7pm EST) run of the ECMWF model and GFS model called for Saturday's storm to have 974 - 976 mb central pressure. Saturday's storm still has the potential to be plenty damaging, as winds of tropical storm force with gusts to hurricane force should affect a large swath of Portugal and northern Spain.


Figure 2. Forecast from the 1am EST 2/25/10 run of the GFS model for 18 GMT Saturday for surface winds. The GFS is predicting that Saturday's storm will peak in intensity at this time with a pressure of 974 mb. Sustained winds just below hurricane force of 60 - 75 mph (green colors) are expected offshore from Portugal. Image was generated using our wundermap for Spain with the "model" layer turned on.

Next post
My next post will be Friday.

Jeff Masters

Tear Drop (suzi46)
this frozen drop was suspended on the thinnest filament of ice over our frozen brook..so very delicate and beautiful
Tear Drop
()

Reader Comments

Comments will take a few seconds to appear.

Post Your Comments

Please sign in to post comments.

or Join

Not only will you be able to leave comments on this blog, but you'll also have the ability to upload and share your photos in our Wunder Photos section.

Display: 0, 50, 100, 200 Sort: Newest First - Order Posted

Viewing: 421 - 371

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11Blog Index

414.
Thanks
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MississippiBoy:

Kids now a days don't know what good music is,agree.

I dunno, my 5 yr old's favorite is Jerry Garcia's version of Teddy Bear Picnic...I think there's hope.
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
Also, driving me crazy, because if I only do the graph, without the legend, the title doesn't go with.

Just thought about it. Reposition the legend at the bottom. Duh!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MississippiBoy:

Go a head man and tellem like it is.

HeHe.

I have always been under the impression that Have A Cigar by Floyd was just the same lyrics, but paraphrased...
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
Quoting atmoaggie:

Takes a fan to appreciate the Bo Diddly song...
;-)

Bo Diddley said, "Uh..whats in it for me?"
Man said, "Shut your mouth son , play the
guitar and you just wait and see"

Kids now a days don't know what good music is,agree.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
A portion of the NWS NYC, NY Area Forecast Discussion tonight. Please note the professional terminology they used to describe the storms movement and its strength:

AREA FORECAST DISCUSSION
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE NEW YORK NY
1024 PM EST THU FEB 25 2010

.SYNOPSIS...
-- Changed Discussion --A INTENSE STORM WITH MULTIPLE CENTERS...ONE OVER LONG ISLAND
SOUND THIS EVENING AND ANOTHER SOUTH OF NANTUCKET...WILL
CONSOLIDATE OVER CONNECTICUT AND LONG ISLAND OVERNIGHT. THE STORM
WILL THEN LOOP-DE-LOOP OVER THE TRI-STATE AREA ON FRIDAY...
AND
THEN DRIFT SLOWLY NORTH INTO SOUTHERN NEW ENGLAND WHILE WEAKENING
SATURDAY AND SATURDAY NIGHT. A SECOND STORM WILL PASS WELL EAST
OF THE AREA ON SUNDAY ON ITS WAY TO THE CANADIAN MARITIMES...AND
THEN STALL THERE SUNDAY NIGHT INTO MONDAY NIGHT. HIGH PRESSURE
WILL THEN SLOWLY BUILD FROM THE PLAINS STATES INTO THE MIDDLE OF
NEXT WEEK. YET ANOTHER COASTAL LOW WILL PASS WELL TO THE SOUTHEAST
NEXT THURSDAY.-- End Changed Discussion --

&&

.NEAR TERM /UNTIL 6 AM FRIDAY MORNING/...
-- Changed Discussion --LATEST SFC OBS REVEAL TWO CENTERS TO THE INTENSE OCEAN STORM...ONE
AT 976 MB OVER PECONIC BAY...AND ANOTHER DEEPER CENTER S OF BLOCK
ISLAND AND NANTUCKET PER ACK OB AT ONLY 974 MB. THESE SHOULD
CONSOLIDATE OVER CT/LONG ISLAND TONIGHT...WITH TEMPS OVER CT/LONG
ISLAND GRADUALLY COOLING AS THE LOW BECOMES VERTICALLY STACKED AND
ALSO VIA CAA ON INCREASING WESTERLY FLOW. MT POCONO PA EXPERIENCED
AT 44-KT GUST EARLIER THIS EVENING...AND THINK SIMILAR GUSTS WILL
OCCUR OVER NYC METRO AND LONG ISLAND OVERNIGHT. PLACES IN NYC MAY
EVEN SEE SUSTAINED WINDS OF 40 MPH FOR A BRIEF TIME LATER TONIGHT.

Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
Quoting Seastep:
Better?

