The United States of Snow

By: Dr. Jeff Masters , 5:51 PM GMT on February 13, 2010

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We live in the United States of Snow. A rare Deep South heavy snowstorm whipped across the southern tier of states yesterday, dumping six-plus inches of snow over portions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina. Even Florida got into the act, with up to two inches recorded in the extreme northwestern Panhandle. The snowstorm left 49 of the 50 states with snow cover, according to an article by Associated Press. Hawaii was the lone hold-out. David Robinson, head of the Rutgers Global Snow Lab, said that 67.1% of the U.S. had snow cover on Friday morning, with the average depth a respectable 8 inches. Normally, the U.S. has about 40 - 50% snow coverage during the 2nd week of February. January had the 6th greatest snow cover in the 44-year record over the contiguous U.S., and December 2009 had the most snow cover of any December on record. The current pattern of record heavy snows over the the Eastern U.S. is primarily due to a natural oscillation in the Earth's climate system called the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). (Some prefer to discuss this in terms of the Arctic Oscillation, which is as a close cousin of the NAO, and one can use either). I discussed the NAO's influence on winter weather in a post last month. Another contributing factor is probably the current moderate El Niño event.

An all-time record snow for Dallas
The most recent storm clobbered Dallas with 12.5" of snow, the heaviest snow on record for the Dallas-Fort Worth Airport. Dallas' previous record was 7.4", set on January 15 - 16, 1964. The 15.7" of snow that has now fallen on Dallas this winter eclipses the previous record seasonal snowfall for the city--14.1" during the winter of 1977 - 1978. The snowstorm dumped over a foot of snow along a narrow region just north of Dallas and Fort Worth, with the towns of Haslet and Duncanville receiving 14.2" and 14.9", respectively.


Figure 1. Dallas' all-time record snowfall made for an un-inviting swim at this pool in nearby Flower Mound. Image credit: wunderphotographer texasdog.

A few selected snow amounts from the storm, courtesy of the National Weather Service:

...NORTH CAROLINA ...
HARKERS ISLAND 3.2 NE 8.8
HAVELOCK 2.7 S 8.5
BEAUFORT 7.0
NEWPORT 7.0
SEA LEVEL 7.0
OUTLAND 4 S 6.8
WINTERVILLE 3.5 W 6.4
CAPE CARTERET 6.2
BETTIE 6.0
BURGAW 6.0
JACKSONVILLE 6.0
MOREHEAD CITY 6.0
GREENVILLE 5.8

...ALABAMA...
BELLEVILLE 6.0
BRANTLEY 5.0
EVERGREEN 5 N 5.0
THOMASVILLE 5.0
EUFAULA 4 S 4.5
LOTTIE 4.5
MONROEVILLE 0.6 SSW 4.1
ARITON 4.0
PINSON 4.0
RAMER 4.0
TROY 4.0
WARD 4.0

...ARKANSAS...
FOREMAN 4.0
TEXARKANA 1 N 4.0

...FLORIDA...
BERRYDALE 2.0
MUNSON 2.0
JAY 1.0

...GEORGIA...
LUMPKIN 6.0
WASHINGTON 1.9 NE 5.8
LOGANVILLE 4 SSE 5.3
NICHOLSON 4.9 SE 4.8
ATHENS 3.2 NW 4.6
LA GRANGE 10.6 ESE 4.5
WATKINSVILLE 1.6 ENE 4.4
ROCKMART 9.6 SSE 4.3
TALBOTTON 4.0
HAMILTON 5 W 3.5
VILLA RICA 3.5
SENOIA 2 N 3.0
DACULA 2.5
CUTHBERT 2.0
MACON 2.0
ROME 2.0

...LOUISIANA...
SHREVEPORT 9.1 SE 6.1
NATCHITOCHES 0.9 NE 6.0
SHONGALOO 5 N 6.0
SICILY ISLAND 3.3 WNW 6.0
GOLDONNA 8.8 SSW 5.6
MONROE 5.0
PLAIN DEALING 3.3 ESE 5.0
HOMER 1.2 N 3.7
WEST MONROE 6.1 WSW 3.5

...MISSISSIPPI...
DE KALB 8.0
BUDE 6.5
VICKSBURG 6.3
BROOKHAVEN 6.0
NATCHEZ 6.0
PETAL 6.0
BRANDON 5.0
CATAHOULA 5.0
MADISON 5.0
BRANDON 1.9 NE 4.6
MERIDIAN 4.5
MCCALL CREEK 5 W 4.0

...OKLAHOMA...
HAWORTH 4 SW 7.5
IDABEL 8 SE 7.5

...SOUTH CAROLINA...
SUMMERVILLE 3.8 NE 8.2
COLUMBIA 7.3
BAMBERG 7.0
BOWMAN 7.0
EVANS 1 SE 7.0
LEXINGTON 1.6 WNW 7.0
OAK GROVE 1 SE 7.0
OATLAND 8 N 7.0
SMOAKS 7.0
HEMINGWAY 6.8
SANGAREE 6.5
ORANGEBURG 6.0
DARLINGTON 5.0
BLYTHE 4.0
CHARLESTON 3.3
BEAUFORT 3.0

