Warmest January on record for the lower atmosphere

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 2:37 PM GMT on February 17, 2010

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Earth's lower atmosphere recorded its warmest January on record last month, according to data from both the University of Alabama, Hunstville (UAH) and Remote Sensing Systems (Figure 1). The satellite measurements used to take the global temperature of the lower atmosphere began in December 1978, using the Microwave Sounding Unit (MSU) on polar-orbiting satellites. The January 2010 temperature anomaly was an impressive 0.72°C above the 1979 - 1998 average, easily beating the previous record of 0.59°C set in January 2007. Last month's anomaly was the 3rd warmest anomaly for any month, falling just 0.04°C cooler than the record warmest anomalies of 0.76°C from February and April 1998. The January 2010 satellite-measured temperatures continued a trend of very warm conditions we've seen in the lower atmosphere since the current El Niño event began in June 2009. Record high temperatures occurred in November 2009, and were the second highest on record in both July and September 2009, according to UAH. The record-breaking temperatures in the lower atmosphere are due to the heating of the atmosphere by the strong El Niño event that has been heating the waters of the Central and Eastern Pacific since June 2009, combined with the global warming trend of the past few decades. Since we are currently at the lowest level of solar output in decades, the Earth is currently about 0.1°C cooler than if we were near the maximum of the 11-year sunspot cycle. Had we been near solar maximum, we would have set an all-time warmest lower atmosphere temperature anomaly record last month.(Note, though, that there is about a 2-year time lag between solar maximum and when Earth's global temperature responds). It will be interesting to see if the current El Niño event, which is quite a bit weaker than the record-strongest El Niño of 1998, is capable of making 2010 beat 1998 for honors as the warmest year on record in the lower atmosphere.


Figure 1. Temperature of the lowest 8km of the atmosphere measured by satellite via the MSU instrument flown on polar-orbiting satellites between 1979 - 2010. Image credit: Dr. Roy Spencer, University of Alabama, Hunstville.

Real-time display of atmospheric temperatures measured by satellite
The University of Alabama, Huntsville has a handy interactive plotting page that lets one plot up the historical and near-real-time satellite measurements of Earth's global average temperature at various levels of the atmosphere. These temperatures are measured by the MSU instrument on the polar-orbiting NOAA-15 satellite. Note that this is a different instrument than the AQUA satellite's MSU instrument used by UAH to formulate their official monthly global temperature anomaly data set. The two satellites give similar results, although NOAA-15 requires an additional correction to account for drift of the satellite.


Figure 2. Temperature of the global atmosphere at 14,000 feet (4.4 km) as measured by the MSU instrument on the polar-orbiting NOAA-15 satellite. This instrument has been flying since August 1998. The 20-year average (yellow line) and 20-year record highs (pink line) are for the period 1979 - 1998, using versions of the MSU instrument that flew on older satellites. The most recent data (green line), as of February 15, 2010, are marked by a white square, and have now fallen below the record for the date set in 1998. Note that during July 2009, November 2009, and January 2010, record high temperatures were measured at 14,000 feet altitude. A full description of the data is available from the University of Alabama, Hunstville.

Error sources in global atmospheric temperatures measured by satellite
Satellite-measured temperatures of Earth's atmosphere, in my judgment, are inferior to using the surface based system of ground stations and ocean buoys for measuring global temperature changes. I have two reasons for saying this:

1) The satellite temperatures show large global increases when there is an El Niño event. While the surface also experiences an upward spike in temperatures during an El Niño, it is much less pronounced than the atmospheric heating that occurs. Since we live at the surface, those temperatures are more relevant.

2) According to a description of the MSU data available on the Remote Sensing Systems web site where the data is archived,


"The instruments in the MSU series were intended for day to day operational use in weather forecasting and thus are not calibrated to the precision needed for climate studies. A climate quality dataset can be extracted from their measurements only by careful inter-calibration of the eleven distinct MSU instruments."


In other words, it's very tricky to make an accurate measurement of Earth's temperature going back to 1979, when satellite measurements began. You have to merge data from eleven separate satellites, whose instruments were never designed to make the kind of precise long-term climate measurements that are being asked of them. While surface stations also have error sources, I believe that the uncertainty in the satellite-based global temperature measurements are higher.

