Russia's Pole of Cold hits -70°F: Europe's 2nd coldest reading of all-time

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 4:48 PM GMT on February 22, 2010

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The notorious Russian winter, bane of the armies of Napoleon and Hitler, has been in classic form during the winter of 2010 . Brutal cold has been the rule this winter in the European portion of Russia, and at 9am local time on Friday, February 19, the town of Hoseda-Hard, Russia hit a remarkable -70°F (-56.4°C)--the second coldest temperature ever measured in Europe. Hoseda-Hard is located in extreme northeastern Europe, 90 miles (145 km) south of the Arctic Ocean and about 150 miles (240 km) west of the Ural Mountains and the boundary of Asia. The town lies in a shallow river valley (elevation 84 meters) where cold air tends to pool. The surrounding region is known as Europe's "Pole of Cold". The coldest temperature ever recorded in Europe was an extraordinary -72.6°F (-58.1°C) in the Pole of Cold's Ust'Schugor (64.15°N 57.45°) on December 31, 1978. The nearby city of Pechora, the largest city in the region (population: 50,000), is also well-known for its extreme temperatures. Pechora boasts Europe's third coldest temperature, a -68.8°F (-56.0°C) reading observed on February 9, 1946. It is likely that Hoseda-Hard got a degree or two colder than the remarkable -70°F measured on Friday, since the station only reported temperatures once every three hours. The high temperature Friday in Hoseda-Hard was a not-so-balmy -49°F (-45°C)!


Figure 1. Departure of surface temperature from average for February 19, 2010. Temperatures at Europe's "Pole of Cold" (dark purple colors) were more than 40°F (22°C) below average. The white dot marks the location of Hoseda-Hard, Russia, which recorded a remarkable -70°F (-56.4°C) at 9am local time that day--the second coldest temperature ever measured in Europe. Image credit: NOAA/ESRL.


Figure 2. A monument in Europe's "Pole of Cold" near Hoseda-Hard, Russia, marking the location of the Arctic Circle. Image credit: Mactak.

Exceptional February heat in Africa
I credit weather historian and extreme weather expert Chris Burt, author of Extreme Weather, for pointing out the incredible cold in Russia on Friday. Chris also noted that on Saturday, February 20, the temperature in Birni-N'Konni, Niger hit 112°F (44.3°C). This is just 3°F (1.7°C) below the warmest temperature ever recorded in the Northern Hemisphere in February--the 115°F reading from Abeche, Chad (date unknown).

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Jeff Masters

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Quoting Bordonaro:


Send it south!!
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I suppose one could sit in Lake Superior to escape the heat. But, I'm with Minnemike - I would take the cold any day over 111 degree days. YUK!!!!!! Lowest temp I've been in was minus 33.
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Quoting 1900hurricane:

Yeah, and both FWD and HGX mentioned possible totals much higher than that in convective banding too!


I believe you will see parts of S Central TX from near Waco, TX to near College Station, TX with bands of 6-10" of snow.

The exact timimg and location of the heavier bands may be a little further north or south, depending on the track of the ULL.
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
What a temperature contrast! So what would you all prefer,
A) 115°F
OR
B) -70°F


well that would depend. I have experienced 115 in dry heat california and 110 in high humidity florida was twice as bad and it wasnt just me, one of my horses became heat stressed just standing in the paddock in the shade all day. that was last AUTUMN. now snow last week. its been amazing year.
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DFW just went with a Winter Storm Warning for its southern counties. I expect HGX will follow suit for its northern counties (including me) in a hour or two.

URGENT - WINTER WEATHER MESSAGE
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE FORT WORTH TX
139 PM CST MON FEB 22 2010

...A WINTER STORM WATCH IS IN EFFECT FOR PORTIONS OF NORTH TEXAS
FROM EARLY TUESDAY MORNING THROUGH TUESDAY EVENING...