...TEXAS...
DUNCANVILLE 1.7 NNW 14.9
HASLET 14.2
FORT WORTH 12.6
DALLAS 12.5
MANSFIELD 2.6 NNE 12.2
BRIDGEPORT 12.0
ROYSE CITY 12.0
SANGER 1.8 WSW 12.0
MESQUITE 3.3 ESE 11.4
NORTH RICHLAND HILLS 1.9 NE 11.3

As we can see from a plot of the frequency of U.S. snowstorms between 1900 - 2001 (Figure 2), heavy snow events of 6+ inches occur about once every ten years for Dallas, and between once every ten years and once every 100 years for the portions of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, and North Carolina that received 6+ inches of snow from this storm.


Figure 2. The annual average number of snowstorms with a 6 inch (15.2 cm) or greater accumulation, from the years 1901 - 2001. A value of 0.1 means an average of one 6+ inch snowstorm every ten years. Image credit: Changnon, S.A., D. Changnon, and T.R. Karl, 2006, Temporal and Spatial Characteristics of Snowstorms in the Contiguous United States, J. Applied Meteorology and Climatology, 45, 8, pp. 1141-1155, DOI: 10.1175/JAM2395.1.

More heavy snowstorms occur in warmer-than-average years
I made this point in yesterday's blog post, but it's worth repeating. Another interesting result from the Changnon et al. (2006) paper of Figure 2 is the relationship between heavy snowstorms and the average winter temperature. For the contiguous U.S. between 1900 - 2001, the authors found that 61% - 80% of all heavy snowstorms of 6+ inches occurred during winters with above normal temperatures. In other words, the old adage, "it's too cold to snow", has some truth to it. The authors also found that 61% - 85% of all heavy snowstorms of 6+ inches occurred during winters that were wetter than average. The authors conclude, "a future with wetter and warmer winters, which is one outcome expected (National Assessment Synthesis Team 2001), will bring more heavy snowstorms of 6+ inches than in 1901 - 2000. The authors found that over the U.S. as a whole, there had been a slight but significant increase in heavy snowstorms of 6+ inches than in 1901 - 2000. So, there is evidence that the average climate of the U.S. over the past 100 years is colder than optimal for heavy snow events to occur. If the climate continues to warm, we should expect an increase in heavy snow events for a few decades, until the climate grows so warm that we pass the point where winter temperatures are at the optimum for heavy snow events. However, a study by Houston and Changnon (2009) on the most severe types of snowstorms--the "top ten" heaviest snows on record for each of 121 major U.S. cities--shows no upward or downward trend in the very heaviest snowstorms for the contiguous U.S. between 1948 - 2001.

A new snowstorm for the mid-Atlantic and New York City on Monday
The extreme amounts of snow on the ground in the Mid-Atlantic thanks to back-to-back blizzards over the past week will get a fresh layer on top Monday night, when a new snowstorm will probably dump another 3 - 6 inches of snow on Washington D.C., Baltimore, and Philadelphia. The new storm is called an "Alberta Clipper", due to its fast motion and genesis location in Canada's Alberta Province. These storms are relatively dry and tend to bring lighter, fluffier snow. Once the Clipper moves out over the Atlantic off the coast of Maryland, it will pick up some Atlantic moisture and bring some heavier snows to the New York City region, potentially 6 - 10 inches.

Media coverage by the Washington Post
I did a phone-in press call with 20 media outlets on Thursday, to discuss how record snowstorms do not imply that global warming is not occurring. Participating on the call with me was Dr. Joe Romm, who blogs on climate-related issues for climateprogress.org. The audio is posted there if you want to listen.

The Washington Post highlighted a portion of the call where I said, "there's a huge amount of natural variability in the climate system", not enough years of measurements to know exactly what's going on, and "Unfortunately we don't have that data so we are forced to make decisions based on inadequate data." The article said that my statements shot down the statement by Joe Romm that "the overwhelming weight of the scientific literature" points to human-caused warming and that doubters "don't understand the science." Let me clarify that there will always be considerable uncertainty in our understanding of a chaotic system like the atmosphere. We should not demand certainty where it cannot exist, always using uncertainty as an excuse for taking no action. Keep in mind that the uncertainty goes both ways--climate change could be far worse than the IPCC is predicting, and it would be wise to buy an intelligent amount of insurance to protect ourselves. I agree with Dr. Romm's statement, and the official Statement on Climate Change from the American Meteorological Society, "Despite the uncertainties...there is adequate evidence from observations and interpretations of climate simulations to conclude that the atmosphere, ocean, and land surface are warming; that humans have significantly contributed to this change; and that further climate change will continue to have important impacts on human societies, on economies, on ecosystems, and on wildlife through the 21st century and beyond." The official statement from the UK Royal Society and UK Met Office is also one I agree with, "The 2007 IPCC Assessment, the most comprehensive and respected analysis of climate change to date, states clearly that without substantial global reductions of greenhouse gas emissions we can likely expect a world of increasing droughts, floods and species loss, of rising seas and displaced human populations. However even since the 2007 IPCC Assessment the evidence for dangerous, long-term and potentially irreversible climate change has strengthened. The scientific evidence which underpins calls for action at Copenhagen is very strong. Without coordinated international action on greenhouse gas emissions, the impacts on climate and civilization could be severe.".