Dr. John Christy of the University of Alabama, Huntsville, made a series of efforts to perform the careful inter-calibration needed beginning in the 1990s, and for over a decade successfully defended his conclusion that the MSU instruments were showing a much lower level of tropospheric warming than what climate models predicted. Christy was probably the most quoted scientist by the "greenhouse skeptics" during that period, and testified numerous times before Congress about his findings. This discrepancy was a prime argument Senator James Inhofe (R-Oklahoma) used in his famed 2003 speech when he referred to the threat of catastrophic global warming as the "greatest hoax ever perpetrated on the American people." Greenhouse contrarian Dr. S. Fred Singer, who has probably more Congressional testimony about global warming under his belt than any other scientist, headlined his SEPP website for many years with the quote, "Computer models forecast rapidly rising global temperatures, but data from weather satellites and balloon instruments show no warming whatsoever. Nevertheless, these same unreliable computer models underpin the Global Climate Treaty." Michael Crichton also used the tropospheric warming discrepancy to give climate models a bad rap in his State of Fear novel. However, a series of papers published in 2004 and 2005 showed that the satellite inter-calibration methods used by Christy were incorrect. Christy conceded that his analysis had been in error, and participated in writing a statement put out by NOAA's Climate Change Science Program that detailed the error.

Climate change contrarians continue to prefer using the UAH satellite data to look at global temperature trends, since that data set shows less warming than the regular surface station data sets, and rates 1998 as the warmest year on record. The UAH data shows that in the 31-year period from 1979 - 2009, Earth's lower atmospheric temperature warmed by 0.13°C per decade. A separate analysis of the satellite data by Remote Sensing Systems (RSS) puts this number at 0.15°C per decade. For comparison, NASA's GISS and the UK HadCRUT surface data sets (which don't use satellite data) show warming of 0.16°C and 0.15°C per decade, respectively. You can generate these numbers yourself, using the excellent woodfortrees.org plotting tools. The amount of global warming predicted in the 2007 IPCC report for the period 2010 - 2030 was 0.20°C per decade, so we are running about 25% below this predicted level of warming, when averaging over the past 31 years.

For further reading: I have a 2006 blog post on this, and realclimate.org has a technical discussion.

Portlight continues relief efforts in Haiti
The Portlight.org disaster-relief effort continues in Haiti, with another container of specifically-requested medical supplies being shipped today. At the request of Portlight's on-site coordinator, Richard Lumarque, Portlight is committed to sending another container with 500 tents plus food and water. The cost of each shipment is $4300, so your donations are greatly appreciated! Please visit the Portlight.org blog to learn more and to donate. Floodman's blog has the latest info on Portlight's plan for Haitian relief.


Figure 3. Richard Lumarque, Portlight's on-site coordinator in Haiti, poses with double-amputee Darline Exidor, who received a wheelchair from Portlight. Portlight's team of ten relief workers has been laboring full-time the past two weeks to deliver donated supplies and assess the needs of the earthquake survivors.

Next post
I'll have a new post on Thursday or Friday.

Jeff Masters

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Quoting NttyGrtty:
Really? I see partly cloudy, hi's in the mid 60's, light winds in Navarre Beach. On the boat on Sat, golf course on Sun...TStorms gonna ruin that?


Western Gulf
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398. Skyepony (Mod)
I agree with El Nino causing higher humidity. Also that unknown element that causes things to wrap up in to cyclonic turning seems to be in place. ACE though is still really low. Looking at the past it doesn't make huge shifts from year to year (NH is the bottom, total world is the top).. I don't see the overall season being extremely busy. If we get higher in # of storms they should be shorter lived, smaller ones. Only takes one to be memorable..

Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 161 Comments: 37433
Is anybody in that building hurt?
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Thunderstorms this weekend for Gulf coast
Really? I see partly cloudy, hi's in the mid 60's, light winds in Navarre Beach. On the boat on Sat, golf course on Sun...TStorms gonna ruin that?
Member Since: February 11, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 827
Quoting RitaEvac:
Plane just crashed into FBI building in Austin TX


Here's the live feed:
Live Feed
Member Since: August 11, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 2315
Quoting MrJoeBlow:
I sure hope this is no attack on us. It looks awful on the tv.