TXZ141>143-147-148-156>162-174-175-230345-
/O.UPG.KFWD.WS.A.0002.100223T0900Z-100224T0300Z/
/O.NEW.KFWD.WS.W.0002.100223T0900Z-100224T0300Z/
COMANCHE-MILLS-HAMILTON-FREESTONE-ANDERSON-LAMPASAS-CORYELL-BELL-
MCLENNAN-FALLS-LIMESTONE-LEON-MILAM-ROBERTSON-
INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...COMANCHE...DE LEON...GOLDTHWAITE...
HAMILTON...HICO...TEAGUE...FAIRFIELD...PALESTINE...LAMPASAS...
COPPERAS COVE...GATESVILLE...KILLEEN...TEMPLE...FORT HOOD...
WACO...MARLIN...MEXIA...GROESBECK...BUFFALO...CENTERVILLE...
JEWETT...OAKWOOD...CAMERON...ROCKDALE...HEARNE...FRANKLIN...
CALVERT
139 PM CST MON FEB 22 2010

...WINTER STORM WARNING IN EFFECT FROM 3 AM TO 9 PM CST TUESDAY...
...WINTER STORM WATCH NO LONGER IN EFFECT...

THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE IN FORT WORTH HAS ISSUED A WINTER
STORM WARNING FOR HEAVY SNOW...WHICH IS IN EFFECT FROM 3 AM TO 9
PM CST TUESDAY. THE WINTER STORM WATCH FOR HEAVY SNOW IS NO
LONGER IN EFFECT.

SNOW IS EXPECTED TO BEGIN FALLING OVER NORTH TEXAS...MAINLY WEST
OF INTERSTATE 35 EARLY TUESDAY BEFORE SPREADING ACROSS MUCH OF THE
REGION DURING THE DAY. BY LATE TUESDAY MORNING BANDS OF HEAVY
SNOWFALL ARE EXPECTED TO DEVELOP FOR AREAS GENERALLY ALONG AND SOUTH
OF A COMANCHE TO WACO TO PALESTINE LINE. SNOWFALL TOTALS WITHIN
THE WINTER STORM WARNING ARE EXPECTED TO BE IN THE 4 TO 6 INCH
RANGE WITH ISOLATED HIGHER AMOUNTS POSSIBLE. SNOWFALL RATES WITHIN
THE MOST INTENSE SNOW BANDS MAY BE AS HIGH AS 1 TO 2 INCHES PER
HOUR. SNOWFALL IS EXPECTED TO DISSIPATE FROM NORTHWEST TO
SOUTHEAST TUESDAY AFTERNOON...WITH SNOWFALL ENDING ACROSS THE
ENTIRE WARNING AREA TUESDAY EVENING.

AS SURFACE TEMPERATURES ARE EXPECTED TO REMAIN NEAR OR JUST ABOVE
FREEZING THROUGH THE EVENT SO MOST ROADWAYS WILL PICK UP A SLUSHY
ACCUMULATION. DURING PERIODS OF HEAVY SNOWFALL ROADWAYS MAY
ACCUMULATE SNOWFALL QUICKLY CREATING VERY HAZARDOUS DRIVING
CONDITIONS.

$$
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Quoting Bordonaro:


Yeah, and both FWD and HGX mentioned possible totals much higher than that in convective banding too!
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Quoting StSimonsIslandGAGuy:
A recording thermometer was left in 1950 at 15,400 feet up Denali in Alaska---it was intended to be recovered in the late spring/summer of 1951, but could not be found. It was located in the summer of 1969. The temperature did fall to at least -100F, and possibly lower than that---but there was no way to determine the date (or if if dropped to -100F several times) so it doesn't count as a record.

Wow cool fact! I wonder if the thermometer would receive a similar fate if the feat were repeated today, despite all the new technology...
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In other news, my chances of snow have been bumped up to 100%, and HGX is expecting this to be a multi-inch event!!!

Forecast for College Station, TX
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Quoting Bordonaro:

I dont remember that. I was in NYC, NY taking care of family business, I missed that heat wave!

While you were gone, it appears that KDFW also hit 111*F!

Link
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Quoting 1900hurricane:

How hot did you get in September 2000? That's when I saw my 111*F.