Ummm, no. And I am not on a little laptop. Even just viewing a plot, alone, is still tough to read the title and legend (among the last few plots).

2 lines for the title?
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
401. atmoaggie 4:56 AM GMT on February 26, 2010
Quoting Motttt:
384.
Pat thats great.. did Paul ever get on NBC

youtube says:

No videos found for "portlight haiti"

WTH? Did no one capture video of any of it? (Where are you P451?)


dated 1/29/10
Friends of Disabled Adults and Children, Too!, a non-profit based in Stone Mountain, Ga. (www.fodac.com), will be featured in an upcoming story on NBC Nightly News. FODAC provides home mobility and daily living equipment to people of any age or any disability, temporary or permanent, for medically necessary and medically helpful reasons. The organization is partnering with Portlight Strategies of Charleston, S.C. (www.portlight.org) to collect and ship relief items, primarily wheelchairs, crutches, orthotic braces, blankets and medical supplies to Haiti.

i can't understand why they would not run this.
Member Since: August 11, 2008 Posts: 3 Comments: 1485
Quoting atmoaggie:

Takes a fan to appreciate the Bo Diddly song...
;-)

Bo Diddley said, "Uh..whats in it for me?"
Man said, "Shut your mouth son , play the
guitar and you just wait and see"

Go a head man and tellem like it is.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Possible blog stretching entry on The True Temperature Record
Member Since: Posts: Comments:


earthquakes cen asia/s cen indo
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting MississippiBoy:

This brings back memories

Takes a fan to appreciate the Bo Diddly song...
;-)

Bo Diddley said, "Uh..whats in it for me?"
Man said, "Shut your mouth son , play the
guitar and you just wait and see"
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
Quoting Seastep:
Thanks atmo. OpenOffice copy and paste.

It is accurate. Purely used the data as described, step by step, through the process.

I'll see if I can get better resolution on the graphics.

Hmmm, try increasing font size in the legend and then move it to some unoccupied place in the plot axes? Would give you a larger area for the plot itself and solve the legend thing...
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
I'll do another entry, without worrying about stretching the blog (I reduced to 800 x 600)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Atmo - If you wumail me your email, I can attach the wider originals. Width limitations.

Any suggestions on resolution are welcomed.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
976MB BOMB near Cape Cod, MA 10PM CST MAP:
Member Since: August 25, 2009 Posts: 20 Comments: 6785
Quoting atmoaggie:

We gotta get out of this place
If it's the last thing we ever do.

(BTW, there's a house in New Orleans they call the rising sun.)

This brings back memories
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Thanks atmo. OpenOffice copy and paste.

It is accurate. Purely used the data as described, step by step, through the process.

I'll see if I can get better resolution on the graphics.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Seastep:
As Patrap, in his eloquent way, pointed out.

The data does not lie.

Feedback: Your legends are hardly legible...

Further, I need to look at the data more...
...but I think there is nothing wrong with adjusting GISS to better match satellite obs (especially if we are going to be subject to all of those plots that marry the 2 together).
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
As Patrap, in his eloquent way, pointed out.

The data does not lie.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Motttt:
384.
Pat thats great.. did Paul ever get on NBC

youtube says:

No videos found for "portlight haiti"

WTH? Did no one capture video of any of it? (Where are you P451?)
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
384.
Pat thats great.. did Paul ever get on NBC
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Good luck on that +1C, SSIG. ;)

Even if you go by raw GISS...

The True Temperature Record

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
In case you missed it JRRP.

The True Temperature Record
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
JRRP - It's over. My analysis is purely mathematical. No cherry-picking. Easy (relatively speaking) to duplicate. It cannot be disproved.

+0.14C trend from 1880-2009. That is 0.01C per decade. IPCC? +0.2C per decade. 2000% off.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
392. JRRP
The Global Warming Scam has been perpetrated in order to support the Environmentalist belief that the earth is being harmed by the emission of greenhouse gases from the combustion of fossil fuels.

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up to provide evidence for this belief. They have published four major Reports which are widely considered to have proved it to be true. This paper examines the evidence in detail and shows that none of the evidence presented confirms a relationship between emissions of greenhouse gases and any harmful effect on the climate. It is the result of 18 years of scrutiny and comment on IPCC Reports and of a study of the scientific literature associated with it.

In order to establish a relationship between human emissions of greenhouse gases and any influence on the climate, it is necessary to solve three problems

- To determine the average temperature of the earth and show that it is increasing

- To measure the concentrations of greenhouse gases everywhere in the atmosphere

- To reliably predict changes in future climate

None of these problems has been solved

It is impossible to measure the average surface temperature of the earth, yet the IPCC scientists try to claim that it is possible to measure “anomalies” of this unknown quantity. An assessment of all the temperature data available, largely ignored by the IPCC, shows no evidence for overall warming, but the existence of cyclic behaviour. Recent warming was last recorded around 1950. An absence of warming for 10 years and a current downturn suggest that the cool part of the cycle is imminent.