Next post
Looks like the winter onslaught will slow down for a day, so I'll be back Monday with a new post.

Jeff Masters

overton texas 2/12/10 (dinkasu)
Biggest snowman eastexas
overton texas 2/12/10
Snow - 2.13.10 Palm Trees (ruralart)
Palm trees in the snow, Cheraw, SC
Snow - 2.13.10 Palm Trees
Snowy Palms (nuq)
Snowy Palms

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Current global SST map:



Changes, some unusual, since one week ago (this is a sneak peak to what I might put in a future blog post):


Gulf Stream: 20C+ zone diverted due east at latitude of southern Maryland, looping southeast, while the sub-15C zone directly to its north has expanded eastward as well. A <20C eddy has developed around 31N, 73W, pushing the main Gulf Stream at the longitude of eastern Cuba farther southwest. The 15C+ zone of the Gulf Stream-West Greenland diversion has shifted southeast, but the northwestern corner of the 8C line of the western current has moved farther northwest. Temperature lines of the main North Atlantic Drift from the latitude of Southern France northward have retreated, while the area west of Spitsbergen has warmed to a maximum temperature of 13C. The Loop Current in the Gulf of Mexico has strengthened and the temperature gradient at its edge has increased.

Humboldt Current: The coolest pocket of the current has warmed from 14C to 16C. The sub-20C zone has shrunken to two-thirds of its previous size. The distance between the 22C line and the coolest part of the current has halved. All SST lines from 15C to 26C west of the current and east of the ENSO warm pool extension have encroached southeastward, while all of those lines north of the current have moved southward. The sub-26C zone by the equator west of Equador has been reduced by half, while the actual equator in the eastern Pacific no longer straddles any areas below 26C. The 26C+ zone off the coast of Northern Peru has expanded southeastward. South of the main Humboldt pocket, near 42S the 13C - 15C lines have bulged slightly northward.

Indian Ocean: The main 29C zone in the central Indian Ocean has shifted northward towards India, filling part of its western coast, partly broken by a gap from the south. The 26C line in the Bay of Bengal has moved northward. The 30C+ zone west of Madagascar has expanded from nearly nonexistant at a bay in Mozambique to covering the entire region west of Madagascar, north to the Tanzania-Kenya border, east to 58E, while there are two large pockets west of Madagascar over 31C, along with the original bay in Mozambique. The 30C+ zone southwest of Sumatra has been reduced. The 30C+ zone off of Northern Australia has changed from hugging the coast, to expanding north to the island shared by Papua New Guinea and New Guinea, westward to eastern Java, and eastward to the longitude of the Eastern Solomon Islands. The 31C+ zone has expanded from occupying the southern coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria, to filling most of the gulf. The 26C+ bulge in the south central Indian Ocean has expanded east-southeastward. The 29C+ zone of the Agulhas Current has shifted from central Mozambique all the way to coastal southeastern South Africa. The warm area, now at a maximum of 14C east of the Lambert Glacier in Antarctica has remained.
Member Since: August 30, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 2835
Unilaterally, I can pretty much say that all of us from Central Florida north are pretty tired of the cold weather.
Statement as of 4:39 PM EST on February 14, 2010
... Record cool high temperature tied at Daytona Beach today...
A record cool high temperature of 55 degrees was set at Daytona Beach today. This ties the old record of 55 degrees set in 1971.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
238. beell
Quoting AstroHurricane001:
Very strange jet stream pattern. Usually it goes into British Columbia, northward through Alberta east of the Rockies, then continuing southeast through Saskatchewan and eastward, back south to Minnesota to the Great Lakes, then continuing northeast toward New Brunswick and Newfoundland and out to sea. This year during the current phase of the oscillations, however, it appears to be going through northern California, down to Arizona, east across the Rockies then north to the Dakotas, southeast then south through Iowa, Missouri, Alabama, then back northeast through the Appalachians, out through New Jersey, looping back north and west through Labrador, then to the south tip of Greenland and back out to sea.