I doubt it, eyewitnesses said it was flying outta control and barely missed powerlines before hitting building, likely malfunction of plane
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393. flsky
Quoting TampaSpin:


You think its been a Fairy Tale. I thought the White House moved to Elm Street with all the Nightmares we have seen thus far...........J/K.....adding some humor.


What nightmares???
Member Since: October 24, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 1915
I sure hope this is no attack on us. It looks awful on the tv.
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Thunderstorms this weekend for Gulf coast
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Quoting fireflymom:
Austin new source reports that a grandfather and his 6 year old grandchild were on board the plane, he was an experienced pilot, neither one survived. Foggy conditions may have contributed to the crash of the craft which took off from Rockport, Tx at the coast.


Thats back in Demember 09'
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Echelon building
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If trade winds remain almost absent it will be interesting to see if we get an early start to the capeverde season.Can't say i disagree with j.b.'s prelim. ENSO model forecasts continue to show a rapid weaking of el nino transitioning to Neutral.

adrian
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Austin new source reports that a grandfather and his 6 year old grandchild were on board the plane, he was an experienced pilot, neither one survived. Foggy conditions may have contributed to the crash of the craft which took off from Rockport, Tx at the coast.
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Quoting NttyGrtty:
Could be just an accident or bad pilot. Just like the roads, the air has knuckleheads too...

Very true
Member Since: August 17, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 249
While there are many programs in the present Administration with which I disagree, the decision to alter committment to certain space programs where not made because the President does not like NASA. For those interested in a little more detail of what occurred this link may be helpful. The reason I felt comfortable placing this link on the blog, is that there may be further decisions made which will affect weather satellites, etc. It is nice to have a "race", and always be the first, but the ultimate goal is to share whatever useful information we find and share it. Enjoy the link.


Link
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Could be just an accident or bad pilot. Just like the roads, the air has knuckleheads too...
Member Since: February 11, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 827
I'm sure very high alerts will be in order for a while for small crafts until it is deemed not a threat!
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Plane just crashed into FBI building in Austin TX


It appears to be a small craft......geesh!
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Now saying its not FBI building
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Quoting RitaEvac:
Plane just crashed into FBI building in Austin TX

Really??
Member Since: August 17, 2009 Posts: 0 Comments: 249
Quoting RitaEvac:
Plane just crashed into FBI building in Austin TX

Same area but not the FBI building...
Member Since: February 11, 2010 Posts: 0 Comments: 827
Plane just crashed into FBI building in Austin TX
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Quoting TampaSpin:


You think its been a Fairy Tale. I thought the White House moved to Elm Street with all the Nightmares we have seen thus far...........J/K.....adding some humor.
The Russians have a lot of catching up to do before they will be considered our equals as far as space programs are concerned. Plus they don,t exactly have a large amount of money to be much of a threat at this time.
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Goodnight all
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Quoting CycloneOz:
So Obama called the space station today and told the astronauts (and everyone listening at NASA) that "his support for NASA was unwavering." He got disconnected and said "Hello? Hello?" **end of transmission**

Besides being side-splitting funny, there comes the question: How are we to believe anything this man says? Wasn't it just a couple of weeks ago that he pulled the plug on our manned space program?

The shuttle fleet is to be retired very soon now. What other manned space vehicle do we currently employ? NONE! This gives Russia a monopoly on manned space travel and leaves America #2 in space for the first time since I was a child.

Canceling the Aries program, especially in light of the fact that the first test of the system was a spectacular success, leaves America without any way of getting a man into space.

"His unwavering support for NASA?" Really...what an absurd statement to make when examined under the harsh light of reality.

If he keeps this up, he should change the location of the White House to Cinderella's Castle at Disney World!


You think its been a Fairy Tale. I thought the White House moved to Elm Street with all the Nightmares we have seen thus far...........J/K.....adding some humor.
Member Since: September 2, 2007 Posts: 178 Comments: 20439
361.

Thank you for the very critical political message Oz. The political blog is down the hall, third door on the right. Not here.
Member Since: August 3, 2008 Posts: 16 Comments: 5875
370.

Yep, JB forecast an apocolypto-cane for the east coast. Shocker.
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370. PensacolaDoug 10:49 AM EST on February 18, 2010 I have no particular opinion on Mr. B either way (he's a committed forecaster) but I've have seen him "blow" a few season forecasts over the past few years.....No one has a majic 8 ball this far out until all the pieces fall into place this Summer.
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Don't hold back Oz! Tell us how you really feel!!
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JB this morn.