The chief greenhouse gas, water vapour, is irregularly distributed, with most of it over the tropics and very little over the poles. Yet the IPCC tries to pretend it is uniformly distributed, so that its “anomalies” can be treated as “feedback” to the global temperature models.

Carbon dioxide is only measured in extremely restricted circumstances in order to pretend that it is “well-mixed”. No general measurements are reported and 90,000 early measurements which show great variability have been suppressed.

Methane is mostly recycled plant material, unrelated to fossil fuels, yet it is used to penalised farmers for animal recycling, when the larger emissions from wetlands are exempt.

Although weather cannot be predicted more than a week or so ahead, the claim is made that “climate” can be predicted 100 years ahead. The claim is based on the development of computer models based on the “flat earth” theory of the climate which assumes it is possible to model the climate from “balanced” average energy quantities This assumption is absurd since all the quantities have skewed distributions with no acceptable average. No resulting model has ever been tested for its ability to predict the future. This is even admitted as the model outputs are mere “projections”. Since the projections are far into the future, nobody living is able to check their validity.

Since no model has been validated, they are “evaluated” based on “simulations”, which are mere correlations, often obtained by adjusting the many poorly characterized parameters to give a “fudged fit”. Several such attempts fail to agree with observations. Future “projections”, which combine the untested models and exaggerated “scenarios” are graded for their “likelihood” from the unsupported opinion of those paid to produce the models. A spurious “probability” attached to these opinions is without mathematical or scientific justification

Humans affect climate by changes in urban development and land use, but there is no evidence that greenhouse gas emissions are involved, except in enhancing plant growth.

Link
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
IPCC should be disbanded. Waste of money.

That being said, I fully support furthering research in all scientific disciplines to better understand both local and global climate.

Clearly no mitigation is warranted, certainly not at the predicted costs.

Can't wait for the Bloom Box to get down to the targeted price-point of $3K. I'll leave the grid in a heartbeat. I'll need two, though.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting amd:
This is becoming an epic storm for the northeast.

When 'epic' and 'storm' go together, one tends to pay attention.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:

You should reread the last 200 post.

And it doesn't matter what you say because it has been debunked already. You have not a single evidence left to counter the science of climate. Get used to it.
I just did read the last 200 posts which is why I felt compelled (again) to respond to your use of the term "fact". When you have one, post it. In the mean time, I will read your opinions and those you cut and paste (over and over and over...) along with everyone elses. The science of climate will go on based on valid inputs from those that actually do research, analyze the data and report their OPINIONS on the results. I have said nothing that needs debunked and I have no evidence other than you are spamming a legitimate blog with some really smart people on it that stay away when you get into a spamming mode. I'm a mathmetition, not a meterorologist, but I know bull when I see it. Get used to that.
Member Since: February 11, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 786
Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:

You should reread the last 200 post.

And it doesn't matter what you say because it has been debunked already. You have not a single evidence left to counter the science of climate. Get used to it.


Only need to read one, singular blog entry.

Nail, imo.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Just finished the adjustment of GISS temps.

Very interesting. And, the overall average from 1880-2009 is negative relative to 1900.

The True Temperature Record
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
00z run of the GFS has come into agreement with the European and Canadian models on the low for next week. Looks like another possible Deep South snow even for Monday/Tuesday.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting NttyGrtty:
You have never quoted a single fact, just opinion. The sum of the angles of a triangle equals 180 is a fact. Your posts are not facts and your spamming are not facts just opinion. Get off the term "fact"...

You should reread the last 200 post.

And it doesn't matter what you say because it has been debunked already. You have not a single evidence left to counter the science of climate. Get used to it.
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Portlight.org just ran on E news with a Wunderful story from Haiti and our continued efforts there.

Member Since: Posts: Comments:
GFS 0 Z run still bringing snizzle down to parts of SE LA...but less moisture behind the 0 C line vs 18 Z run.

Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:

The diffrence between my opinion and Levi's is that i base my opinion on Facts.
You have never quoted a single fact, just opinion. The sum of the angles of a triangle equals 180 is a fact. Your posts are not facts and your spamming are not facts just opinion. Get off the term "fact"...
Member Since: February 11, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 786
Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:

There is no proving. It is man-made and we are here our generation faces it. No matter where you live you are effected. Ignore want help, action is needed now.


see there's my point. you, in your heart feel it is man made along with so many other people. but in turn i could find just as many people that would feel just as strong as you do to state it is a cycle.

who is to determine who is right??

believe me i have children and i'm really scared to know what they will face when they are my age.
Member Since: August 11, 2008 Posts: 3 Comments: 1485

Quoting Ossqss:
371 Why don't you read the article ?