Link, please...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Very strange jet stream pattern. Usually it goes into British Columbia, northward through Alberta east of the Rockies, then continuing southeast through Saskatchewan and eastward, back south to Minnesota to the Great Lakes, then continuing northeast toward New Brunswick and Newfoundland and out to sea. This year during the current phase of the oscillations, however, it appears to be going through northern California, down to Arizona, east across the Rockies then north to the Dakotas, southeast then south through Iowa, Missouri, Alabama, then back northeast through the Appalachians, out through New Jersey, looping back north and west through Labrador, then to the south tip of Greenland and back out to sea.
Member Since: August 30, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 2835
Remember, now, that the New Madrid fault may be weakening. Link
Member Since: August 30, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 2835
Quoting OracleDeAtlantis:


What "event" in history are you referring to, Tampa?
I think he may be refering to the madrid fault and a great quake occurring along it and it can produce an 7.5 to 8.3 or greater quake it happen before and it caused the miss. river to run backwards for a time after the event

December 16, 1811, 0815 UTC (2:15 a.m.); (M ~7.2 - 8.1[1]) epicenter in northeast Arkansas; it caused only slight damage to man-made structures, mainly because of the sparse population in the epicentral area. The future location of Memphis, Tennessee experienced level IX shaking on the Mercalli intensity scale. A seismic seiche propagated upriver and Little Prairie was heavily damaged by soil liquefaction[2]
December 16, 1811, 1415 UTC (8:15 a.m.); (M ~7.2 - 8.1) epicenter in northeast Arkansas; This shock followed the first earthquake by six hours and was similar in intensity.[1]
January 23, 1812, 1500 UTC (9 a.m.); (M ~7.0 - 7.8[1]) epicenter in the Missouri Bootheel. The meizoseismal area was characterized by general ground warping, ejections, fissuring, severe landslides, and caving of stream banks. Johnson and Schweig attributed this earthquake to a rupture on the New Madrid North Fault. This may have placed strain on the Reelfoot Fault.[2]
February 7, 1812, 0945 UTC (4:45 a.m.); (M ~7.4 - 8.0[1]) epicenter near New Madrid, Missouri. New Madrid was destroyed. At St. Louis, Missouri, many houses were severely damaged, and their chimneys were toppled. This shock was definitively attributed to the Reelfoot Fault by Johnston and Schweig. It was uplift along this reverse fault segment, in this event, that created waterfalls on the Mississippi River, disrupted the Mississippi River at Kentucky bend, created a wave that propagated upstream and caused the formation of Reelfoot Lake.[2]
The earthquakes were felt as far away as New York City and Boston, Massachusetts, where church bells rang
Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296
Quoting TampaSpin:


I guess we could move a few hundreds yards further south......but it appears that won't help too much.

ONE THING i am in fear of....and many will find me crazy here but, another very large earthquake coming to the Northern Hemisphere....it seems to always happen after an event like this ......it has in history also.


What "event" in history are you referring to, Tampa?
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
232. IKE
Quoting Drakoen:


The NAM 18z Bufkit is saying after 9:00am Monday morning a rain/snow mix. Things will initially start out as rain with soundings above freezing. The saturated layer will come closer to freezing with partial thickness in the 850mb-700mb layer of 1544m and 850mb-1000mb thickness; trace amounts expected.


Thanks for the info. Doesn't look to amount to much. Mostly a rain event.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
Quoting StSimonsIslandGAGuy:
Second chance on the GA coast? After last Friday I'll believe it when I see it, but with cooling after sunset.......




NAM 18z Bufkit is showing the moisture departing before temperatures are cold enough to support snow
Member Since: October 28, 2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 29887
The snow didn't stick here in Hurley,MS,a few big wet snow flakes.I hope I wake up in the morning and have an inch on the ground so my neices and nephews can play in it while I take pictures.
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GFS 12z Bufkit shows better soundings for snow flurries in the panhandle with a 1000mb-850mb thickness of 1299m and a insignificant warm layer between 900mb-825mb of 1C. Pwats of .5 inches in the column.
Member Since: October 28, 2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 29887
Quoting IKE:


I see it. Thanks.



The NAM 18z Bufkit is saying after 9:00am Monday morning a rain/snow mix. Things will initially start out as rain with soundings above freezing. The saturated layer will come closer to freezing with partial thickness in the 850mb-700mb layer of 1544m and 850mb-1000mb thickness; trace amounts expected.
Member Since: October 28, 2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 29887
I might be a little late but, I just realized that Chickasaw,Al is under another winter weather advisory. wth is going on with this weather pattern...
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
225. IKE
Reading my updated forecast for Defuniak Springs,FL., it doesn't look like the snow is going to amount to much of anything.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
Quoting IKE:


I see it. Thanks.


No prob...should be interesting. Maybe this time the snow will head far enough south to where I'll get to see more than just a few wet flakes for five minutes...if not, I'm heading north!
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
221. IKE
Quoting quakeman55:
Looks like you're under the winter weather advisory as well, IKE.


I see it. Thanks.

Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
From NWS Tallahassee office:

URGENT - WINTER WEATHER MESSAGE
NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE TALLAHASSEE FL
342 PM EST SUN FEB 14 2010

...A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IS NOW IN EFFECT FOR SOUTHEAST
ALABAMA...SOUTHWEST GEORGIA AND PORTIONS OF THE INLAND FLORIDA
PANHANDLE FROM 6 AM EST /5 PM CST/ TO 3 PM EST /2PM CST/ OR EARLY
MONDAY MORNING...

ALZ065>069-FLZ007-009-011-GAZ120>131-142>146-155>157-150900-
/O.NEW.KTAE.WW.Y.0002.100215T1100Z-100215T2000Z/
COFFEE-DALE-HENRY-GENEVA-HOUSTON-INLAND WALTON-HOLMES-JACKSON-
QUITMAN-CLAY-RANDOLPH-CALHOUN-TERRELL-DOUGHERTY-LEE-WORTH-TURNER-
TIFT-BEN HILL-IRWIN-EARLY-MILLER-BAKER-MITCHELL-COLQUITT-SEMINOLE-
DECATUR-GRADY-
INCLUDING THE CITIES OF...ENTERPRISE...OZARK...FORT RUCKER...
DALEVILLE...HEADLAND...ABBEVILLE...GENEVA...HARTFORD...SAMSON...
SLOCOMB...MALVERN...TAYLOR...ASHFORD...KINSEY...COWARTS...WEBB...
COTTONWOOD...REHOBETH...DE FUNIAK SPRINGS...HUDSON...BONIFAY...
MARIANNA...GRACEVILLE...MALONE...SNEADS...GEORGETOWN...
FORT GAINES...CUTHBERT...SHELLMAN...ARLINGTON...MORGAN...EDISON...
LEARY...DAWSON...ALBANY...LEESBURG...SMITHVILLE...SYLVESTER...
ASHBURN...TIFTON...FITZGERALD...OCILLA...DOUGLASVILLE...BLAKELY...
COLQUITT...NEWTON...CAMILLA...PELHAM...MOULTRIE...DONALSONVILLE...
BAINBRIDGE...CAIRO
342 PM EST SUN FEB 14 2010 /242 PM CST SUN FEB 14 2010/

...WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY IN EFFECT FROM 6 AM EST /5 AM CST/ TO
3 PM EST /2 PM CST/ MONDAY...

RAIN CHANCES WILL STEADILY INCREASE FROM WEST TO EAST THROUGH THE
OVERNIGHT HOURS TONIGHT AND MONDAY AS A COLD FRONT APPROACHES AND
MOVES OVER THE TRI-STATE AREA. COLD RAIN WILL BEGIN TO MIX WITH
SNOW AROUND DAYBREAK THROUGH THE EARLY TO MID-MORNING HOURS
MONDAY ACROSS SOUTHEAST ALABAMA AND THE FAR INLAND LOCATIONS OF
THE FLORIDA PANHANDLE...THEN SPREAD EAST INTO SOUTHWEST GEORGIA
THROUGH THE LATE MORNING HOURS. THERE MAY BE A BRIEF PERIOD OVER
SOUTHEAST ALABAMA FOR THE RAIN TO COMPLETELY CHANGE OVER TO SNOW
THROUGH THE EARLY MORNING HOURS MONDAY. TOTAL SNOW ACCUMULATIONS
ARE EXPECTED TO REMAIN LESS THAN AN INCH...MAINLY OVER GRASSY OR
ELEVATED SURFACES.

A WINTER WEATHER ADVISORY MEANS THAT PERIODS OF SNOW...SLEET...OR
FREEZING RAIN WILL CAUSE TRAVEL DIFFICULTIES. BE PREPARED FOR
SLIPPERY ROADS AND LIMITED VISIBILITIES...AND USE CAUTION WHILE
DRIVING.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
Looks like you're under the winter weather advisory as well, IKE.
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Global Warming Skeptics Lambaste Plan to Increase Funding for Climate Change Research
What, exactly, will the American taxpayer get for its global warming research dollars? The EPA is spending $43 million to implement the greenhouse-gas reporting rule, to perform regulatory work for the largest stationary sources of greenhouse gases, and to develop new standards for cars and trucks.

Research being funded at the National Science Foundation seeks to promote "discoveries needed to inspire societal actions leading to environmental and economic sustainability," according to an agency statement. The NSF's portfolio for global warming will reach $766 million.

a fact sheet from the White House Office of Management and Budget portrays the global warming funding as part of the Obama administration's new jobs-creation policy, which aims at making the U.S. "the world leader in developing the clean energy technologies that will lead to the industries and jobs of tomorrow."
http://www.foxnews.com/scitech/2010/02/11/obama-spending-increase-global-warming-research/


Saudi Arabia to Replace Oil with Sun Power for Desalination Plants

Much of this may be changing, however, as Saudi Arabia is now interested in using solar energy to provide the power needed, instead of oil. According to an article on the UAE Top News media site, the Kingdom is now planning to build solar energy based desalination plants in order to save on energy costs, as well as be in tune with new environmental polices. This might be to secure membership in the International Renewable Energy Agency, otherwise known as IRENA.