THURSDAY 7 AM
A HURRICANE SEASON PRELIM:


(first issued Monday to private interests)


My forecast will raise eyebrows, as I believe a major landfalling season is on the way, and certainly one that will cause much more disruption to energy interests and higher insurance costs. The current El Nino WILL NOT continue into the hurricane season, and the moistening of the atmosphere over the tropics that has occurred during the Nino will mean worldwide there will be more activity. For the Atlantic Basin, this has the chance to be an extreme season, certainly much greater than last season.

There are two main physical drivers here that have me very concerned.

1) The aforementioned El Nino means that humidity levels will be higher over the deep tropics this year. My research has shown that when El Ninos are coming on, very often there is plenty of dry air in the deep tropics over the Atlantic beforehand. We saw that in '06 and '09 and it led to lesser numbers. I caught it in '09 much better than '06, but the reason has to do with the state of the atmosphere beforehand, because not all El Ninos produce non-seasons ('04 and '69 for example, big seasons with El Ninos). The collapse of the Nino very often is signaled by the opposite and a preliminary look indicates a much more friendly humidity pattern is evolving! This would not be as big a concern, though of some concern, if the El Nino did not wane, or a strong La Nina developed. I do not see a strong La Nina for this season (that has the effect of keeping storms farther south). And it would not have the weight it has if it was not for what has happened in the Atlantic with the water temps! 2) It is opposite of what I was looking at last year. The warm water is south of 30 north, and there is colder water in the central Atlantic. This focuses upward motion over the tropical breeding grounds. The European is already seeing this, as it's carrying a reversal to higher-than-normal pressures in the tropical Pacific and lower-than-normal pressures in the very areas that we used as a way of downplaying last year.

I need to watch the pressures in the Atlantic in the month of May, and some of the other tools I use, but if they go as I suspect, a spray year with above-normal threats on ALL THE U.S. COAST, perhaps similar to 2008, is on the way. In fact, it is very disturbing to note that in the package are years such as 1995, 2005 and 1964. This is a preliminary look, but a heads up to all of you. Keep in mind that it was me last March who touted the down year and said the Nino was coming on. It was me who circled the area hammered the year before and said there would be very little activity. I don't want to here the HYPE HYPE HYPE crowd scream because last year was dead on, and the year before was even more than the nasty season advertised. It is what it is...

My long standing fear for the East Coast remains as the cooling Pacific and the still warm overall Atlantic is the overall setup that enhances East Coast activity as we saw in the last attack of the hurricanes on the East Coast, mainly in the '50s. I believe, in spite of storms of tropical origin and the damage they caused last year on the East Coast, most notably the Jersey Devil and the ghost of Ida, the East Coast has fared very well in this time of hurricane hardship. I do believe we are in the waning years of this current uptick in the Atlantic, perhaps another 5 to at most 10, before rationality returns to the Atlantic Basin. Given naming techniques and satellites, it will never be as low as it was, but will be what it would have been in the '60s and '70s if we had the same namers as we have now.

Our forecasts have spoken for themselves over the years. I think we all saw the lesser number and shift northeast in the threat area last year, the big season forecast the year before. The errors in '07 and '06 were more letter than spirit of the law. The La Nina got very strong in '07, and what activity there was in '06 was to the northeast of the mega season of '05. Since the La Nina is not expected to be strong this year, the stage is set, for the reasons given above, for a more active season and one that will have more than normal impact on the U.S. coast against the running 20 year means.

Since I don't want to get into the TPC name game out in the middle of nowhere, the forecast as of now calls for 15 total storms west of 55 west. Crucial landfall ideas: seven landfalls, five hurricanes, two or three major landfalls. This is the kind of season that has me worried about Florida as a center point, and from this stage, areas north and west also, but with the center of the congregation of landfalling tracks near Florida.

The big thing to take from this... As of this writing, we are in for a very different season from last year. Collapsing Ninos with warm Atlantic water and lower-than-normal pressures in the southwestern Atlantic Basin during the summer are not to be taken lightly!

The global warming crowd, reduced to blaming the snow on global warming this year after blaming lack of snow on it in previous years, will be able to proudly point to the hurricanes this year, and so the debate will rage on. Something for all of us to look forward to, eh?