Article or did you mean blog? I will look in the paper tomorrow or on the news perhaps :)

Good!
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032
Quoting AwakeInMaryland:
Hey, hey we're the Monkees!

"You make me feel so young,
You make me feel there are songs to be sung..."

Hope it feels good to be home, Grothar

Oh my, I just found a Monkee's website! I've gone too far!


Funny you should have picked that song. It was written the year I was born. Let us leave the Monkee's website out of this one. LOL
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting drg0dOwnCountry:

Good news: “Met Office wants re-examination of 150 years of climate data”
Now let's hope they'll fix the problems that have caused them to lowball recent warming.


The US surface temps have also a cool bias, so how would this turn out? ...


Like this.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Evening, all!

Please check out the Portlight blog this evening. Bill Rancic, of "The Apprentice" and Style Network's "Giuliana & Bill", made a brief visit to Haiti and volunteers of Portlight showed him around. E! Entertainment News aired the story tonight, with prominent mention of Portlight. In addition, Mr. Rancic blogged about his experience in Haiti, again with several references and a link to Portlight.

Rock on, Portlight and thanks, WUers, for all your help for Haiti!!!
Member Since: July 10, 2008 Posts: 14 Comments: 412
371 Why don't you read the article ?

Article or did you mean blog? I will look in the paper tomorrow or on the news perhaps :)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting AstroHurricane001:
What about 2004?

Like I said, is tenuous.

" A few studies have shown some loose associations between La Nina years and regional trends in tornado numbers from year to year; but that still doesn't prove cause and effect. Weak associations by year or season may be as close as the ENSO-to-tornado connection can get -- because there are so many things on the scales of states, counties and individual thunderstorms which can affect tornado formation."

From SPC: http://www.spc.noaa.gov/faq/tornado/#Climatology
Member Since: August 16, 2007 Posts: 6 Comments: 12461
Hey, hey we're the Monkees!
Quoting Grothar:


Way after my time. I was already to old to listen to them.

"You make me feel so young,
You make me feel there are songs to be sung..."

Hope it feels good to be home, Grothar!

Quoting atmoaggie:

We gotta get out of this place
If it's the last thing we ever do.

(BTW, there's a house in New Orleans they call the rising sun.)

Good one, Atmo.
Did our other Aggie get out of this place? I haven't seen Pearland in ages.

Oh my, I just found a Monkee's website! I've gone too far!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Skepticall:


Really the world has been a lot warmer than it is today.


Of course it has. But that's irrelavent. Has it been warmer than what's expected in a few decades during human civilization? No. What about CO2 levels, or that of methane or nitrous oxides? No. It's the rate or warming more than the warming itself.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
372. unf97
Quoting quakeman55:
So what's the snow outlook looking like for Fri night/Sat morning for LA into FL panhandle? Any new updates?


Nothing new currently. I'll check the latest runs first thing tomorrow morning. The earlier runs I saw has a decent moisture field hugging the coast and inland to FL-AL and FL-GA border late tomorrow night into Saturday morning. Thermal profiles on those runs were marginal at best from about 4.a.m.- 10 a.m. Saturday morning. If there is a chance for a light wintry mix to happen on the north-northwestern fringes of the surface low that will form well south in the GOM early Saturday, this would be the time frame in my opinion.

The next runs will tell us a lot about this by the time we wake up tomorrow morning.

Meanwhile, GFS is really being an outlier with its handling of the potential big GOM storm for Tuesday - Wednesday of next week. I am really paying close attention to this and hopefully we will have a better idea from the models tomorrow on this developing system. This potentially will be a huge weather maker for next week in the Deep South. Stay tuned!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Quoting Ossqss:
363 Lol., someone named Shame on a blog with 23 comments, debunked them. Yep, that does it for me.


Why don't you read the article ?


False Claims Proven False


Two of the most prominent claims of global warming denialists have proven to be utterly false.


I’ve completed processing the GHCN data for the northern hemisphere. This project was undertaken to investigate two denialist claims: 1st, that the dramatic reduction in the number of reporting stations around 1990 introduced a false warming trend; 2nd, that the adjustments applied to station data also introduce a false warming trend.

http://tamino.wordpress.com/2010/02/25/false-claims-proven-false/

Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032

Viewing: 421 - 371

Page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 | 11Blog Index

Top of Page

About JeffMasters

Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.