Saudi Finance Minister Ibrahim Al Assaf said “desalination is our strategic choice to supply an adequate supply of drinking water to people across the Kingdom.”

He added that by using solar energy instead of oil, it will focus more on using renewable energy and even become an exporter of this clean form of energy as it has been doing with oil.

In addition to desalination, solar energy will also be supplying energy to a country which has been historically known as being a world supplier of oil, especially to countries like the US. Solar energy will eventually enable to Saudis to not only have a renewable energy source to supply their own energy needs but will significantly reduce the cost of fresh water, as well as being able to export renewable energy, as well as oil.
http://www.greenprophet.com/2010/02/01/16722/saudi-arabia-desalination-solar/


Oil Industry Ready to Work on Global Warming

“President Obama comes to office with a strong commitment to tackle climate change,” said Tony Hayward, the chief executive of BP. “Suddenly the challenges many of us have been wrestling with for a long time — the importance of energy security in providing economic security, and tackling the issue of climate change in a way that is commercially viable — are center stage.”

Exxon Mobil, which had long been skeptical of global warming, offered its own suggestions. One of the company’s top executives, Michael J. Dolan, said that Exxon would back a tax on carbon, while criticizing a so-called cap-and-trade approach.

Mr. Dolan, a senior vice president at Exxon, said that a carbon tax would be simpler and less subject to manipulation than a trading system. “A carbon tax reduces policy risks for businesses and investors in a way that cap-and-trade schemes do not,” Mr. Dolan said during his address at the industry conference, organized by Cambridge Energy Research Associates, a consulting firm.

“In addition,” he said, “by reducing other taxes — such as income or excise taxes — we can make a carbon tax revenue-neutral and offset the impact of higher taxes on the economy.”
http://www.nytimes.com/2009/02/12/science/earth/12oil.html?_r=1&ref=business


China’s renewable energy views
The price of solar energy & wind turbines is falling all over the world. There was an article recently in the New York Times which showed the role of China in all of this. The main point is that China is a world leader when it comes to the manufacture of solar panels & wind turbines. This is why it can easily achieve economies of scale and is also able to offer products at a low market price.

There are 2 consquences of this:

1. The installation of renewable sources of energy will become cheaper.
2. Competitors manufacturing in different countries around the world have problems in competing with the Chinese manufacturers.

How did China reach this position? The articles in the New Your Times said the following:

“The biggest advantage that China has over all other countries in the world is that their demand for electricity is consistently rising by 15% every year. In U.S., power companies usually have to choose between purchasing equipment for renewable energy or to continue using their fossil fuel powered plants which are already built. In China, these companies need to buy lots of equipment and the alternative sources of energy like nuclear & wind are priced very competitively.” Or, in the U.S. and in Europe, various renewable energies are having to compete with the existing power supply whereas in China they do not have to. There is more than enough space for the rapid expansion of renewable energy as well as for coal power plants. The unlimited demand needes the expansion to be across the board. Another reason for the low price is the low cost of labor in China.
http://www.biofuelswatch.com/china-renewable-energy-views/

Microsoft co-founder Gates tackling climate change

http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5h_iNFAG254im4XHNHGNRIpKj6bLA

Rep. Israel pines for 'space race' enthusiasm in clean energy debate
http://thehill.com/blogs/twitter-room/other-news/78927-rep-israel-pines-for-space-race-enthusiasm-i n-clean-energy-debate
Member Since: September 22, 2005 Posts: 11 Comments: 2032

Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296
215. beell
212. They seem almost identical, Ike
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Dr. Master's glad to see you push back so forcefully against the WaPo spin on you interview.
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Member Since: July 15, 2006 Posts: 169 Comments: 53296
212. IKE
Still don't understand why the forecasts for each city are different on WU vs. what is on the NWS sight?

Here's my forecast for DFS,FL on WU....Presidents Day
Mostly cloudy with a 50 percent chance of rain and snow in the morning...then partly cloudy in the afternoon. Highs 46 to 50. Northwest winds around 15 mph.

From NWS...Presidents' Day: Rain likely, possibly mixing with snow after 8am, then gradually ending. Cloudy, then gradually becoming mostly sunny, with a high near 47. Northwest wind between 10 and 15 mph. Chance of precipitation is 60%. Little or no snow accumulation expected.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
Quoting IKE:
From Mobile,AL....

"AVIATION...(18Z ISSUANCE)NEXT FRONT TO MOVE OVER THE AREA TONIGHT
CURRENTLY POISED TO CROSS THE MISS DELTA REGION. THIS FRONT IS
EXPECTED TO CROSS THE FA AFTER MIDNIGHT TONIGHT. INITIAL PRECIP IS
EXPECTED TO BE RAIN...THOUGH A CHANGE OVER TO SNOW IS LIKELY OVER
MOST OF THE AREA...WITH BEST CHANCE FOR IFR CIG/VSBYS NORTH OF I-10."