Ciao for now. ******
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Actually, we have some "black" military/civilian programs that can get a man into space....NASA is not the only "government" agency that can do this......Just the most public forum.
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....
Canceling the Aries program, especially in light of the fact that the first test of the system was a spectacular success, ....



Buzz Aldrin: Why We Need Better Rockets
.... the much-hyped Ares 1-X was much ado about nothing.

Yes, the rocket that thundered aloft from NASA's Launch Pad 39B sure looked like an Ares 1. But that's where the resemblance stops. Turns out the solid booster was - literally - bought from the Space Shuttle program, since a five-segment booster being designed for Ares wasn't ready. So they put a fake can on top of the four-segmented motor to look like the real thing. Since the real Ares' upper stage rocket engine, called the J-2X wasn't ready either, they mounted a fake upper stage. No Orion capsule was ready, so - you guessed it - they mounted a fake capsule with a real-looking but fake escape rocket that wouldn't have worked if the booster had failed. Since the guidance system for Ares wasn't ready either they went and bought a unit from the Atlas rocket program and used it instead. Oh yes, the parachutes to recover the booster were the real thing -- and one of the three failed, causing the booster to slam into the ocean too fast and banging the thing up. So, why you might ask, if the whole machine was a bit of slight-of-hand rocketry did NASA bother to spend almost half a billion dollars (that's billion with a "b") in developing and launching the Ares 1-X?
....
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Quoting AussieStorm:


Did someone say SAL???



YUP.....SAL in CAPITAL LETTERS...:)
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<.

If he keeps this up, he should change the location of the White House to Cinderella's Castle at Disney World!

yeah he could move in with you.
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Quoting CycloneOz:
So Obama called the space station today and told the astronauts (and everyone listening at NASA) that "his support for NASA was unwavering." He got disconnected and said "Hello? Hello?" **end of transmission**

Besides being side-splitting funny, there comes the question: How are we to believe anything this man says? Wasn't it just a couple of weeks ago that he pulled the plug on our manned space program?

The shuttle fleet is to be retired very soon now. What other manned space vehicle do we currently employ? NONE! This gives Russia a monopoly on manned space travel and leaves America #2 in space for the first time since I was a child.

Canceling the Aries program, especially in light of the fact that the first test of the system was a spectacular success, leaves America without any way of getting a man into space.

"His unwavering support for NASA?" Really...what an absurd statement to make when examined under the harsh light of reality.

If he keeps this up, he should change the location of the White House to Cinderella's Castle at Disney World!

love the last line. lol
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Quoting weathermanwannabe:
345. StormW 9:03 AM EST on February 18, 2010
Trouble?


Good Morning Storm and Folks.....A little too early to forecast how conditions will set up for h-season, but, in spite of the current cold streak in the SE from El Nino, these anomolies may indicate plenty of warm fuel out there "early" in the season for something to spin up........Gotta see however how soon the sheer dies down in the Summer and where SAL levels are at that time me thinks....Looking like a very potentially ripe environment come the Summer.


Did someone say SAL???

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Quoting SouthDadeFish:


You're right. Storm surge and freshwater flooding is what kills people in tropical cyclones. Rarely is it the wind. I believe the NHC made the right decision in taking out the other components of the scale, as each tropical cyclone is different and not solely dependent on maximum sustained wind speed. Hurricanes are very complex subjects and a difference in just one factor can change everything such as size, movement, or landfall location.

It would be cool to have a scale that could incorporate all this, and I have somewhat developed one. But ultimately, it is best to just listen to the NHC's advisories and evacuate when they tell you to. The NHC takes into account all the factors of a hurricane's damage and don't let the wind-only Saffir-Simpson scale fool anyone.


My fear is that the NHC may one day come up with a very complicated scale that addresses all hazards a hurricane could bring.

"Hurricane Eggbert, a category 3-A-5 storm, is headed due west just south of Puerto Rico..."
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So Obama called the space station today and told the astronauts (and everyone listening at NASA) that "his support for NASA was unwavering." He got disconnected and said "Hello? Hello?" **end of transmission**

Besides being side-splitting funny, there comes the question: How are we to believe anything this man says? Wasn't it just a couple of weeks ago that he pulled the plug on our manned space program?