I dont remember that. I was in NYC, NY taking care of family business, I missed that heat wave!
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So true Jeffs713,
Also in very dry extreme cold, one can get frostbite so quick the damage is done before realizing it's happened! I came close to that in Colorado several years ago...
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i'll take me the -70F, thanks...
Minnemike has no problems bundling up for winter, but what on earth does one do for 115F heat?? (i know.. a/c and a pool)
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Quoting DocNDswamp:
Good day,

Yep, quite hot in N Africa... and hardly any moisture from surface through the atmospheric column above...
LOL, the 112F in Niger would have felt quite tolerable to most of us who endured last June's heat wave over Texas / Louisiana that combined with fairly high humidity, and certainly way less life-threatening than the frigid -70F... Take a close look at that Niger station data, showing extremely dry RH values depicted... 37F dewpoint with RH ranging from 4-13%! If we assume the high temp was recorded during or near the lowest 4% value as typically occurs, playing with the numbers on a heat index calculator shows the dewpoint could have fell to 24F, resulting in an almost comfortable HI of "only" 103F... Even the 37F DP at the 8% RH average results in a "mere" 105F HI...
LOL, all in a relative perspective...
;)

Exactly. Both are dangerous temps, though. With humid heat, you sweat all the water out. In a dry heat, all the water evaporates very quickly. A person would still need to protect themselves and drink *a lot* of water either way.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5885
Good day,

Yep, quite hot in N Africa... and hardly any moisture from surface through the atmospheric column above...
LOL, the 112F in Niger would have felt quite tolerable to most of us who endured last June's heat wave over Texas / Louisiana that combined with fairly high humidity, and certainly way less life-threatening than the frigid -70F... Take a close look at that Niger station data, showing extremely dry RH values depicted... 37F dewpoint with RH ranging from 4-13%! If we assume the high temp was recorded during or near the lowest 4% value as typically occurs, playing with the numbers on a heat index calculator shows the dewpoint could have fell to 24F, resulting in an almost comfortable HI of "only" 103F... Even the 37F DP at the 8% RH average results in a "mere" 105F HI...
LOL, all in a relative perspective...
;)
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Quoting Bordonaro:

Living in North Central TX the answer is
(A) As I have seen 110F in 1998, and temps between 100-107F every summer


I'd take the heat compared to the extreme cold any day.
Member Since: August 11, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2315
Quoting Bordonaro:

Living in North Central TX the answer is
(A) As I have seen 110F in 1998, and temps between 100-107F every summer

How hot did you get in September 2000? That's when I saw my 111*F.
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
What a temperature contrast! So what would you all prefer,
A) 115°F
OR
B) -70°F

Living in North Central TX the answer is
(A) As I have seen 110F in 1998, and temps between 100-107F every summer
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Here comes the RAIN... Slowly building with the day time heating.
Member Since: August 11, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2315
Quoting Levi32:
Here's a loop of the ECMWF SST forecast that Adrian posted. The Euro is forecasting the warm water to expand westward, with the GOM and SE US coast becoming above normal as well during the early part of the hurricane season. Also notice the cool tongue growing over the equatorial Pacific, signs of a possible La Nina trying to develop by the end of the hurricane season.


\
Oh, poop...

BTW - Global Weather and Climate Extremes... very interesting read
Member Since: June 20, 2005 Posts: 22 Comments: 1054
TC 17P is really struggling today with strong westerly wind shear that has completely disrupted its attempts to strengthen. As I expected, the the JTWC has come down from its forecast for 17P to become a hurricane, which I found to be way too high considering that shear does not look like it will let up over the next 5 days. Their forecast is now more in line with mine, forecasting a peak intensity of 50 knots, which will still be hard for 17P to attain, as I believe the storm has already passed its time of best organization. The storm will continue southwestward over the next few days.

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Here's a loop of the ECMWF SST forecast that Adrian posted. The Euro is forecasting the warm water to expand westward, with the GOM and SE US coast becoming above normal as well during the early part of the hurricane season. Also notice the cool tongue growing over the equatorial Pacific, signs of a possible La Nina trying to develop by the end of the hurricane season.

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I've gone 111*F to 16*F, so I think I'll take the 115*F over the -70*F.
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Quoting Levi32:


I haven't a clue. I live in a moderate part of Alaska. The coldest I've ever experienced is -28F, and the hottest I've ever experienced is 78F.

Yea I live in Tampa, FL and I don't ever recall the temp. exceeding 100F I guess due to the afternoon seabreezes we typically get during the summertime. Even though it doesn't get the hot it's the humidity that makes it feel nasty sometimes. Also we don't get nowhere close to that -28F, but I have been up to Toronto during the wintertime, if that counts. lol
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Quoting GTcooliebai:
What a temperature contrast! So what would you all prefer,
A) 115°F
OR
B) -70°F


I haven't a clue. I live in a moderate part of Alaska. The coldest I've ever experienced is -28F, and the hottest I've ever experienced is 78F.
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29. JRRP
well..........
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Thanks Dr. Masters for the update.