Thats why I say it is so "Crazy" we are close to 60 degrees now with some high clouds coming through.... but over all a very Beautiful Day here....

Taco :0)
Member Since: July 7, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 3237
NWS projected snowfall totals:

Member Since: October 28, 2006 Posts: 57 Comments: 29887
209. IKE
From Mobile,AL....

"AVIATION...(18Z ISSUANCE)NEXT FRONT TO MOVE OVER THE AREA TONIGHT
CURRENTLY POISED TO CROSS THE MISS DELTA REGION. THIS FRONT IS
EXPECTED TO CROSS THE FA AFTER MIDNIGHT TONIGHT. INITIAL PRECIP IS
EXPECTED TO BE RAIN...THOUGH A CHANGE OVER TO SNOW IS LIKELY OVER
MOST OF THE AREA...WITH BEST CHANCE FOR IFR CIG/VSBYS NORTH OF I-10."
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
Quoting IKE:
Accuweather and TWC still don't mention any snow from Defuniak Springs to Mobile,AL. for tonight or Monday morning.

Hard to see it happening. It's approaching 60 degrees here. Beautiful day.

I here ya.... But all I care about is my Strawberry Plants being safe and not freezing if you know what I mean....
Member Since: July 7, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 3237
Quoting IKE:
Accuweather and TWC still don't mention any snow from Defuniak Springs to Mobile,AL. for tonight or Monday morning.

Hard to see it happening. It's approaching 60 degrees here. Beautiful day.


Yeah, I don't see them mentioning any snow south of maybe... Columbus and Auburn maybe?
Member Since: July 7, 2008 Posts: 2 Comments: 3237
206. IKE
Accuweather and TWC still don't mention any snow from Defuniak Springs to Mobile,AL. for tonight or Monday morning.

Hard to see it happening. It's approaching 60 degrees here. Beautiful day.
Member Since: June 9, 2005 Posts: 23 Comments: 37858
205. beell
Quoting taco2me61:


LOL I like the last part "Maybe"
now thats funny....


That's the CYA part, lol.
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
201.

Nice, looks like you're in for a second round. I hope they extend the Winter Weather Advisory. southward for us.

We just hit 51, looks like you guys just hit 52, around the same. Good thing the system is coming through at night.
Member Since: July 7, 2008 Posts: 2 Comments: 3237
Quoting beell:
Most of the moisture for the I-10 coast will be associated with the frontal passage. Quickly followed by a dry slot and deep layer W/NW flow.
No surface low in/near the GOM this time around.

By the time the meager amount of rain changes to snow it will be over.

The snow should remain tied to the track of the mid-level low farther N.



(maybe)


LOL I like the last part "Maybe"
now thats funny....
Member Since: July 7, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 3237
202. beell
Most of the moisture for the I-10 coast will be associated with the frontal passage. Quickly followed by a dry slot and deep layer W/NW flow.
No surface low in/near the GOM this time around. No mechanism in place for wrap-around.

By the time the meager amount of rain changes to snow it will be over.

The snow should remain tied to the track of the mid-level low farther N.



(maybe)
Member Since: Posts: Comments:
201. taco2me61
5:50 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
This is from the Mobile area....... with a high temp of 56 dgrees today.....


Statement as of 5:23 AM CST on February 14, 2010


... Winter Weather Advisory in effect from midnight tonight to
9 am CST Monday...

The National Weather Service in Mobile has issued a Winter Weather
Advisory for light snow... which is in effect from midnight tonight to
900 am CST Monday.

A low pressure system over southeast Missouri will move east across
the Ohio River valley region through Monday morning. A strong cold
front will approach the advisory area from the northwest this
evening... and then sweep through the area between midnight tonight
and 900 am Monday morning.

There will be adequate moisture for rain to develop this evening
just ahead of the cold front... and then transition to a mix of rain
and snow after midnight as the cold airmass pushes through the area.
Temperatures could be cold enough late tonight and early Monday
morning for the most of the precipitation north of I-10 to fall
completely as snow.

Snow accumulations will range from one to two inches north of a
Wiggins MS... Bay Minette al... Green Bay al line... with lesser amounts
further to the south. Up to one-half inch of snow could fall as far
south as the I-10 corridor... with just a dusting south of I-10. Best
accumulations will occur on grassy areas and elevated surfaces. Any
standing water or wet spots left on bridges and overpasses
northwest of I-65 could freeze... causing icy slick spots through
sunrise Monday morning.

The precipitation is expected to end across southeast Mississippi
and southwest Alabama by daybreak... and and across south central
Alabama and the western Florida Panhandle by 900 am Monday.

Precautionary/preparedness actions...

A Winter Weather Advisory means that periods of snow... sleet... or
freezing rain will cause travel difficulties. Be prepared for
slippery roads and limited visibilities... and use caution while
driving.