The shuttle fleet is to be retired very soon now. What other manned space vehicle do we currently employ? NONE! This gives Russia a monopoly on manned space travel and leaves America #2 in space for the first time since I was a child.

Canceling the Aries program, especially in light of the fact that the first test of the system was a spectacular success, leaves America without any way of getting a man into space.

"His unwavering support for NASA?" Really...what an absurd statement to make when examined under the harsh light of reality.

If he keeps this up, he should change the location of the White House to Cinderella's Castle at Disney World!
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Quoting TampaTom:


They sure are...

Just gotta keep pushing the storm surge message when we warn... and get folks to stop focusing solely on the wind speed...


You're right. Storm surge and freshwater flooding is what kills people in tropical cyclones. Rarely is it the wind. I believe the NHC made the right decision in taking out the other components of the scale, as each tropical cyclone is different and not solely dependent on maximum sustained wind speed. Hurricanes are very complex subjects and a difference in just one factor can change everything such as size, movement, or landfall location.

It would be cool to have a scale that could incorporate all this, and I have somewhat developed one. But ultimately, it is best to just listen to the NHC's advisories and evacuate when they tell you to. The NHC takes into account all the factors of a hurricane's damage and don't let the wind-only Saffir-Simpson scale fool anyone.
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345. StormW 9:03 AM EST on February 18, 2010
Trouble?


Good Morning Storm and Folks.....A little too early to forecast how conditions will set up for h-season, but, in spite of the current cold streak in the SE from El Nino, these anomolies may indicate plenty of warm fuel out there "early" in the season for something to spin up........Gotta see however how soon the sheer dies down in the Summer and where SAL levels are at that time me thinks....Looking like a very potentially ripe environment come the Summer.
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358. Skyepony (Mod)
92S
Member Since: August 10, 2005 Posts: 161 Comments: 37433
Quoting CycloneOz:


From how I read it, the storm surge is still part of the forecast. The wind scale is separate? Right?


They sure are...

Just gotta keep pushing the storm surge message when we warn... and get folks to stop focusing solely on the wind speed...
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Quoting TampaTom:


I think that's an interesting change. Technically, it could now be known as the Saffir scale, because Herb Saffir was initially charged by the U.N. to quantify wind damage to structures.

Dr. Simpson added the stuff that was pulled out of the scale - expected barometric pressure, anticipated storm surge, etc.

Now, the hard part. How do we communicate the storm surge threat to the public and NOT allow them to believe that by pulling storm surge values from forecasts, the NHC no longer cares about that threat...

This could be interesting...


See Storm Surge Scales and Storm Surge Forecasting (pdf)
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Quoting TampaTom:


I think that's an interesting change. Technically, it could now be known as the Saffir scale, because Herb Saffir was initially charged by the U.N. to quantify wind damage to structures.

Dr. Simpson added the stuff that was pulled out of the scale - expected barometric pressure, anticipated storm surge, etc.

Now, the hard part. How do we communicate the storm surge threat to the public and NOT allow them to believe that by pulling storm surge values from forecasts, the NHC no longer cares about that threat...

This could be interesting...


From how I read it, the storm surge is still part of the forecast. The wind scale is separate? Right?
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Quoting StormChaser81:
NOAA National Weather Service to Use New Hurricane Wind Scale

Link


I think that's an interesting change. Technically, it could now be known as the Saffir scale, because Herb Saffir was initially charged by the U.N. to quantify wind damage to structures.

Dr. Simpson added the stuff that was pulled out of the scale - expected barometric pressure, anticipated storm surge, etc.

Now, the hard part. How do we communicate the storm surge threat to the public and NOT allow them to believe that by pulling storm surge values from forecasts, the NHC no longer cares about that threat...

This could be interesting...
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Quoting StormChaser81:
NOAA National Weather Service to Use New Hurricane Wind Scale

Link


Thank you for posting this! :) It affects what I do and where I do it.
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Quoting AussieStorm:
President Obama is on the phone to STS-130
Link


LOL! When he said "his support of NASA was unwavering" they hung up on him. "Hello? Hello?" What a laugh riot that was!
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Documents related to the Updated Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale
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NOAA National Weather Service to Use New Hurricane Wind Scale

Link
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thanks doc i will give a listen
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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.