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Quoting GTcooliebai:
What a temperature contrast! So what would you all prefer,
A) 115F
OR
B) -70F

I could handle 115F/46.11C , we've had 108.1F/42.27C here at my place Jan 23rd 2010.
Highest ever temp here at my place, 112.1F/44.5C 01.18.2003

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Almost time for a bicycle race and a dog sled race. They are told to bring equipment for -60F.
http://www.alaskaultrasport.com/alaska_ultra_home_page.html

http://www.iditarod.com/
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Thanks Dr.....Interesting to see what the temps/conditions in Africa will be come the CV season in August/September in terms of EAWs and SAL levels..........
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I tend to use wikipedia for these kinds of things, still I would check external links to see the accuracy of the data.

Link
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Dr. Masters, Heard you on 610WTVN this morning in Columbus. Interesting discussion.
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Quoting AussieStorm:

official recorded temps???


Yes, official records. There are unofficial things like heat-bursts during thunderstorms that people claim raised their thermometers to 150 F, but again, "unofficial".

And yeah GT got it, -128.6 was the coldest ever recorded. Vostok Station is in Antarctica.
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−89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) Vostok Station is the coldest temp. ever recorded on earth!
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Quoting hurricane23:
ECM ensembles are forecasting above normal SST's across most of the tropical atlantic in the coming months...



The GOM and SW Atlantic waters have a lot of catching up to do to live up to that forecast. The European is probably seeing the warm April and May that we will probably see over the eastern United States, which will reverse the effects that this cold winter has had on SE US coastal waters.
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Quoting Levi32:


Hottest ever recorded was 136 F in the Sahara Desert. I think the coldest was -121 F in Antarctica.

official recorded temps???
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I'd take the 115F. LOL, not a nice choice to have to make, regardless.
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
57.8 °C (136 °F) Al 'Aziziyah, Libya is the highest temp. ever recorded on earth!
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Quoting AussieStorm:
What is the coldest ever recorded temp, And the Highest ever recorded temp? What's the Chance of seeing even higher and colder temps?


Hottest ever recorded was 136 F in the Sahara Desert. I think the coldest was -121 F in Antarctica.
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ECM ensembles are forecasting above normal SST's across most of the tropical atlantic in the coming months...

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What a temperature contrast! So what would you all prefer,
A) 115°F
OR
B) -70°F
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Quoting Levi32:



Take a trip up here to Alaska....we hold the record for the coldest surface temperature ever recorded in North America at -80 :)

This was at Prospect Creek, January 23, 1971.



An unofficial record of -81.4 F in 1947 was recorded at Snag airport, Canada, but Alaska holds the record for the coldest "official" temperature reading.
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What is the coldest ever recorded temp, And the Highest ever recorded temp? What's the Chance of seeing even higher and colder temps?
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And, that is dang cold!
Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
Carryover post.

Hi all. Thought I'd share this.

Check this out. As I've said many times, VC's will invest if there is money to be made. The whole "Big Oil stops it" is pure fallacy. They have zero power over entrepreneurs. No govt necessary.

Also notice how long we've been trying. Again, it is not for lack of trying. It is lack of practical applicability.

If this really works, it will be revolutionary. Watch the whole thing. Already installed at some companies, including FedEx.

Bloom Box

Member Since: September 9, 2008 Posts: 6 Comments: 3414
Quoting NEwxguy:
Thanks,Dr.Masters,its impossible to even imagine what that kind of cold is like.


Take a trip up here to Alaska....we hold the record for the coldest surface temperature ever recorded in North America at -80 :)

This was at Prospect Creek, January 23, 1971.
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Thanks,Dr.Masters,its impossible to even imagine what that kind of cold is like.
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Thanks Dr. Masters.

I was noticing the other day how temperatures are in the 105-110 range for many places in Africa when the averages are only upper 90s for February. I think this will have an impact on tropical waves this hurricane season as the European climate models show above-average temperatures in Africa continuing into July, which is as far as their forecasts go right now. This surplus of heat would fuel stronger thunderstorms associated with tropical waves over western Africa prior to moving over the tropical Atlantic, which itself is also forecast to remain warmer than normal.

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.

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