Member Since: July 7, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 3237
200. Nimitz
5:49 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
Quoting AwakeInMaryland:


Not seeing it short-term. Long-term, I don't know. Haven't heard anything "in the wind," e.g., we all knew in advance there'd be flooding in North Dakota last year. But I'm no expert and not well "plugged-in."

Suppose a lot of it matters on how fast goes the warm-up. (Reminder to myself to be careful what I pray for!)

NWS river/flood gauges


Well, I've seen the pictures of widespread snow pack, and its got to melt someday. When it does, "something" is gonna have to give. It's a LOT of water in the solid state just waiting to be warmed up.
Member Since: August 17, 2008 Posts: 0 Comments: 98
199. HurricaneSwirl
5:47 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
197.

We aren't under that same advisory though. It doesn't go far enough south to reach macon so I'm a little iffy on this one so far. It does, however, reach mobile and the FL panhandle.
Member Since: July 7, 2008 Posts: 2 Comments: 3237
198. HurricaneSwirl
5:43 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
196. Does that mean better chance of snow for the south, or just better chance of precipitation for the south?
Member Since: July 7, 2008 Posts: 2 Comments: 3237
197. taco2me61
5:42 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
Quoting HurricaneSwirl:
After 3 inches of snow in Macon, GA on Friday, WU is calling for an 80% chance of snow with about an inch of accumulation tonight and tomorrow. I don't see other sites agreeing with this, there is no winter weather advisory issued for us, and I think we are too far east.

Is what WU is saying likely to happen?


Yes you can check TWC and see that Atlanta to the Gulf Coast is underweather advisories.... Now am I saying it is going to happen? Not sure but we here in Mobile are under that same advisory..... And that is "Crazy"....

Taco :0)
Member Since: July 7, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 3237
196. largeeyes
5:40 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
That clipper is diggin in incredibly far south. It's diving almost due south, incredible.
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 1451
195. largeeyes
5:33 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
Quoting NCHurricane2009:
Whoo, got into the snow last night too in Raleigh. Wasn't expecting it since forecasters said the storm would stay south of us, but we got 3" (but its melting fast now). Looked like the storm was exploding over the coast of NC, anyone from eastern NC here posting?


Yep, I live between New Bern and Havelock. We got about 5-6" of heavy white stuff. I think some ice pellets may have mixed in as well.
Member Since: August 22, 2006 Posts: 0 Comments: 1451
194. weatherbro
5:30 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
Quoting taco2me61:


Thank You for the info..... I do want to say, this has been the craziest weather pattern I have been in.... I just donot beleive this has ever happen before.... Snow in Dallas(12.5) all the way to the Outer Banks in Carolina...... It is unheard of for sure....
Now a second chance will be coming in tonight and tomorrow....

Taco :0)


and by next weekend, it appears another southern streamer will dump snow for the Southeast and Southcentral states(possibly even the Florida Panhandle)!
Member Since: May 26, 2007 Posts: 47 Comments: 1271
193. AstroHurricane001
5:30 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
Now this is what I call an EPIC snowstorm for S. Ontario on the 1st of March:

Member Since: August 30, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 2835
192. HurricaneSwirl
5:29 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
After 3 inches of snow in Macon, GA on Friday, WU is calling for an 80% chance of snow with about an inch of accumulation tonight and tomorrow. I don't see other sites agreeing with this, there is no winter weather advisory issued for us, and I think we are too far east.

Is what WU is saying likely to happen?
Member Since: July 7, 2008 Posts: 2 Comments: 3237
191. AstroHurricane001
5:24 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
Holy cow, I've never heard of an Alberta Clipper system bringing snow to the US deep south but not Southern Ontario...EVER. I think the entire Arctic airmass is being dislocated due to the current oscillation anomaly. Tornado season and hurricane season this year will be very strange, indeed.
Member Since: August 30, 2008 Posts: 8 Comments: 2835
190. taco2me61
5:15 PM GMT on February 14, 2010
Quoting Drakoen:
It seems there is the potential for some brief snow showers across the deep south Monday morning. Thickness values on the 1000mb-500mb chart indicated a thickness of 540dm stretching down towards the coast as a vigorous longwave trough and clipper system advects eastward. Things will intially start out as rain and then change over to a rain/snow mix to snow. Not looking for any significant accumulations as the models are generally showing trace amounts in Louisiana and the majority of Mississippi. Accumulations between 1-3 inches will be possible east of Birmingham along I-59 and around Auburn along I-85 stretching up into Atlanta.





Thank You for the info..... I do want to say, this has been the craziest weather pattern I have been in.... I just donot beleive this has ever happen before.... Snow in Dallas(12.5) all the way to the Outer Banks in Carolina...... It is unheard of for sure....
Now a second chance will be coming in tonight and tomorrow....

Taco :0)
Member Since: July 7, 2005 Posts: 6 Comments: 3237

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Jeff co-founded the Weather Underground in 1995 while working on his Ph.D. He flew with the NOAA Hurricane Hunters from 1986-1990.